Slogans like Cleanliness brings freedom or One louse may kill you were intended to hoodwink, as were numbered clothes hooks fixed at a height of 1. Someone pointed to the right, to the doors of an oblong white-washed room resembling the one they had just left. However, not all the pillars served this purpose: for there were others, too. The Zyklon-B gas crystals were inserted through openings into hollow pillars made of sheet metal. They were perforated at regular intervals and inside them a spiral ran from top to bottom in order to ensure as even a distribution of the granular crystals as possible.
Mounted on the ceiling was a large number of dummy showers made of metal. These were intended to delude the suspicious on entering the gas chamber into believing that they were in a shower-room. While Feigele and Mirka were driven into the underground room, a van marked with a Red Cross sign parked along its side, which projected 1.
They chatted leisurely, smoking a cigarette.
The Historiography of the Holocaust
Then, on signal, each of them walked to a one foot high concrete shaft, donned a gas mask, took off the lid, opened the tin, and poured the pea-sized contents into the shaft. They closed the lids, took off their masks, and drove off. People began to cough. Their coughing grew worse from minute to minute, a sign that the gas had started to act. Then the clamor began to subside and to change to a many-voiced dull rattle, drowned now and then by coughing.
There they waited for the ventilating system to extract the gas from the room and, after some twenty minutes, unbolted the doors to the gas chambers. This is the place where and the method by which Germans killed Feigele, Mirka, and countless other human beings. Within hours of their arrival in Auschwitz nothing of the Jews remained but smoke, ashes, and our memory of them. Today we know where Feigele and Mirka died: in a town the Germans always called Auschwitz. We know they built the town in , and a Polish king bought it in We know the town declined under Polish rule.
We know it had a modest existence along a major railway line in the nineteenth century. We know that the region became the object of German rage in the s. We know the National Socialists annexed the town to the Reich in We know that they intended to repeat the initiatives of the middle ages. Today we know that Feigele and Mirka died in a camp originally created as a labour exchange, that then served as a Polish army base, and that the Germans adapted into a concentration camp to terrorize a local population too useful to deport.
We know that the camp accrued one function after another: it became a production site for sand and gravel, an execution site for the Gestapo in Kattowitz, the center of a large agricultural estate to support ethnic German transplantees, a labour pool to construct a synthetic rubber plant and a new town. We know that it became a centre of extermination when he lost interest in the town and the region, and that it also served as the heart of a network of satellite camps to service various industries in the region, and that it finally became a labour exchange again, only this time the labourers were Jewish slaves.
We know who constructed the furnaces: the Topf and Sons Company in Erfurt. We know the power of the forced-air system over 4 million cubic feet per hour to fan the flames. We know the official cremation capacity 32 corpses per muffle per day. We know that it was Bischoff who took the decision to change the larger morgue into an undressing room, and the smaller one into a gas chamber. We know that Dejaco drafted the plan that transformed a mortuary into a death chamber.
We know the specifications of the ventilation system that made the room operable as a site for mass extermination: seven horsepower is required to extract the Zyklon-B from the gas chamber in 20 minutes. We know that the building was brought into operation on 13 March and 1, women, children and old people were gassed. We know about the difficulties the Germans had getting everything just the way they wanted.
We know who paid the bills and how much was paid. We know all of that. But we understand very little about many issues central to this machinery of death. Research about the history of the region, the intended future of the town, the development of the camp, and the changing design of the crematoria has been useful, but is not the whole story about the Holocaust at Auschwitz. It is the questions of the victims and the survivors which loom large. And I was standing with my mother-in-law and my sister-in-law with her little girl, when someone approached us, and said, give this child to the grandmother.
And my sister-in-law gave the child to my mother-in-law. Regina, Esther, and I went to the right. To the left were all the people who were led to the gas chambers, crematorium, however you call it. What mattered was that the men were separated from the women, and that the grandmother Feigele and the little girl Mirka went to the left, and the adolescent Regina, and the two sisters-in-law Esther and Sara to the right. And she is correct. That process of selection is the core and moral nadir of the horror of the Holocaust—the selection, and not the gas chambers and crematoria.
The Germans and their allies had arrogated to themselves the power to decide who should live and who would die. Mirka, Sara, and hundreds of thousands of other deportees lined up for selection by a physician. Had he worked alone, he could have done little harm. But he did not. His work was but a small part of a system envisioned by ideologues, organized by bureaucrats, financed by industrialists, serviced by technocrats, operated by ordinary men, and supported by millions of Germans whose daily lives were improved by the goods shipped home to the Reich for their use.
The Holocaust Center for Humanity on Dismantling Hate through Education
Our turn came. The selector waved my mother and myself to the adult group. He classed my younger son Thomas with the children and the aged, which was to mean immediate extermination. He hesitated before Arvad, my older son. My heart thumped violently. This officer, a large man who wore glasses, seemed to be trying to act fairly. Later I learned that he was Dr. The truth that Arvad was twelve, and I could have said so.
He was big for his age, but I wanted to spare him from labors that might prove too arduous for him. I had persuaded my mother that she should follow the children and take care of them. At her age she had the right to the treatment accorded to the elderly and there would be someone to look after Arvad and Thomas. Auschwitz is the central site of the Holocaust. There are various reasons why Auschwitz is legitimately seen as the center of the Holocaust. First of all, it is the site where the single largest group of Jews were murdered.
