Teachers can then turn students' newfound confidence and self-esteem toward other academic, social, and behavioral goals that seemed unreachable when these students felt discouraged and disparaged. In my neurology practice, I was initially astonished to see my patients respond with relief when I told them that their symptoms were due to a pinched nerve from a bulging disc in their spine or a blockage in the outflow of spinal fluid. I had thought that such news would be disturbing. What I discovered was that people who experience abnormal sensations, weakness, pain, or mental states often begin to think they have the worst possible disease or malignancy.
So the news that they have serious but treatable conditions comes as a relief. Similarly, when students experience learning problems without understanding the reason, they also may imagine the worst: that they are inferior students who will never succeed in school. When parents first hear that their child has a type of LD, they may share that reaction. General education students new to inclusion classes may also have misconceptions about new classmates with LD.
It is helpful for all students and parents to know that everyone is unique—physically, emotionally, in the rate at which their brains develop, and in the way their brains learn. To help students understand that having different ways of thinking does not limit LD students in all areas, teachers can introduce the concept of a band that needs a variety of musical instruments, or a team that benefits from a diversity of specialized skills. Non-LD students in inclusion classes will learn about the talents and interests that make their new peers interesting and worth knowing.
Success for all Students in Inclusion Classes
They may find that the classmates they help with a math problem are giving them tips on the basketball court or in a computer class. Here are some strategies to foster students' recognition and appreciation of their classmates' unique attributes. Peer interviews. Peer interviews are a beginning-of-the-year activity designed to build connections. Students then use the interview results to introduce their partners to the rest of the class. The interview process is a class bonding exercise that can also provide first buddies for new students.
Class interest graphs. Students place dot stickers next to the appropriate items on a prepared chart listing interests and hobbies, types of pets, number of siblings, sporting activities, favorite subjects, and other grade-appropriate topics. The teacher can then tabulate the data and list names under each topic. This information will give students an idea of what they have in common with classmates and can become a springboard for conversations and friendships.
Class expert or resident expert charts. Similar to class interest graphs, expert charts go a step further, listing not only students' interests and hobbies but also their areas of expertise, whether academic, artistic, physical, dramatic, or social. Students can make these posters more compelling by adding photos or sketches of themselves engaged in favorite activities or even pictures from magazines or the Internet that represent their talents.
Through these charts, students gain an awareness of the degree of talent and know-how in their own classroom. The charts increase the inclusion and raise the self-esteem of students who may not have the same academic strengths as their classmates, but who have unique talents that are acknowledged and respected by classmates. Teacher modeling. It is especially important in inclusion classes that teachers demonstrate their own appreciation of differences and remain open to teachable moments that unite the class as a community.
Academically, when teachers ask evocative questions and stimulate curiosity and problem solving, more learners can participate in class discussions at their individual comfort and interest levels. Especially at the beginning of the year, holding class meetings on topics that engage all students at all ability levels can set a tone of safe participation.
These topics should be high in interest and open-ended so that all opinions are valid. Examples could include Should we have mixed-grade classes?
What class trips might be fun and connect with the topics we'll study this year? Whom would you like to invite to be a class speaker? What famous person, living or dead, would you like to meet, and why? Once the community builds and students have experienced cooperative, respectful, and active listening, the topics can address bigger issues. Eventually, academic discussions will be safe opportunities for all students to participate. Another effective tactic teachers can try is exploring tangents. In Teacher Man , a memoir about his 30 years as an English teacher in a vocational high school in New York City, Frank McCourt describes his community-building strategies of getting off subject and following student leads.
McCourt's students appreciated the stories he told them about his own life because he spoke to them as peers, not as inferiors. As a result, they opened up to him and showed a desire to work with him and one another. McCourt also remained open to their leads. After a long stretch of reaping only dismal results from his formal writing assignments, he realized that students' forged excuse notes from their parents contained creative and dramatic prose. He seized the opportunity to have students write essays and letters in the form of excuse notes, such as one from Adam and Eve to God, or from Lee Harvey Oswald to the Kennedy family.
