A Hazy State of Separation

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As he loses his grip on reality his life begins to evolve into a work of fiction. Alike the story he is working on, his life is turning into a horror story. It all begins with th John is a troubled writer working his way through a brand new novel. It all begins with the little white rabbit turning up outside his home.

When he unravels the nature of the rabbit, the dead finger, the mysterious spy in the blue toyota, and the ghost of a dead girl haunting his home, he finds that the line separating reality and horror has become hazy Get A Copy. Kindle Edition , 80 pages. More Details Friend Reviews. To see what your friends thought of this book, please sign up. To ask other readers questions about A Hazy State of Separation , please sign up. Be the first to ask a question about A Hazy State of Separation. Lists with This Book. This book is not yet featured on Listopia.

Community Reviews. Showing Rating details. More filters. This is why wheat and oats, especially in unmalted form, are just about mandatory in hazy styles. Some old books suggest adding regular wheat flour to the kettle for an added boost of starchy haze. Because of the importance of clarity in the vast majority of beer sold throughout the world, brewers have invested heavily in research and have developed many tools for controlling and eliminating haze.

But the brewing process, established by centuries of trial and maybe a little error now and then is the best place to start. Ripe barley, properly malted, has reduced levels of gums that cause haze. During the brewing process, haze-forming starches and proteins are broken down by malt enzymes, and larger starch particles are held back during the lautering process when the sugary wort is drained away from the remaining spent grains. Excess large proteins are coagulated into clumps during the boil by kettle finings—usually a derivative of an algae called Irish moss—so they can be separated from the boiled wort, along with the hops.

After that, the beer may be filtered—or sometimes not. Filtration often must walk a tightrope between these conflicting goals. Chemicals called finings can also clarify, and they can work through a variety of mechanisms. Some, like isinglass, are naturally derived in this case from fish swim bladders and have a long history in brewing.

Others are more high-tech. One newer enzyme called Clarity Ferm targets the barley protein mentioned above, disrupting proline amino acids that also happen to be the culprit in gluten, and as a side benefit renders the treated beer virtually gluten-free. An alternate strategy is to go for the tannins that pair with proteins to form haze. Finings like isinglass and gelatin create a net that drags particulates to the bottom of the tank. The appropriateness of haze used to be pretty clear-cut: OK in wheats and wits, and clear for just about everything else. While many breweries filter, few do it as intensely as mass-market producers.

So, a little haze is seen as a sign of hand-crafted products. And now, with the new crop of IPAs coming from the Northeast and soon everywhere , haze is being interpreted as a visual manifestation of the level of hopping, something to which it is only loosely tied, if at all. Others use flour in the kettle or even fruit puree containing pectin, another carbohydrate capable of throwing an attractive and durable haze.

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Most brewers skip the usual kettle finings or any other normal procedures that would clarify the beer. Some brewers use yeasts with genetic connections to hefeweizen strains, which are notoriously difficult to persuade to settle out. Thomas Jefferson, notes for a speech, c. From Gorton Carruth and Eugene Ehrlich, eds.

We the General Assembly of Virginia do enact that no man shall be compelled to frequent or support any religious worship, place or ministry whatsoever, nor shall be enforced, restrained, molested, or burdened in his body or goods, nor shall otherwise suffer on account of his religious opinions or belief; but that all men shall be free to profess, and by argument to maintain, their opinions in matters of religion, and that the same shall in no wise diminish, enlarge or affect their civil capacities Gaustad, written by Jefferson but not included in the statute as passed by the General Assembly of Virginia.

The bill became law on January 16, From Edwin S. Gaustad, ed. Eerdmans Publishing Company, , pp.

Into the Haze

Jefferson was prouder of having written this bill than of being the third President or of such history-making accomplishments as the Louisiana Purchase. Where the preamble [of the Statute of Virginia for Religious Freedom] declares, that coercion is a departure from the plan of the holy author of our religion, an amendment was proposed by inserting the words "Jesus Christ," so that it should read, "A departure from the plan of Jesus Christ, the holy author of our religion;" the insertion was rejected by a great majority, in proof that they meant to comprehend, within the mantle of its protection, the Jew and the Gentile, the Christian and Mohammedan, the Hindoo and Infidel of every denomination.