Of this number, over , Jews died as the result of ghettoization and general privation, over 1. Of these, Auschwitz had the highest mortality with 1 million Jews, followed by Treblinka and Belzec with , and , Jews respectively. Second of all, Auschwitz is seen as the central site because the camp became the destination to a greater variety of Jews than any other. From at least twelve European countries Jews were deported to Auschwitz, and as such Auschwitz testifies to the pan-European character of the Holocaust.
Then Auschwitz may be seen as a particularly pointed attempt to destroy not only Jews, but also the soul of Judaism.
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The patriarchs of old call upon their last descendant by his name—which is theirs. Rosenzweig observed how the Jewish concept of a linked sequence of everlasting life which goes from grandparent to grandchild will know its eternity to be present in the child of its child.
Because of this, Jews could forego to claim its eternity by means of the possession of land. In Auschwitz the Germans annulled this link, and with that tried to destroy the very basis of Jewish existence: on arrival the old and the young, the grandparents and the grandchildren, were immediately sent to the gaschambers. And thus the linked sequence of the everlasting life which, for the Jews, goes from grandparent to grandchild, was to be destroyed from the very beginning.
The generation in between was allowed to live for somewhat longer, in the barracks adjacent to the ramps where the selection took place, under the smoke of the crematoria. Auschwitz was, in the testimony of a survivor Yehiel Dinur given during the Eichmann Trial, a different planet. Time there was not like time on earth. Every fraction of a minute there passed on a different scale of time.
And the inhabitants of this planet had no names, they had no parents nor did they have children. There they did not dress in the way we dress here; they were not born there and they did not give birth; they breathed according to different laws of nature; they did not live—nor did they die—according to the laws of this world.
The whole camp system was designed to make fathers strangers to their sons, mothers strangers to their daughters, to set brother against brother and sister against sister. The presence at your side of a weaker—or less cunning, or older, or too young—companion, hounding you with his demands for help or with his simple presence, in itself an entreaty, is a constant in the life of the Lager. The demand for solidarity, for a human word, advice, even just a listening ear, was permanent and universal but rarely satisfied.
There was no time, space, privacy, patience, strength; most often, the person to whom the request was addressed found himself in his turn in a state of need, entitled to comfort. It is enough not to see, not to listen, not to act. The chimneys, the very symbol of the modern factory system, poured forth acrid smoke produced by burning human flesh. The brilliantly organized railroad grid of modern Europe carried a new kind of raw material to the factories. It did so in the same manner as with other cargo.
In the gas chambers the victims inhaled noxious gases generated by prussic acid pellets, which were produced by the advanced chemical industry of Germany. Engineers designed the crematoria; managers designed the system of bureaucracy that worked with a zest and efficiency more backward nations would envy. Even the overall plan itself was a reflection of the modern scientific spirit gone awry. Littel observed, the death camps were not planned, built and operated by illiterate, unschooled savages.
Josef Mengele had a degree in philosophy from the University of Munich, and a degree in medicine from the University of Frankfurt am Main, and believed himself to be a herald of a new era. Inspired by Mengele, the German dramatist Rolf Hochhuth had the camp doctor state in his controversial play The Deputy that Auschwitz marked the end of the old and the beginning of a new age. The truth is, Auschwitz refutes creator, creation, and the creature. Life as an idea is dead.
This may well be the beginning of a great new era, a redemption from suffering. From this point of view only one crime remains: cursed be he who creates life. I cremate life. That is modern humanitarianism—the sole salvation from the future. Yet the modernity of this technology of mass destruction is not merely embodied in the statistics that state that the gas chambers could kill so-many people in so-many minutes, and the ovens could reduce to ashes so-many corpses in so-many hours. It is also embodied in the anonymity of the killing procedure itself.
Ancient German law, going back to the pre-Christian era, stipulated that sentences of death should be pronounced in the midst of the community in the open air, and the judges who had condemned a person to death should be present at the execution, which likewise had to take place in full view of the community, and the gods. All of this embodied a profound sense that when humans decide to take the life of another human being on behalf of society, they inflict a wound in the created world, and should accept public responsibility of this.
In the modern world, issues of personal responsibility and accountability tend to become diffused. At no point has this become so clear as in the case of Auschwitz, where Jews were executed without having been subjected to a clearly established judicial procedure, and where the killing itself took place hidden from the world, in mostly underground gas chambers. In what way do the gas chambers have a specificity, not only in relation to the Gulag which is obvious or in relation to other methods of state sponsored terror, but also in relation to the Nazi concentration camp system as a whole, and even in relation to the collective murders carried out by the Einsatzgruppen in the USSR?
Between death by gas and death by bullets, or even death by exhaustion or by the action of exanthematous typhoid, is there a difference in kind? My personal response is that there is a difference in kind. What, in the context of the SS State, do the gas chambers actually represent Not only, not essentially, do they represent the industrialization of death—by which I mean the employment of industrial techniques for purposes of killing and not for production which was still being carried out, moreover, just besides the slaughterhouses.
The essential issue does not lie there. The key point is the negation of a crime within the crime itself. The problem has been posed very well by a German lawyer, Attorney Hans Laternser, during the course of the Auschwitz trial Starting from the moment the order to kill was given, those who selected , not—as is often said and as I myself once happened to say—in order to separate those fit for work from those unfit but in order to separate those who would be sent to replace the disappeared work force from those who would be killed right away, were in reality not killers of Jews but saviors of Jews.