Another way in which teachers can model community building is to use language of inclusiveness. Teachers should refer to special accommodations with terms that have no negative connotations and that can apply to any student who at one time or another needs assistance—for example, one-on-one time, homework help , or study skills assistance. The most powerful thing teachers can do to model inclusiveness in their classrooms is to emphasize the value of a community of unique individuals.
All students have strengths and weaknesses. Students with LD may have long believed that they were destined for failure in all academic endeavors. The teacher should assure students that while they practice this reading skill, the teacher will help by giving them word problems with important words and numbers underlined so that they will know what to focus on. When students understand that their difficulties are specific and not global, they can be more confident about their potential to reach achievable goals. They will begin to embrace learning because they will no longer fear being doomed to a future of academic failure and permanent dependency on special accommodations.
When a student does an outstanding job in any subject, whether computer science or poetry writing, the teacher should acknowledge the student specifically for that success without giving the impression that his or her standards are lower because of the student's LD classification. For teachers' private record keeping, it is appropriate to record accommodations and student progress toward individualized goals and to tell most students of appropriate age when there are modifications. This process does not need to involve the whole class.
Given that choice, most students appreciate their abilities and would not trade them for what seems like an easier assignment. Even in the primary grades, students begin to self-identify with their status relative to their classmates' and to know what they are good at and what challenges them. I frequently allude to the powerful positive expectations that most children have when they enter kindergarten. They are excited to learn, to be with peers, and to enjoy some independent adventures in the exciting grownup world of school.
During this critical time, teachers can use brain research—based strategies to keep students' brains open, stimulated, and motivated. Positive teacher intervention during these early elementary years will reduce the stress, frustration, anxiety, and disappointment that can close the doors of LD students' affective filters and inhibit learning. However, from the start of the first school year, LD students need special attention, or they risk losing their joy, motivation, and confidence Kohn, Young children have limited coping skills. Without appropriate teacher intervention, LD students will soon feel the anxiety of not being as successful or efficient as their classmates.
In addition, parents don't usually suspect a learning disability this early, so they think their child just isn't trying hard enough, or that the school or the teacher is the problem Raskind et al. During the intermediate grades, peer pressure becomes more intense, and parents may still not have a clear understanding of their children's struggles. Students not yet evaluated as LD may not be receiving the interventions they need. To keep confusion and frustration from limiting school success and motivation in LD students, this is the time to help them identify their learning strengths through direct and specific praise.
This modeling and feedback demonstrates to LD students and their peers that all students are unique. They will realize that students who have problems in reading circle may make valuable contributions to cooperative response-to-reading projects that welcome multiple learning styles. By the time they reach the intermediate years, students are not fooled by homogeneous reading or math groups designated by color, shape, or animal name. If community-building strategies have been set in place, students will recognize that some classmates need specific strategies to help them in certain subjects and that other gifted classmates are given opportunities to do advanced work.
Students in a positive classroom community will see the benefit of working toward reachable yet challenging personalized goals, and they will experience the rewards of mutual support. What they won't respect or tolerate is dishonesty, so being forthright is key to their success and resilience. Fourth, 5th, and 6th graders are ready to discover and use the strategies that promote their success. They are willing to work toward their goals such as behaving appropriately in class and completing homework before watching television when they feel that they have been treated as partners in working out their individualized plans and recognized for their positive efforts toward achieving them.
Students will also work hard when teachers incorporate choice and learning style preferences into their instruction. Most students in these grades, along with their parents, are capable of understanding that specific learning difficulties do not correlate with general lack of intelligence or ability. A student who is limited by short stature and a lack of upper-body strength in basketball may be the most agile soccer player or a whiz at creating computer graphics for group projects.
If students with learning differences have not been brought into the class and school community or developed social and academic coping strategies by middle school, they will be particularly vulnerable to the loneliness and isolation that can mark this developmental period. During the tumultuous changes of adolescence, students without peer support may be overwhelmed by memories of earlier school frustrations and embarrassments. If they don't have the social skills to gain the support of a peer group, they can fall farther behind in all areas of their lives.
In an article on resilience and hope theory, special education expert Malka Margalit observed LD students who were less likely to view themselves as lonely or socially distressed than were their non-LD peers. These students had age-appropriate social skills and what Margalit called a strong sense of coherence: they viewed the world both within and outside themselves as ordered and predictable because their strong repertoire of social strategies led to positive social interactions. From classroom interactions and cooperative activities, these resilient students had learned about their classmates and were able to recognize those with similar interests or complementary talents.