Thomas Jefferson, Autobiography; from George Seldes, ed. Our [Virginia's] act for freedom of religion is extremely applauded. The Ambassadors and ministers of the several nations of Europe resident at this court have asked me copies of it to send to their sovereigns, and it is inserted at full length in several books now in the press; among others, in the new Encyclopedie. I think it will produce considerable good even in those countries where ignorance, superstition, poverty and oppression of body and mind in every form, are so firmly settled on the mass of the people, that their redemption from them can never be hoped.


From Adrienne Koch, ed. The Virginia act for religious freedom has been received with infinite approbation in Europe, and propagated with enthusiasm. I do not mean by governments, but by the individuals who compose them.

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It has been translated into French and Italian; has been sent to most of the courts of Europe, and has been the best evidence of the falsehood of those reports which stated us to be in anarchy. In fact, it is comfortable to see the standard of reason at length erected, after so many ages, during which the human mind has been held in vassalage by kings, priests, and nobles; and it is honorable for us, to have produced the first legislature who had the courage to declare, that the reason of man may be trusted with the formation of his own opinions From Lloyd S.

Kramer, ed. Justly famous among these important bills [written or revised by Jefferson for Virginia's legislature] in the revisal of was the Bill for establishing religious freedom, a bill called by Julian Boyd "Jefferson's declaration of intellectual and spiritual independence. In this contribution alone, Jefferson advanced far beyond his revered John Locke whose philosophy of toleration "stopped short," as Jefferson said, of the full freedom required by the independent intelligence and conscience of man. Adrienne Koch, ed.

It is error alone which needs the support of government. Truth can stand by itself. Subject opinion to coercion: whom will you make your inquisitors? Fallible men; men governed by bad passions, by private as well as public reasons. And why subject it to coercion? To produce uniformity. But is uniformity of opinion desirable? No more than of face and stature. Is uniformity attainable? Millions of innocent men, women, and children, since the introduction of Christianity, have been burnt, tortured, fined, imprisoned; yet we have not advanced one inch towards uniformity.

What has been the effect of coercion? To make one half the world fools and the other half hypocrites. To support roguery and error all over the earth. No man complains of his neighbor for ill management of his affairs, for an error in sowing his land, or marrying his daughter, for consuming his substance in taverns In the Notes [on the State of Virginia] Jefferson elaborated his views on government's keeping its distance from all religious affairs and religious opinions.

But it does me no injury for my neighbor to say there are twenty gods, or no God. It neither picks my pocket nor breaks my leg. Life is of no value but as it brings us gratifications. Among the most valuable of these is rational society. It informs the mind, sweetens the temper, cheers our spirits, and promotes health. Thomas Jefferson, letter to James Madison, February 20, Fix reason firmly in her seat, and call to her tribunal for every fact, every opinion.

Question with boldness even the existence of a god because, if there be one, he must more approve of the homage of reason than that of blindfolded fear. You will naturally examine first the religion of your own country. Read the bible then, as you would read Livy or Tacitus. The testimony of the writer weighs in their favor in one scale, and their not being against the laws of nature does not weigh against them. But those facts in the bible which contradict the laws of nature, must be examined with more care, and under a variety of faces.

Here you must recur to the pretensions of the writer to inspiration from god. Examine upon what evidence his pretensions are founded, and whether that evidence is so strong as that it's [sic] falshood [sic] would be more improbable than a change of the laws of nature in the case he relates Do not be frightened from this enquiry by any fear of it's [sic] consequences. If it ends in a belief that there is no god, you will find incitements to virtue in the comfort and pleasantness you feel in it's [sic] exercise, and the love of others which it will procure you.