This lawyer was expressing in his own way something real: the reality of the diffusion of responsibility, the reality of the near-disappearance of responsibility. Who, then, was the killer at Auschwitz? Was it the person who put the Zyklon B tablets under the lid that led into the gas chambers? All the operations from the directing of victims as they left the trains to the undressing and cleaning of bodies to their placement inside the crematoria were basically under SS control, of course. But all this was done through the intermediary of members of the Sonderkommandos who, in the end, were the only ones placed in direct contact with death.
In other words, the very modernity of Auschwitz—that is the anonymity of the killing—is embodied in the uniquely modern phenomenon that has arisen from it: the fact of Holocaust Denial. The American theologian Richard L. Rubenstein defined Auschwitz as the supreme example of absolute domination that, thanks to technology and bureaucracy, has become possible in the modern age. The death-camp system became a society of total domination only when healthy inmates were kept alive and forced to become slaves rather than killed outright.
To repeat, as long as the camps [Treblinka, Sobibor, Belzec, Chelmno] served the single purpose of killing prisoners, one can speak of the camps as places of mass execution but not as a new type of human society. Most of the literature on the camps has tended to stress the role of the camps as places of execution. Regrettably, few ethical theorists or religious thinkers have paid attention to the highly significant political fact that the camps were in reality a new form of human society. Only when the doomed inmates were kept alive for some time did the new society develop.
It was at Auschwitz that the most effective system of extermination, mass gas chambers using Zyklon B coupled with on-the-spot crematoria, was first put to use. It was also at Auschwitz that the most thorough going society of total domination in human history was established.
Much has been written about the infamous Dr. Joseph Mengele, the physician at Auschwitz, who used to meet the new arrivals and separate those who were to be killed immediately from those who were to be worked to death as slaves. Such a selection process did not take place at camps like Treblinka because they functioned only as killing centers.
At Auschwitz, the camp served two seemingly contradictory purposes: Auschwitz was both a slave-labor and an execution center. Given the nature of slavery as practised by the Germans, only doomed slaves could successfully be dealt with as things rather than as human beings. Rubenstein believed that, as things are going, Western urban civilization is doomed to end in Necropolis, the new city of the dead.
At Auschwitz, the Germans revealed new potentialities in the human ability to dominate, enslave, and exterminate. They also revealed new areas in which capitalist enterprise might profitably and even respectably be employed. The camps were thus far more of a permanent threat to the human future than they could have been had they functioned solely as an exercise in mass killing. An extermination center can only manufacture corpses, a society of total domination creates a world of the living dead. As not all deportees were killed on arrival, many more survived Auschwitz than any other of the death camps.
Of the 1. Many of those survivors were to succumb during the death march to the West, or during their stay during the Spring of in concentration camps like Buchenwald and Bergen-Belsen. Yet tens of thousands saw liberation, and testified after the war about their ordeal. And some even did so during the war. The most important war-time report on the German genocide of the Jews, sponsored by the War Refugee Board, was written by two escapees from Auschwitz, and described the extermination installation in some detail.
And of the , gentile survivors of Auschwitz, of whom the Poles, with 75,, were the largest group, all who could did bear witness to the use of the camp as an extermination center for Jews. The technology of mass destruction as it existed in Auschwitz also points at another important issue: the significance of the so-called Final Solution of the Jewish Problem as a state-initiated, state-sponsored, and state-controlled program of genocide. Like any major historical problem, there has been, is, and probably will remain legitimate disagreement between historians about various aspects of the history of the Holocaust.
Furthermore Auschwitz was constructed in the middle of the war, in a time that there was a general building stop in Germany, with public funds. Many levels in the German bureaucracy were involved in the process, providing special construction permits and rationed building materials. The German state railways cooperated when it gave after careful consideration permission for the construction of a railway spur connecting the existing railway tracks at Auschwitz to the crematoria in Birkenau.
As Dwork and I have shown in our book Auschwitz: to the Present the concentration camp at Auschwitz was originally not intended as an extermination center for Jews. Finally, Auschwitz is considered the center of the Holocaust because enough of at least the two most important parts, the Stammlager and Birkenau, still remain to give the visitor a sense of the nature and scale of the operation. Treblinka, Belzec, and Sobibor, which together hosted the murder of 1. Very little to nothing of the original arrangement can be seen.
Only recently in Belzec, with the uncovering of the enormous mass graves, has it become possible to acquire, at the location of the massacre, some visual sense of the atrocities that passed there. When the SS evacuated the camps, they had been able to dismantle the gas chambers and blow up the crematoria. But the Soviets found the rest of the Stammlager and Birkenau largely intact.
Given the many remains of the death camps—the guard towers, the barbed wire fences, the gatehouse, the tracks, the barracks, the ruins of the crematoria, and so on—it is not surprising that in a largely visual culture dominated by photography, film and television, the landscape of Auschwitz became an icon of the Holocaust. The opening scenes showed the banal, seemingly innocent fields around the camp. Filming the remains at Birkenau, Resnais allowed the horror to slowly emerge from the midst of banality.