Welcome to Mirth and Motivation!
By nurturing friendships in an inclusion classroom, students develop attitudes that do more than just protect them from isolation and low motivation. The confidence built through collaborative partnerships in middle school helps all students develop empathy and problem-solving experience. This is the time when students must realize that passively observing bullying or social exclusion makes them part of the problem. Proactive educators promote discussion through video presentations, guest speakers, or life-skills class discussions on such topics as bullying and cliques.
Teachers can implement several successful interventions to empower middle school students who have not gained the resilience and skills to form positive relationships with peers. Interest discovery. Interest inventories and direct questioning may not be as fruitful with middle school students as they are with younger students, who are more apt to confide in teachers, but anything teachers find out about students' interests can serve to prompt friendships and connect them to academic work.
Students as resources.
More Inclusion for More Students
The class inventory of students' talents and interests comes in handy here. The list can connect LD students with academic partners who seek them out for their artistic, dramatic, computer, musical, or interpersonal skills. Through these experiences, the LD students gain confidence and class acceptance of their strengths, and gifted students feel appreciated for their intelligence rather than isolated or envied for it. By carefully planning partnerships and cooperative groups, teachers can ensure that excluded students receive opportunities to offer input that their group partners will acknowledge and appreciate.
It is not unusual during the middle school years for a single peer connection to bring an excluded student into a larger social and academic support group. This powerful activity has students reenact scenarios of bullying or social exclusion after viewing a film on the topic. By performing these over-the-top exaggerations, the perpetrators might recognize some of their own behaviors. If the class community is one that honors respect and tolerance, that self-recognition can motivate students to adopt more inclusive behaviors.
Post-film discussions can also enlighten more withdrawn students about how they may be perpetuating their learned helplessness or playing into the victim role. Role-playing activities in which each student portrays both the socially and academically dominant role and the excluded role are also powerful opportunities for enlightenment. Here's one example of a role-playing scenario: You are selected to be captain of one of the class basketball or kickball teams and are selecting players for your team.
You know Bonnie is always picked last, and you are wise enough to know that her feelings are hurt. You recall how she shared her lunch with you when you forgot yours, and you also care about your class community. Some of the kids you already picked for the team are pointing to the more athletic students waiting to be chosen, and one points at Bonnie and laughs. What will you do? Even if this exact situation does not really play out on the field, most students participating in this role-play will feel the social consciousness to make the right choice. Sometimes just practicing this role-play and having their decision acknowledged and sincerely praised by a teacher will promote similar behavior when the real situation comes up.
Hopefully, by the time students at the extremes of the social and academic spectrums reach high school, they have had teachers who challenged them to reach their highest potential, helped them build confidence, and showed them that individuality is more empowering than trying to fit in.
If LD students entering high school have never had that support, they will be unprepared for the stress of joining inclusion classes, where they will see classmates confidently participate in discussions, focus on their work, receive higher grades, and be sought after as project partners. They are unlikely to have the strategies and resilience to avoid feeling inadequate and self-conscious in their new classes. At this stage, it is much more challenging for teachers to help them, but also more important.
If these students are unable to make social connections or gain confidence, they may drop out, self-medicate, or lose any possibility of believing that it is worth their effort to try. Without attuned teachers, individualized strategies, and supportive class communities, these students may come to believe that acting out in class or dropping out of school is preferable to academic embarrassment and social rejection.
Before information can reach the relational, patterning, and memory storage areas of the brain, it must pass through the reticular activating system RAS. The RAS filters all incoming stimuli and decides which data a person attends to or ignores. The most powerful stimulus for the RAS is physical need; the brain will not be able to engage in the task of learning unless basic survival needs are first met.
If students associate their classrooms with a visceral sense of fear, the RAS will filter out all but life-sustaining sensory information. When we take into account the information-blocking potential of both the RAS and the affective filter in the amygdala, it becomes clear how important it is for teachers to create environments low in destructive anxiety and high in appropriate challenge Introini-Collison et al.