If you find reason to believe there is a god, a consciousness that you are acting under his eye, and that he approves you, will be a vast additional incitement. If that there be a future state, the hope of a happy existence in that increases the appetite to deserve it; if that Jesus was also a god, you will be comforted by a belief of his aid and love. In fine, I repeat that you must lay aside all prejudice on both sides, and neither believe nor reject any thing because any other person, or description of persons have rejected or believed it.

Your own reason is the only oracle given you by heaven, and you are answerable not for the rightness but uprightness of the decision Thomas Jefferson, letter to his young nephew Peter Carr, August 10, I am for freedom of religion and against all maneuvers to bring about a legal ascendancy of one sect over another. Thomas Jefferson, letter to Elbridge Gerry, January 26, To preserve the freedom of the human mind then and freedom of the press, every spirit should be ready to devote itself to martyrdom; for as long as we may think as we will, and speak as we think, the condition of man will proceed in improvement.

Washington believed no more of that system [Christianity] than he himself did. Jefferson's comments were written in his journal, Anas, in February, , according to Boller, p. All, too, will bear in mind this sacred principle, that though the will of the majority is in all cases to prevail, that will, to be rightful, must be reasonable; that the minority possess their equal rights, which equal laws must protect, and to violate which would be oppression.

And let us reflect that, having banished from our land that religious intolerance under which mankind so long bled and suffered, we have yet gained little if we countenance a political intolerance as despotic, as wicked, and capable of as bitter and bloody persecutions. I deem the essential principles of our government. From Mortimer Adler, ed. I contemplate with sovereign reverence that act of the whole American people which declared that their legislature should make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibit the free exercise thereof, thus building a wall of separation between church and state.

I will never, by any word or act, bow to the shrine of intolerance, or admit a right of inquiry into the religious opinions of others.

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Thomas Jefferson, letter to Edward Dowse, April 19, It behoves every man who values liberty of conscience for himself, to resist invasions of it in the case of others; or their case may, by change of circumstances, become his own. Thomas Jefferson, letter to Benjamin Rush, April 21, From Daniel B. Baker, ed. Certainly, no power to prescribe any religious exercise, or to assume authority in religious discipline, has been delegated to the General Government.

It must then rest with the States, as far as it can be in any human authority. But it is only proposed that I should recommend, not prescribe a day of fasting and prayer. That is, that I should indirectly assume to the United States an authority over religious exercises, which the Constitution has directly precluded them from. It must be meant, too, that this recommendation is to carry some authority, and to be sanctioned by some penalty on those who disregard it; not indeed of fine and imprisonment, but of some degree of proscription, perhaps in public opinion.

And does the change in the nature of the penalty make the recommendation less a law of conduct for those to whom it is directed? I do not believe it is in the best interests of religion to invite the civil magistrate to direct its exercises, its discipline, or its doctrines; nor of the religious societies, that the General Government should be invested with the power of effecting any uniformity of time or matter among them.

Fasting and prayer are religious exercises; the enjoining them an act of discipline. Every religious society has a right to determine for itself the times of these exercises, and the objects proper for them, according to their own particular tenets; and this right can never be safer than in their own hands, where the Constitution has deposited it. Hale and Company, ND, pp. But a short time elapsed after the death of the great reformer [Jesus] of the Jewish religion, before his principles were departed from by those who professed to be his special servants, and perverted into an engine for enslaving mankind, and aggrandizing their oppressors in Church and State.

History I believe furnishes no example of a priest-ridden people maintaining a free civil government. This marks the lowest grade of ignorance, of which their political as well as religious leaders will always avail themselves for their own purpose. The clergy, by getting themselves established by law and ingrafted into the machine of government, have been a very formidable engine against the civil and religious rights of man. Thomas Jefferson, as quoted by Saul K. In every country and every age, the priest has been hostile to liberty. He is always in alliance with the despot, abetting his abuses in return for protection to his own.

It is easier to acquire wealth and power by this combination than by deserving them, and to effect this, they have perverted the purest religion ever preached to man into mystery and jargon, unintelligible to all mankind, and therefore the safer for their purposes. Are we to have a censor whose imprimatur shall say what books may be sold, and what we may buy? And who is thus to dogmatize religious opinions for our citizens? Whose foot is to be the measure to which ours are all to be cut or stretched? Is a priest to be our inquisitor, or shall a layman, simple as ourselves, set up his reason as the rule of what we are to read, and what we must disbelieve?