As the camera panned the empty barracks in Birkenau, the narrator immediately warned us not to take the image of the present for the reality of the past. No description, no picture can restore their true dimension: endless, uninterrupted fear. We would need the very mattress where scraps of food were hidden, the blankets that was fought over, the shouts and curses, the orders repeated in every tongue, the sudden appearance of the S.
Of this brick dormitory, of these threatened sleepers, we can only show you the shell, the shadow. Resnais tries to evoke an impression of the deportations by filming what remained of the deportees, in the showcases of the museum at Auschwitz I. As he filmed their contents, the narration which until then had so quietly recalled and probed, become halting, as the unimaginable and unspeakable is brought home.
Finally it stops -as if there is nothing more to say about the world of the camp. Resnais constantly returned to the fields of Birkenau, and with every scene he confirmed the factuality of the events that happened there, and the centrality of Auschwitz for the modern understanding of the world. Revolutionary in its visual language, and brilliant in its counterpoint of image and sound, past atrocity and present landscape, Night and Fog simultaneously established and confirmed the central role of the landscape of Auschwitz in the modern imagination of atrocity.
The recollections of the American Konnilyn Feig stand for the experience of many. We left Auschwitz when it was dark, but a full orange Polish moon stood in the sky. Wrong turn, and suddenly, silhouetted starkly against the sky, the strangest, eeriest sight I had ever seen. No one was around. It was silent. We got out, walked to the gates, and then peered through the fences.
I did not know what I was looking at, but it frightened me to my depths—a young American girl standing with a friend in Poland in the deserted countryside, at Birkenau. I felt an overwhelming sense of evil—not horror, as in the Auschwitz warehouses, but evil. God, it was awful. I stood with my eyes wide and my mouth open, speechless.
I had no idea what it was, but I felt evil, and that moment, that time, has never left me. This brings me to an autobiographical note. I travelled there in order to make a pilgrimage to the central site of the modern world. Yet walking around Auschwitz, and noting not only the camp grounds, but also the substantial German wartime civic construction in the town of Auschwitz, I had to revise my view of the camp. The camp in Auschwitz had been not merely built right next to an existing town, but one that the same men who had ordered the construction of the camp had designated as a centre of growth.
National Socialist Auschwitz was to become the German capital of a German district, and the site of massive German industrial activity. It became clear that the mythification of Auschwitz,in which I had participated unwittingly, had blinded me for a more complex reality in which seemingly opposing things such as the design for a utopia and the construction of a dystopia existed alongside each other.
In our work, it became clear that while Auschwitz did become the largest death camp for Jews, it was not pre-ordained to become the major site of the Holocaust. Reclaiming the many different and contrary intentions the Germans had for Auschwitz, we became able to square the way Auschwitz became the central site of the Holocaust with the ways of the world—a world in which the mysterious, mythifiable forces of malevolence seem often so ludicrously irrelevant compared to the profane, utterly intelligible and very effective tendencies of insufficiency and expediency.
As a result, our book, Auschwitz: to the Present recovers the ambiguous and often paradoxical realities that are at the bottom of the crisp, consistent and in many ways convenient scheme earlier historians accepted as the war-time history of Auschwitz. The history of Auschwitz is not carved in stone, but like all accounts of the past it is subject to revision. Contrary to what Holocaust Deniers assert, serious historians who accept that Auschwitz was a central site of the Holocaust do not turn-off their critical faculties when they consider the topic.
They do not consider the inherited history of the camp a religious dogma. At no point is this so clear as in the way the historical community has accepted and endorsed a major revision of the death count of Auschwitz from 4 million to 1.
Dark destinations – visitor reflections from a holocaust memorial site
I would like to review here, in some detail, the way and manner in which the responsible revisionist scholarship of Dr. Franciszek Piper, chief historian of the Auschwitz-Birkenau State Museum, has established these numbers. Before we begin, it is important to note that the Germans did not keep any records as to the number of people killed in the gas chambers.
There are many German testimonies to that effect. Immediately after the war, Broad gave some valuable information regarding record keeping. When information was requested by the Reich Main Security Office concerning a past transport, as a rule nothing could be ascertained. Former transport lists were destroyed. Nobody could learn anything in Auschwitz about the fate of a given person. At present, after the evacuation of Auschwitz and the burning of all papers and records, the fate of millions of people is completely obscure. No transport or arrival lists are in existence any more. All other units which took part in any way had to destroy all records immediately.
Their conclusion was based on an assessment of the capacity of the crematoria. The five crematoria would have been able to burn, at least in theory, 5,, bodies. Making allowances for possible undercapacity operation of the crematoriums and stoppages, however, the Commission of technical experts established that during the existence of the Oswiecim camp the German executioners killed in it no less than four million citizens of the USSR.
Apart from the engineering approach to the question how many people had died in Auschwitz a second method emerged to establish the number of victims. It was based on an analysis of the number of deportations to the camp. As early as , Nachman Blumental, using this method, came to an informed guess that the number of victims ought to have been somewhere between 1.
As to the total number of Jews brought to the selection place at Auschwitz, it is possible to estimate fairly closely for the Western and Central European countries and the Balkans but not for Poland. There is no real guide to the percentage gassed. It was low before August,,and generally low again after August,, but in the meantime gassings might vary between fifty and nearly a hundred per cent. The following list makes allowances for a number of French and Greek transports sent to Majdanek and 34, Dutch Jews who went to Sobibor:.