Several indicators can clue teachers in to excessive student stress. For example, students may broadcast the stress of confusion by looking bored or acting out. Low participation, as demonstrated by a sudden drop in the usual number of questions or comments during a difficult lesson, can also signal confusion and anxiety. When students stop asking questions—especially LD students who often do ask them—teachers should consider the need for assessment. It's important to make sure that students are not emotionally and intellectually dropping out of a lesson because they don't have the foundation to keep up.
When it's not feasible to interrupt the lesson's flow by working with the students who are not keeping up, the teacher can offer a few words of assurance that he or she will work with the students individually as soon as there is a break. That reassurance will help students at least remain passively receptive to some of the sensory input of the lesson, rather than shutting down the information flow at the affective filter. Teachers need to tell students that they should try not to worry about what they don't understand and just absorb what they can.
This message will be most reassuring if teachers always follow through with their promise to meet with these students as soon as the others are doing independent work. Once students see that their teachers are reliable in meeting their needs, they will lower their affective filters, even when confused, and absorb some of the data as they listen. It may not be active learning, but comfortable passive listening does build familiarity and keep motivation up.
When teachers teach in a patient, positive manner and offer clear explanations and frequent, varied forms of repetition, students will gain confidence in their abilities to understand even the lessons that seem confusing at first. When stress is getting high from a lesson that is overly abstract, not relevant to students' lives, or too simplistic, the teacher should make the lesson more personally interesting.
Neuroimaging research has demonstrated that pleasurably challenging lessons moderately stimulate the amygdala's metabolism and thus facilitate the brain's processing of information Introini-Collison et al. Lessons and activities that arouse the brain's search for meaning will penetrate the RAS and reach the higher cognitive centers because of humans' natural survival instinct—the need to understand their environment and make meaning of what they see, hear, smell, and touch.
Connecting the lesson to students' lives and interests therefore reduces stress and increases motivation Kumar, Teachers can try the following stress-reducing strategies. Bring lessons to life. The Internet is a great resource for finding strategies to bring fact-heavy, cold-data lessons to life. Sample lesson plans from other teachers abound, and even state Web sites listing standards often provide sources for student activities and links to information databases. Give students a three-minute vacation.
Teachers should occasionally give students a break by relating a personal anecdote, asking about films that students have recently seen, or telling a joke. A brief mental vacation takes the RAS out of its basic survival response to stress, allows the amygdala to cool down, and provides time for neurotransmitter supplies to rebuild. Reward students' efforts. When a lesson is heavy on dry facts and memorization, teachers can offer an authentic reward for students' mental efforts, such as letting them participate in a stimulating experiment, watch a film version of the book they've been assigned, or use geometry to calculate the height of buildings outside.
The anticipation of an engaging activity will increase students' receptiveness to the lessons Wiersma, As an added bonus, students' enjoyment of the associated activity will ensure that the information they learned will have more relational connections neuronal links to hold it in long-term memory storage. To motivate students to put effort into homework, teachers should consider planning homework that is clearly connected to the class activities, enabling students to see its importance and motivating them to complete it so that they can participate fully in the follow-up activity.
For example, if the assignment is to read a chapter in their social studies book, the teacher can give a short quiz of fairly simple questions directly related to the reading so that LD students who completed the assignment won't miss out due to lower reading comprehension. Students who score high enough to demonstrate that they completed their reading will get to perform group skits reenacting the events in the reading, while the students who did not do their homework sit quietly and read. When students realize that their homework is relevant and not just busywork, they will be more motivated to complete it with appropriate focus.
In subsequent chapters, I provide strategies for making assessments positive learning experiences. At this point, I offer a few suggestions for reducing the stress that often accompanies formalized, especially standardized, test taking. Students in inclusion classrooms will already have an advantage because they have learned according to their individual intelligences, interests, and learning styles.
So one of the best things teachers can do is remind them about how prepared they are, pointing out the presentations or projects they made that demonstrated their strengths and having students take a few moments to recall and focus on these strengths. Teachers can also lead students through a body relaxation or breathing technique, which will help take students' reticular activating systems out of survival mode and reduce the blockade in the affective filter built by test anxiety.