Thomas Jefferson, in a letter to N. But, for God's sake, let us freely hear both sides, if we choose. I am really mortified to be told that, in the United States of America, a fact like this can become a subject to inquiry, and of criminal inquiry, too, as an offence against religion; that a question about the sale of a book can be carried before the civil magistrate.

Is this then our freedom of religion? Thomas Jefferson, letter to N. Dufief, April 19, If we did a good act merely from the love of God and a belief that it is pleasing to Him, whence arises the morality of the Atheist? It is idle to say, as some do, that no such thing exists.

We have the same evidence of the fact as of most of those we act on, to wit: their own affirmations, and their reasonings in support of them. I have observed, indeed, generally, that while in Protestant countries the defections from the Platonic Christianity of the priests is to Deism, in Catholic countries they are to Atheism.

Their virtue, then, must have had some other foundation than love of God. Thomas Jefferson, letter to Thomas Law, June 13, Across the ages, clergy have been interested [according to Jefferson] not in truth but only in wealth and power; when rational people have had difficulty swallowing "their impious heresies," then the clergy have, with the help of the state, forced "them down their throats.

According to Gaustad, the first quotes are from a letter from Jefferson to William Baldwin, January 19, ; the second source is a letter from Jefferson to Charles Clay, January 29, A professorship of Theology should have no place in our institution [the University of Virginia]. Thomas Jefferson, letter to Thomas Cooper, October 7, I have ever judged of the religion of others by their lives It is in our lives, and not from our words, that our religion must be read. By the same test the world must judge me. But this does not satisfy the priesthood.

They must have a positive, a declared assent to all their interested absurdities. My opinion is that there would never have been an infidel, if there had never been a priest. The artificial structures they have built on the the purest of all moral systems, for the purpose of deriving from it pence and power, revolt those who think for themselves, and who read in that system only what is really there. Thomas Jefferson, letter to Mrs. Harrison Smith: Mrs. Harrison, August 6, Richard B. Morris:Richard B. The Jefferson quote is from his letter to Mrs.

Harrison, He [Jefferson] rejoiced with John Adams when the Congregational church was finally disestablished in Connecticut in ; welcoming "the resurrection of Connecticut to light and liberty, Jefferson congratulated Adams "that this den of priesthood is at length broken up, and that a protestant popedom is no longer to disgrace American history and character. In as he described his plans for the University of Virginia to his former private secretary, William Short, Jefferson acknowledged that his plan for the first truly secular university would have opposition: weak opposition in his view from the College of William and Mary, but strong opposition from "the priests of the different religious sects, to whose spells on the human mind its improvement is ominous.

The letter to Short was dated 13 April Jefferson bemoaned the pattern of church life that gave the unenlightened and bigoted clergy "stated and privileged days to collect and catechize us, opportunities of delivering their oracles to the people in mass, and of moulding their minds as wax in the hollow of their hands. This institution will be based on the illimitable freedom of the human mind. For here we are not afraid to follow truth wherever it may lead, nor to tolerate error so long as reason is free to combat it.

If the freedom of religion, guaranteed to us by law in theory, can ever rise in practice under the overbearing inquisition of public opinion, [then and only then will truth] prevail over fanaticism. Thomas Jefferson, as quoted by Edwin S. Jefferson's words are, according to Gaustad, from his letter to Jared Sparks, 4 November And the day will come when the mystical generation of Jesus, by the supreme being as his father in the womb of a Virgin Mary, will be classed with the fable of the generation of Minerva in the brain of Jupiter But we may hope that the dawn of reason and freedom of thought in these United States will do away [with] all this artificial scaffolding.

Gaustad, "Religion," in Merrill D. Peterson, ed. Jefferson expressed himself strongly on that larger apocalypse, the Book of Revelation, in a letter to Alexander Smyth of 17 January it is "merely the ravings of a maniac, no more worthy, nor capable of explanation than the incoherences of our own nightly dreams.