Of this total,, to , may have been gassed on arrival and to this must be added the unknown portion of the , or more, missing from the camp, who were selected. It is important to note that Reitlinger systematically chose, if confronted with different estimates about the number of victims, the lowest one. The first reason was that exaggeration would serve those who wished to deny the Holocaust. Finally there were different assessment made by witnesses. During his interrogations he gave detailed list of numbers for each nationality that came to over 1. He now stated that the number of 2.
If I calculate the total of the mass operations which I still remember, and still make allowance for a certain percentage of error, I arrive, in my calculation, at a total of 1. Even Auschwitz had limits to its destructive capabilities. Gilbert in Nuremberg and Dr. Jan Sehn in Cracow, and a middle one of around 2. Until the early s no original scholarship was undertaken to come to a resolution of the unacceptably great range between the lowest and highest estimate. The Cold War was largely to blame: the figure of 4 million had been established by the Soviets, and the figure of 1 million had been first proposed in the West.
As relations between the East and West deteriorated, with the largest part of Germany becoming part of NATO and with that country refusing to recognize the legitimacy of the post-war Polish annexation of the former German territories of East Prussia, Pomerania, and Silesia, the issue of the number of victims became an object of politics. In the West, most historians of the Holocaust who, given the political climate, were unable to do original research in the matter tended to accept, with reservations, the middle figure of 2.
Initially only Raul Hilberg, who did important statistical analysis into the number of victims of the Holocaust, supported the lower figure of 1 million. He reasoned—with justification—that given the total number of victims of the Holocaust 5. While the government was still committed to the official figure of 4 million victims, Dr. Piper of the Auschwitz Museum, who had been banned until then from researching the issue, began to focus his attention on the question of how many people had died in the camp.
A catalyst for his research were new figures produced in France by Georges Wellers, who had come to the conclusion that 1,, persons had been deported to Auschwitz of whom 1,, were Jews and that 1,, of them had died of whom 1,, were Jews. Piper, brought his work to a first completion in Given the fact that he largely endorsed the figures that had been proposed in the West by Reitlinger and Hilberg, he decided to proceed carefully—a smart move considering that Poland was in the mid s subjected to military rule.
He first subjected his conclusions to a process of internal review within the museum, and then to a thorough external review by the leading Polish research institute on the Nazi era, the Main Commission for the Investigation of Nazi Crimes in Poland. In , after endorsement of his findings and with the first post-communist government in power , Piper made his new estimate of 1.
This figure has been endorsed by all serious, professional historians who have studied the complex history of Auschwitz in some detail, and by the Holocaust research institutes at Yad Vashem in Jerusalem and at the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum in Washington D.
When he began work, Piper realized that the remaining papers of the camp administration, which the SS had largely destroyed before they abandoned the camp, would provide little help in establishing the total number of people deported to and killed in the camp. None of these survive. As we have seen above, Broad declared that, immediately after the numbers had been dispatched to Berlin, the Political Department was under instruction to destroy all records.
Piper also decided not to make use of the estimates of the number of people murdered made by eyewitnesses. Piper also discarded the early attempts, made by Soviet and Polish forensic investigators in , to establish the total number of victims on the basis of the incineration capacity of the crematoria. As we have seen, the experts had decided that, over the period of their existence, the crematoria could have incinerated up to 5,, corpses. To be on the safe side, they had assumed that the crematoria had operated on four-fifths of capacity, and therefore they finally assumed a number of four million.
Given the fact that the investigators probably over-estimated the incineration capacity of the crematoria on the basis of a multiplication of the official German figures for each crematorium and the time they were in operation, one would come to a figure of 2. Wellers, so he argued, had used some arbitrary premises, not considered data of great importance, and combined approximate figures with precise numbers.
Failing to take into account transfers of inmates to other camps, inmates who had been released and who had escaped, he had underestimated the number of survivors by 80, Added to that, Wellers had overestimated the number of deportees to Auschwitz by around , people, chiefly by overcalculating the number of Polish Jews brought to the camp , instead of , The Kalendarium—a day-by day, fully annotated chronicle of the history of the camp—is a massive reference work which has been since the core of the long-term research policy of the Auschwitz-Birkenau State Museum.
Early instalments of the Kalendarium were published in the late s and early s. Work continued, however, throughout the s, s and s, with constant refinements as more source material became available. Finally, in , the German publishing house Rowohlt published the massive German edition of the Kalendarium, followed a year later by the English-language edition entitled Auschwitz Chronicle: Access content through your institution.
Any other coaching guidance? Don't have an account? Currency and addition of Tax VAT depend on your shipping address. Block No. Author: Rossitza Guentcheva. Add to Cart. Have an Access Token? Enter your access token to activate and access content online. Please login and go to your personal user account to enter your access token. Have Institutional Access? Printed in Tel Aviv; artist: Kraus. Image of stylized human figure laying bricks, adding to a topographic suggestion of Israel, partially filled in with bricks.
Artist: Zvi Silberman. Woodcut image of man with airplane overhead. Artist's signature: Sussmann Printer: Globus II, Vienna. Image of concentration camp prisoner, barbed wire, against a black background, bordered in purple.