- Chapter 1. Success for all Students in Inclusion Classes.
- Whats Your Magic Power? A résumé and personal branding workbook (The Get-Ahead Guide 2).
- Origine du nom de famille SAPIN (Oeuvres courtes) (French Edition)?
Teachers can take students' brains out of the fight-or-flight mode by reminding them that this test is just one assessment of their knowledge. Putting the test in perspective will free students to do their best and not be frozen by anxiety. This reminder will prevent students from becoming fixated on what they don't know and thereby block neuronal access to what they do know. Teachers are experiencing increased pressure from parents to keep up with the influx of information on how the brain learns.
Parents read about new brain research—based strategies in parenting books and magazines and naturally want to know if their children's teachers are using them in class.
Parents of children with learning differences in particular don't hesitate to express their expectations that their children's teachers be at the forefront of strategic teaching. Rightfully so. Whatever happens to my child is all in your hands, because you are the expert.
- Pathway To Glory.
- The Blue: Teil III (German Edition).
- Lawless: Sexy Small Town Romance (Aspen Series Book 2)!
- H2o Dreams Adding Talent and Motivation to the Team.
- Free to Fight Again: RAF Escapes and Evasions 1940-1945.
- Girls On The Run News Updates | irivimafov.tk.
I'm just the parent. Here are some ways in which teachers can include parents in their children's education. Contact parents. Teachers can help parents understand and appreciate their children's learning styles by sharing good news about their children, such as personality traits or behaviors that contribute positively to the class. This contact will increase parental support, because parents will trust teachers to recognize their children's positive attributes.
Teachers should also assure parents of gifted students that their children's gifts will be nurtured—through independent projects with outside consultants or special conceptual math projects, for example. Give homework advice. Teachers should guide parents on how to help their children with homework, individualizing their recommendations according to students' learning styles. It's also helpful to provide information on brain research—based learning that supports their suggestions and instructional strategies. For example, parents may be skeptical of a teacher's suggestion that music can help their child focus.
In ADSN organized the same programme. It has more teams and one of the teams is challenging India. Its main aim is to teach life skill to government school students through sports activities. These life skills are. Challenge India session katpadi Government Boys Hr. It has more teams and one of the teams is challenge India. Whatever heights I reach, the credits go to Audacious Dreams Foundation-ADF,India I never dreamed whom I am today, but inspirations, encouragements, recognition of Audacious Dreams foundation uplifted my future in Social work and youth work.
Where ever I shine, I'll remember the guidance and love you showed always. As a first time tourist to the south India, without being able to speak Tamil, I felt extremely safe at all times and was able to communicate well in English. My host Dinesh Gajendran and his family were extremely generous and welcoming. Overall, I have made lifelong contacts and have gained valuable experiences that have motivated me to spread the message of Audacious Dreams Foundation as an ambassador in England.
Dinesh Gajendran, Our Catalyst and Executive Director has been Recognised as a Commonwealth Champion who contributes to creating a commonwealth that is mutually respectful, resilient, peaceful and prosperous and that cherishes quality, diversity and shared values. The Commonwealth Youth Worker Awards recognise youth workers who are instrumental to the positive development of young people.
- The Little Dream.
- Related posts?
- Mission Statement!
- Audacious Dreams Foundation Volunteer Opportunities - VolunteerMatch.
- The Land Beyond the Blow (After the method of Swift, who followed Lucian, and was himself followed by Voltaire and many others).
Youth workers can be found in a broad range of civil society and voluntary organisations as well as government ministries and youth departments. Karmaveer Chakra Award and Rex Global fellowship These awards were instituted with a simple passion mantra — to recognize real life unsung heroes. India Srilanka Friendship Award Finalist- Manhattan International Film Fest Previous films recognized by the festival have examined themes relating to family, community, suffering, empathy, the pursuit of happiness, truth, and the transcendent.
Beyond Boundaries also screened in many prestigious events including. Creative media are such a powerful approach to this dialogue because, fundamentally, they appeal to a sense of shared human experience and common goals. Global Youth Ambassador- A world at school The A World at School Global Youth Ambassadors are a network of young people advocating and campaigning for education change around the world. This award has been presented by R.