May it be to the world, what I believe it will be, to some parts sooner, to others later, but finally to all, the signal of arousing men to burst the chains under which monkish ignorance and superstition had persuaded them to bind themselves, and to assume the blessings and security of self-government. That form which we have substituted, restores the free right to the unbounded exercise of reason and freedom of opinion.

All eyes are opened, or opening, to the rights of man. The general spread of the light of science has already laid open to every view the palpable truth, that the mass of mankind has not been born with saddles on their backs, nor a favored few booted and spurred, ready to ride them legitimately, by the grace of God. These are grounds of hope for others. For ourselves, let the annual return of this day [Fourth of July] forever refresh our recollections of these rights, and an undiminished devotion to them Thomas Jefferson, letter to Roger C.

Weightman, June 24, [Jefferson's last letter, dated ten days before he died]; from Adrienne Koch, ed. Jefferson wrote voluminously to prove that Christianity was not part of the law of the land and that religion or irreligion was purely a private matter, not cognizable by the state. Leonard W. So much is Jefferson identified in the American mind with his battle for political liberty that it is difficult to entertain the possibility that he felt even more strongly about religious liberty.

If the letters and activities of his post presidential years can be taken as a fair guide, however, he maintained an unrelenting vigilance with respect to freedom in religion, and an unrelenting, perhaps even unforgiving, distrust of all those who would seek in any way to mitigate or limit or nullify that freedom.

Jefferson, who as a careful historian had made a study of the origin of the maxim [that the common law is inextricably linked with Christianity], challenged such an assertion. He noted that "the common law existed while the Anglo-Saxons were yet pagans, at a time when they had never yet heard the name of Christ pronounced or that such a character existed What a conspiracy this, between Church and State.

The most revealing writings concerned the commonly repeated maxim that Christianity was part of the common law. In two posthumously published writings, an appendix to his Reports of Cases Determined in the General Court and a letter to Major John Cartwright, Thomas Jefferson took issue with the maxim. He traced the erroneous interpretation to a seventeenth-century law commentator who, Jefferson argued, misinterpreted a fifteenth-century precedent.

Wilson, ed. It was what he did not like in religion that gave impetus to Jefferson's activity in that troublesome and often bloody arena. He did not like dogmatism, obscurantism, blind obedience, or any interference with the free exercise of the mind. Moreover, he did not like the tendency of religion to confuse truth with power, special insight with special privilege, and the duty to maintain with the right to persecute the dissenter.

Ecclesiastical despotism was as reprehensible as despotism of the political sort, even when it justified itself, as it often did, in the name of doing good. This had been sufficiently evident in his native Virginia to give Jefferson every stimulus he needed to see that independence must be carried over into the realm of religion. If this [extending religion's influence on the basis of "reason alone"] is the path chosen by Omnipotence and Infallibility, what sense can there possibly be in "fallible and uninspired men No sense at all, argued Jefferson, who found compulsion in religion to be irrational, impious, and tyrannical.

If such compulsion is bad for the vulnerable citizen, its consequences are no more wholesome for the church: "It tends also to corrupt the principles of that very religion it is meant to encourage, by bribing, with a monopoly of worldly honours and emoluments, those who will externally profess and conform to it. A final example of Jefferson's separationism may be drawn from his founding of the University of Virginia in the last years of his life.

Prepared to transform the College of William and Mary into the principal university of the state, Jefferson would do so only if the college divested itself of all ties with sectarian religion--that is, with its old Anglicanism now represented by the Protestant Episcopal Church. The college declined to make that break with its past, and Jefferson proceeded with plans for his own university well to the west of Anglican-dominated tidewater Virginia.

In Jefferson's view, as reported in Robert Healey's Jefferson on Religion in Public Education, not only did Virginia's laws prohibit such favoritism for divinity or theology was inevitably sectarian , but high-quality education was not well served by those who preferred mystery to morals and divisive dogma to the unities of science. Too great a devotion to doctrine can drive men mad; if it does not have that tragic effect, it at least guarantees that a man's education will be mediocre.