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Wilhelm Schmidt; entire event organized by Willy Krell. Printer: Karl Stolik, Vienna. Drawing of scene of uprising upper left, and of houses in Palestine, lower right; artist: D. Event includes a commemorative service, lecture, and artistic program. Drawing of large red flag at center, with a hammer hitting an anvil over blue and white stripes in upper left corner. Event includes a lecture on the significance of the international holiday, and artistic program, with orchestra.
Image of disabled veteran amputee supporting himself, using as crutches the first two Hebrew letters in the organization name, with star of David in background. Printer: DDV Linz. Image of young man carrying red orange flag with name of Left Poale Zion in Austria, Jewish workers' party, striding atop a globe. Re-purposed "Lecture evening" poster, with "speaking on the topic" crossed out. Gives lists of publications. Blue-tinted background, with photographic images of fliers and portraits, including Bialik, Herzl, and David Ben-Gurion.
Includes the following speakers: Kurt Schubert, "The worldview of Jewish mysticism"; Akiba Eisenberg, "The spiritual foundations of the Talmudic tradition"; and Kurt Lewin, "From idea to state: intellectual currents in Israel. Image of Jabotinsky hovering behind a marching brigade that flies the Israeli flag; hands entangled in barbed wire at the edge. Artist's signature: A. Eyrets [? Image of child, with "Betar" on sleeve, behind barbed wire; suggestion of Erets Yisrael in distance, with blue sky.
Items AUS. Date and venue blank. Hebrew text in black-bordered box dated June 29, Poster is dated by hand Austria, The portrait is clipping from a magazine, pasted down. Gruner is shown in military garb, with rifle. With quotation from Jabotinsky's testament: "After my death Images of revisionist Zionist personalities, including Josef Glasman, Joseph Trumpeldor, Dov Gruner, and Ze'ev Jabotinsky; and stylized images of the uprising; figure with Israeli flag; menorah atop a mountain. Printer: Verlag "Unser Ziel" Linz.
Image of Jabotinsky hovering behind a marching brigade; artist's signature: A. Eyrets [sp? Printer Yitzhak Goldberg, Munich. Printer: Avouka, Paris. With introductory remarks by Daniel Lewin, Israeli consul. Note: Item AUS. Under the auspices of the World Jewish Congress. Title inside white circle full moon against blue background.
Printer: Repperdruck, Vienna. Under the auspices of the Israeli Consulate; includes showings of recent Israeli films. Background of three wide blue and white vertical stripes. Silver-lettered title on all-blue background. Gold-lettered title on all-blue background. Poster is accompanied by an invitation and a flier. Poster is on a smaller piece of white card stock pasted down on larger piece of blue card stock.
Includes photograph of Abidov. The item is a leaf from the newspaper Die Stimme , page 3, issue no. Lettering in black, white, and aqua-blue. Artist: Zvi Zilberman Silberman. Poster has blanks for title of lecture and name of camp. Pulawer, cultural director Kulturleiter ; Administrator, P. Image of Trumpeldor hovering behind monument of roaring lion, black and white on aqua-blue background.
Pulawer, cultural director Kulturleiter and Administrator, P. Image of a green landscape with houses, and, in the foreground, a pipeline against plowed earth; artist: Kraus. Printed in Tel Aviv. Drawing in upper left corner of lit candle, with group of people In background; black border.
Program of opera arias and folk songs, with participation of artists of the Kiev Jewish state theater. Date and venue filled in by hand. With painting of dancing couple in formal dress. Artist's signature: Schvarcz J. Includes painting of soccer players on a field. Signed by Betar in Bad Gastein. Includes clippings of photographs, pasted down, showing difficult conditions for Jews in Palestine, attributed to British policies and actions. With clippings of photographs and cut-out letters pasted down.
The clippings depict Betar groups and activities, including marching and sport. Images of Bialik and Herzl, blue and black lettering; signed by artist: Zvi Silberman. With logo crossed swords under menorah and stamp with similar image on verso; black border. Also, stamp: O. Maizinger, Badgastein verso. Under auspices of Jewish Central Committee in the U. Printer: G. Plasser, Bad Ischl. This subsubseries pertains to events held at Beth Bialik under the sponsorship of the Jewish Central Committee of the U.
Zone in Austria. Printer: "Unser Ziel," Linz. Features images of Ze'ev Jabotinsky and one of Theodor Herzl clippings , and handwritten compositions in Yiddish from residents at Bindermichl, as well as clippings of slogans, pasted down. Several of the compositions refer to a visit of American Betar leader Aaron Propes, who was on his way to the 22nd Zionist Congress in Basel, Switzerland.
Co-sponsored by the Jewish Central Committee in the U. Stamp: M. Pulawer, cultural director Kulturleiter. Stamps: M. Images of red hearts in background of title. Image of hands warming over a fire; letters spelling 'winter relief' with a layer of snow, melting. The right half torn away from what was apparently a bilingual poster, with some loss of text in heading and first lines. Pulawer, cultural director Kulturleiter ; Approved, P. Artist's signature: Adler, Bl. Poster is missing upper right corner and part of upper left corner.
Pasted down at bottom center is a copy of a form letter in Yiddish, dated June 28, , from the Ebelsberg Tarnower Committee to Tarnower committees in other localities, inviting participation in the event, which is described as a gathering of all Tarnower Jews in Austria. Organizer Emil Tesse, administrator Matys Szarfman. Sponsored by the Jewish Central Committee of the U.