What is really significant in religion, its moral content, would be taught at the University of Virginia, but in philosophy, not divinity. If Almighty God has made the mind free, one of the ways to keep it free is to protect young minds from the clouded convolutions of theologians. Jefferson wanted education separated from religion because of his own conclusions concerning the nature of religion, its strengths and its weaknesses, its dark past and its possibly brighter future.

Moving well beyond the traditional deistic triad of God, freedom, and immortality, Jefferson revealed his strongest feelings and convictions with regard to the ecclesiastics. On two counts he found them critically deficient. In the realm of politics and power, they were tyrannical; in the realm of theology and truth, they were perverse. Jefferson's strongest language is reserved for those clergy who, as he said in a letter to Moses Robinson of 23 March , "had got a smell of union between church and state" and would impede the advance of liberty and science.

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  6. Such clergy, whether in America or abroad, have so adulterated religion that it has become "a mere contrivance to filch wealth and power to themselves" and a means of grasping "impious heresies, in order to force them down [men's] throats" letter to Samuel Kercheval, 19 January In his old age, Jefferson softened his invective not one whit: "The Presbyterian clergy are the loudest, the most intolerant of all sects, the most tyrannical and ambitious, ready at the word of the lawgiver, if such a word could be obtained, to put the torch to the pile, and to rekindle in this virgin hemisphere, the flames in which their oracle Calvin consumed the poor Servetus, because he could not find in his Euclid the proposition which has demonstrated that three are one, and one is three.

    Jefferson, the enemy of all arbitrary and capricious power, found that which was clothed in the ceremonial garb of religion to be particularly despicable. Even more disturbing to Jefferson was the priestly perversion of simple truths. If "in this virgin hemisphere" it was no longer possible to burn men's bodies, it was still possible to stunt their minds. In the "revolution of " that saw Jefferson's election to the presidency, the candidate wrote to his good friend Rush that while his views would please deists and rational Christians, they would never please that "irritable tribe of priests" who still hoped for government sanction and support.

    Nor would his election please them, "especially the Episcopalians and the Congregationalists. It was this aspect of establishment that Jefferson most dreaded and most relentlessly opposed--not just the power, profit, and corruption that invariably accompanied state-sanctioned ecclesiasticism but the theological distortion and intellectual absurdity that passed for reason and good sense.

    We must not be held captive to "the Platonic mysticisms" or to the "gossamer fabrics of factitious religion. I take to heart Jefferson's aspiration that the idea of church-state separation "germinate and take root among [the American people's] political tenets. To conclude this discussion of the religious clauses of the First Amendment, let's talk some more about Thomas Jefferson and his "wall. A popular bit of historical revisionism that floats around these days goes something like this: Jefferson served as ambassador to France during the writing of the Constitution and the Bill of Rights.

    He had no hand in their preparation and passage because he was out of the country. Therefore, his metaphor about the "wall of separation" is misplaced and ill-informed because he was living in France and was out of touch. Thomas Jefferson was James Madison's mentor. Madison as the chief architect of both the Constitution and the Bill of Rights drew heavily from Jefferson's ideas and kept in regular contact with his fellow Virginian even though the latter lived in France.

    Volumes of correspondence exist between the two men as they discussed the day's crucial events. Jefferson understood that the First Amendment created a separation between church and state because he, more than most of the Founders, gave form and substance to the nation's understanding of how the two institutions should best relate in the new nation. Some politicians, lawyers, and preachers subject us to mental cruelty when they disparage Jefferson's interpretation simply because he lived in France during the years of the Constitution's framing.

    Robert L. James Madison ; principal author, U. Constitution and Bill of Rights; 4th U. Religious bondage shackles and debilitates the mind and unfits it for every noble enterprize [sic], every expanded prospect. Who does not see that the same authority which can establish Christianity in exclusion of all other religions may establish, with the same ease, any particular sect of Christians in exclusion of all other sects?

    That the same authority which can force a citizen to contribute threepence only of his property for the support of any one establishment may force him to conform to any other establishment in all cases whatsoever?

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    According to Edwin S. Congress, in voting a plan for the government of the Western territories, retained a clause setting aside one section in each township for the support of public schools, while striking out the provision reserving a section for the support of religion. Commented Madison: "How a regulation so unjust in itself, so foreign to the authority of Congress, and so hurtful to the sale of public land, and smelling so strongly of an antiquated bigotry, could have received the countenance of a committee is truly a matter of astonishment.

    Wherever the real power in a Government lies, there is the danger of oppression. In our Governments, the real power lies in the majority of the Community, and the invasion of private rights is chiefly to be apprehended, not from the acts of Government contrary to the sense of its constituents, but from acts in which the Government is the mere instrument of the major number of the constituents.

    It consists in the one case in the multiplicity of interests, and in the other in the multiplicity of sects. Heath and Company, , p. According to Henretta, the quote is from Number 51 of the Federalist Papers. Here [in the Virginia statute for religious liberty] the separation between the authority of human laws, and the natural rights of Man excepted from the grant on which all authority is founded, is traced as distinctly as words can admit, and the limits to this authority established with as much solemnity as the forms of legislation can express.

    The law has the further advantage of having been the result of a formal appeal to the sense of the Community and a deliberate sanction of a vast majority, comprizing [sic] every sect of Christians in the State. This act is a true standard of Religious liberty; its principle the great barrier agst [against] usurpations on the rights of conscience. James Madison, "Monopolies. III, No. The "Detatched Memoranda" is a manuscript, written sometime after Madison left office in , in Madison's own hand, with notes he made in preparation for the arrangement and publication of his public papers, a task he did not complete before his death in See the cases in which negatives were put by J.

    See also attempt in Kentucky for example, where it was proposed to exempt Houses of Worship from taxes. The parenthetical note at the end, which lacks a closed parenthesis in Fleet, was apparently a note Madison made to himself regarding examples of improper encroachment to use when the "Detatched Memoranda" were edited and published, and seems to imply clearly that Madison supported taxing churches. On Feb. James D. Chaplainships of both Congress and the armed services were established sixteen years before the First Amendment was adopted.

    It would have been fatuous folly for anybody to stir a major controversy over a minor matter before the meaning of the amendment had been threshed out in weightier matters. But Madison did foresee the danger that minor deviations from the constitutional path would deepen into dangerous precedents. He took care of one of them by his veto [in ] of the appropriation for a Baptist church. Others he dealt with in his "Essay on Monopolies," unpublished until Here is what he wrote: "Is the appointment of Chaplains to the two Houses of Congress consistent with the Constitution, and with the pure principle of religious freedom?

    In strictness the answer on both points must be in the negative. The Constitution of the U. The law appointing Chaplains establishes a religious worship for the national representatives, to be performed by Ministers of religion, elected by a majority of them, and these are to be paid out of the national taxes. Does this not involve the principle of a national establishment Could a Catholic clergyman ever hope to be appointed a Chaplain?

    The deviations from constitutional principles went further: "Religious proclamations by the Executive recommending thanksgivings and fasts are shoots from the same root with the legislative acts reviewed. Altho' recommendations only, they imply a religious agency, making no part of the trust delegated to political rulers. The only ultimate protection for religious liberty in a country like ours, Madison pointed out--echoing Jefferson;--is public opinion: a firm and pervading opinion that the First Amendment works. Madison's words, according to Gaustad, are from his letter of 10 July to Edward Livingston.

    Whilst we assert for ourselves a freedom to embrace, to profess and observe the Religion which we believe to be of divine origin, we cannot deny equal freedom to those whose minds have not yet yielded to the evidence which has convinced us. If this freedom be abused, it is an offense against God, not against man: To God, therefore, not to man, must an account of it be rendered. James Madison, according to Leonard W. This assertion [that Madison was committed to total and complete separation of church and state] would be challenged by the nonpreferentialists, who agree with Justice Rehnquist's dissent in the Jaffree case.