Zone in Austria; date and venue filled in by hand. Poster has corrections in title, venue, and date, using whiteout. This subseries is arranged in the following subsubseries: Subsubseries A: Handpainted items, , undated 9 items Subsubseries B: Printed items, , , undated 9 items Subsubseries C: Supplemental files, , , undated 13 files of correspondence or ephemera. This subseries contains items for which the creator, organizing entity, or disseminator could not be determined.
It also includes some "supplemental files" Subsubseries C of miscellaneous correspondence and ephemera small-format items found with the posters. Images of castle, boat on river, hiking, gardening; title is framed inside a book. Includes compositions in Hebrew pasted down, one of which mentions "Greifenstein. Images of fish in ocean, sunset, grapes, barrels of wine and beer. Possibly by artist Zvi Silberman this painting can be seen in background of a photograph of Silberman held by Yad Vashem, Artist: Wallish; printer: Ferd. Repper, Vienna. Image of brown and white striped rectangle ticket against green background, with sun and rays of sunshine.
Printer: Waldheim-Eberle, Vienna. Gives table of contents. Not clear whether the poster was used in Austria price given in marks. Image of barbed wire fence, prayer shawl, in a barren landscape; words in red on black background.
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Includes fliers, forms, and one letter, dated March 26, , from the Executive of the Zionist Organization in Israel. Three invitations are for events held under the auspices of the Israel ambassador Shmuel Bentsur. Official correspondence to the Palestine Office from various offices of the Austrian government in matters of immigration to Palestine.
Includes World Ort Union report on the mission in Austria, circa December ; invitations; forms; letterhead; photographs of posters and diploma; and clippings. Includes fliers, forms, a photograph of a poster, and a typescript 2 leaves in Yiddish, "Der betarisher pasport.
Includes invitation to an event in Vienna, on the occasion of the UN resolution on Palestine December 15, ; and form letter, dated July 15, , from Austrian Advisory Committee, American Federation of Jews from Austria, affiliated World Jewish Congress, New York, addressed to Austrian Jews, with questionnaires 2 versions , and return address envelope.
Includes correspondence received by the Camp Committee; Keren Hayesod invitations and form letter; Poale Zion list of members not yet registered; Sport Club Hakoah flier and invitations; and Zionist Federation in Austria flier. Includes two booklets one of drawings, the other of Hebrew compositions, with illustrations , and loose drawings colored with crayon or paint.
For questions, comments, or suggestions: archives yivo. This collection of posters includes approximately 1, rare or unique items pertaining to over displaced persons DP camps and centers in Germany, Austria, and Italy, dating primarily from to A small number of items also document activities of the revived Jewish communities in the city centers of Munich and Vienna. The collection is predominantly in Yiddish approximately three-quarters , with some German and Hebrew, and scattered items in or using English, Romanian, Polish, Italian, Hungarian, Russian, French, or Aramaic.
Arrangement: Arranged alphabetically by entity name in the following subsubseries, then alphabetically by title. View the item. Buy, read and broaden the use of books in Yiddish! Language: Yiddish 25 x 19 inches; white paper, printed. Exhibition of Jewish artists E. Brzezinska, Prof. Foiring, L. Kreicer, P. Schwartz, H. Language: Yiddish 24 x 17 inches; white paper, printed. Organ of the Central Committee. Language: Yiddish 24 x 17 inches; white paper, printed, 2 color. Depiction of headstones, open book and candles; artist: M. Depiction of starving prisoner and ghetto fighter; artist: P.
Predominantly in Yiddish, with two items in English and one in Hebrew. Bad Reichenhall — Bureau of Statistics. Artist: O. Language: Yiddish, romanized 35 x 27 inches; on verso of topographic map, handpainted. Chart; artist: O. Bad Reichenhall — Cultural Department. Ansky, directed by Jonas Frajndlich, technical direction by Zilberglajt Dram-krajz o. Tog un Nacht. Lecture, "The achievements of the French Revolution," by Dr. Language: Yiddish, romanized 22 x 19 inches; on verso of topographic map, handpainted.
Bad Reichenhall — Election Committee. Eschwege — Cultural Department. Language: Yiddish 35 x 35 inches; parchment paper, handpainted. Language: Yiddish 36 x 28 inches; parchment paper, handpainted. Language: Yiddish, romanized 31 x 24 inches; white paper, handpainted; double-sided on other side: Item GER. Language: Yiddish 29 x 24 inches; white-blue paper, handpainted.
Arrangement: Arranged roughly alphabetically by entity or organization name, then alphabetically by title. Language: Yiddish, romanized 33 x 23 inches; white paper, printed. Language: Yiddish 34 x 24 inches; peach color paper, handpainted. Sponsored by the Jewish Agency. Fire Marshall. Directions on how to prevent fires Onwajzungen wi ci farhitn fun fajergefar.
Hashomer Hatzair. Lecture by poet Sh. Language: Yiddish 24 x 17 inches; white paper, printed and handwritten. Jewish Agency. Image of a man with a hoe and rifle. Landsmanshaft of Jews from Maramuresh. Hazkorah — memorial prayer for the dead and solemn gathering Haskurah-Trorakademie far die Maramaroser-Kidoisim. Landsmanshaft of Jews from Vilna Wilno, Vilnius. Language: Yiddish 46 x 34 inches; white paper, handpainted.