    Contrasted with the analysis set forth above, Rehnquist insisted that Madison's "original language 'nor shall any national religion be established' obviously does not conform to the 'wall of separation' between church and state which latter day commentators have ascribed to him. There are three problems with this contention.

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    First, nothing in Madison's acts or words support such a proposition. Indeed, his opposition to the General Assessment Bill in Virginia, detailed in the "Memorial and Remonstrance," contradicts Rehnquist directly. Secondly, all of Madison's writings after support the Court's twentieth-century understanding of the term "wall of separation. Madison had an expansive intention when he used the term national. He believed that "religious proclamations by the Executive recommending thanksgiving and fasts Historical evidence lends no support to the Rehnquist thesis.

    And clearly Jefferson, even though absent from the First Congress, seems a far more secure source of "original intent" than Justice Rehnquist. Robert S. Alley, ed. Late in his life [therefore in the s? The experience of Virginia conspicuously corroborates the disproof of both opinions. The Civil Government, tho' bereft of everything like an associated hierarchy, possesses the requisite stability and performs its functions with complete success; whilst the number, the industry, and the morality of the Priesthood, and the devotion of the people have been manifestly increased by the total separation of the Church from the State.

    At age eighty-one [therefore, in ? The tendency of a usurpation on one side or the other, or to a corrupting coalition or alliance between them, will be best guarded by an entire abstinence of the Government from interference in any way whatever, beyond the necessity of preserving public order, and protecting each sect against trespass on its legal rights by others.

    The following year [], when asking Tench Tilghman to secure a carpenter and a bricklayer for his Mount Vernon estate, he [Washington] remarked: "If they are good workmen, they may be of Asia, Africa, or Europe. According to Boller, Washington wrote his remarks to Tilghman in a letter dated March 24, ; his remarks to the Mennonite--Francis Adrian Van der Kemp--were in a letter dated May 28, Government being, among other purposes, instituted to protect the consciences of men from oppression, it is certainly the duty of Rulers, not only to abstain from it themselves, but according to their stations, to prevent it in others.

    It is now no more that toleration is spoken of as if it was by the indulgence of one class of the people that another enjoyed the exercise of their inherent natural rights. For happily the Government of the United States, which gives to bigotry no sanction, to persecution no assistance, requires only that those who live under its protection should demean themselves as good citizens in giving it, on all occasions, their effectual support.

    Of all the animosities which have existed among mankind, those which are caused by difference of sentiments in religion appear to be the most inveterate and distressing, and ought most to be deprecated. I was in hopes that the enlightened and liberal policy, which has marked the present age, would at least have reconciled Christians of every denomination so far that we should never again see the religious disputes carried to such a pitch as to endanger the peace of society. In the Enlightened Age and in this Land of equal Liberty it is our boast, that a man's religious tenets will not forfeit the protection of the Laws, nor deprive him of the right of attaining and holding the highest Offices that are known in the United States.

    Quoted in Richard B. Bird Wilson, Episcopal minister in Albany, New York, was one of the first openly to challenge in public the pietistic picture of Washington that was being built up by [Mason Locke] Weems and his followers. In a sermon delivered in October, , which attracted wide attention when it was reported in the Albany Daily Advertiser, Wilson stated flatly that "among all our presidents from Washington downward, not one was a professor of religion, at least not of more than unitarianism.

    Quotations that Support the Separation of State and Church

    Paul F. Like his father before him, he [George Washington] served actively for many years as one of the twelve vestrymen for Truro parish, Virginia, in which Mount Vernon was located. According to Charles H. Callahan, "The regularity of his attendance at the meetings of the vestry and the progress of church work throughout the parish during his incumbency is a striking testimonial of the religious zeal and activity of him and his associates. Even Thomas Jefferson was a vestryman for a while. Jefferson, and [George] Wythe, who did not conceal their disbelief in Christianity, took their parts in the duties of vestrymen, the one at Williamsburg, the other at Albermarle; for they wished to be men of influence.

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