People's meeting and presentation by A. Language: Yiddish, romanized 34 x 24 inches; rose paper, handpainted. Language: Yiddish, romanized 38 x 24 inches; white paper, handpainted. Sport club Maccabi. Language: Yiddish 34 x 24 inches; brown paper, handpainted. Language: Yiddish 36 x 21 inches; brown paper, handpainted. Union of Jewish Fighters. Union of Jewish Invalids.
Language: Yiddish 39 x 29 inches; peach color paper, handpainted. United Zionist Revisionist Organization. Language: Yiddish, romanized 23 x 20 inches; white paper, 2 color print. United Zionist - Socialist Workers' Block. Language: Yiddish 57 x 36 inches; brown paper, handpainted. Language: English and German 18 x 12 inches; transparent paper. Language: English and German 16 x 12 inches; technical paper. Arrangement: Arranged alphabetically by entity or organization name, then roughly alphabetically by title. Language: Yiddish, romanized 24 x 17 inches; white paper, printed.
Language: Yiddish, romanized 34 x 24 inches; white paper, printed. Brith Yeshurun. Meeting and lecture by Rabbi Y. Language: Yiddish 6 x 5 inches; white paper, printed. Coordinating Committee for celebration of proclamation of Jewish state. Cantorial performance by Jankiel Apelewicz, student of M. Kusiewicki-Sierota Apelewicz Jankiel mit sein mener chor. Bornstein Reprezentanc Orkestr fun der Szerit Haplejta, dir. Hofmekler Reprezentanc Orkestr fun der Szerit Haplejta, dir.
Concert of Shamai Rosenblum — declamation, music, singing Koncert fun Schamai Rosenblum — wort, muzik, gezang. Language: Yiddish, romanized 25 x 17 inches; white paper, printed and handwritten. Lecture by B. Symphony concert conducted by M. Radio to be raffled today Language: Yiddish 34 x 24 inches; white paper, handpainted.
Lecture by A. Language: Yiddish 33 x 24 inches; white paper, handpainted.
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Shvartsblat and N. Review Commission. Language: Yiddish 27 x 18 inches; brown paper, handpainted. Sport Club Maccabi. Talmud Torah. Meeting with Isaac Remba, former secretary of Z. In Yiddish and German, with one item in Hebrew, and one partly in Polish. Arrangement: Arranged alphabetically by camp name, then alphabetically by title.
Language: German 17 x 14 inches; white paper, printed. Mikhail Bardi. Language: Yiddish 24 x 17 inches; white paper, handpainted. Presentation by M. Fingerhut, B. Bauer and Y. Camp Cultural Office. Cultural Office of the Jewish Committee. Language: Yiddish 39 x 28 inches; white paper, handpainted. Obituary announcement about author and labor activist Sh. Holocaust images; artist: Sh. Language: Yiddish, romanized 34 x 25 inches; white paper, printed. Language: Yiddish and Polish 34 x 24 inches; white paper, handpainted.
Subseries 7: Union of Invalids. Scope and Content: For other items related to landsmanshaftn, see the following, found in subseries for specific camps: Items GER. Bialystok landsmanshaft. Horizontal banner in 2 parts, and a. Subseries Various DP unions. Subseries not used. The Yishuv calls: by all paths to the Land of Israel! Language: Yiddish 34 x 24 inches; white paper, handpainted, clipping. Language: Yiddish 24 x 17 inches; white paper, color print. Printer: L. Poeller, Munich. Poale Zion Party - Unity. Language: Hebrew 24 x 17 inches; white paper, color print.
Worker and peasant figures. Poale Zion Party - Unity - Landsberg branch. Printer: Landsberger Verlagsanstalt Martin Neumeyer. Language: Yiddish, romanized 24 x 17 inches; blue paper, printed. Poale Zion Party - Unity - Stuttgart branch. Language: Yiddish 24 x 17 inches; gray paper, printed. Language: Yiddish 18 x 11 inches; pink paper, handpainted.
Language: Yiddish and Hebrew 24 x 17 inches; whitepaper, printed. Language: Yiddish, romanized 24 x 16 inches; white paper, printed. Language: Yiddish 34 x 24 inches; white paper, printed. Language: Yiddish 24 x 17 inches; pink paper, printed. Zionist Revisionist Organization - Munich branch. Zionist Revisionist Organization, Stuttgart branch. Printer: Jos. Language: English 51 x 47 inches; technical drawing, mimeographed. Agudath Israel general. Printer: Gelbard Jewish Printers, Paris. Language: Yiddish, romanized 24 x 17 inches; green paper, printed. Agudath Israel - Munich branch.
Language: Yiddish 24 x 17 inches; blue paper, printed. Agudath Israel, Wetzlar Camp. Festive service at the Munich community synagogue on the 2nd anniversary of proclamation of the State of Israel Ein feierlicher Gottesdienst. Memorial service for the dead on the 5th anniversary of Liberation Die Totenandacht und Feierstunde. Jewish Agency general. Language: Hebrew and Yiddish 22 x 14 inches; white paper, printed. Language: Hebrew and Yiddish 24 x 17 inches; gray paper, printed. Language: Hebrew and Yiddish 24 x 17 inches; white paper, printed.
Jewish Agency — Sherut Ha'am. If they have forced us to fight, we will win!