Know elements contain the same number of electrons as protons. There is an exception if they're ionized. Protons have a positive charge, and electrons have a negative charge. However, an atom can lose or gain electrons, which makes it ionized. If it has more electrons, the ion is negative, which is indicated with a negative symbol. You will not see a plus or minus symbol if the element is not an ion.
Find the atomic weight. The atomic weight usually appears at the bottom of the box, below the element symbol. The atomic weight represents the combined weight of the particles in the nucleus, which includes protons and neutrons. However, ions complicate the calculation, so the atomic weight represents an average of the atomic mass of the element and the atomic mass of its ions. Although it may appear as though the atomic weight increases in number from top left to bottom right, this is not true in all cases.
You can find the mass number by rounding the atomic mass to the nearest whole number. This accounts for the fact that the atomic weight is an average of all possible atomic masses for that element, including ions.
Periodic Table of Elements
Similarly, the weight of Iron is Subtract the atomic number from the mass number to find the neutrons. The mass number is calculated by adding together the number of protons and neutrons. This allows you to easily find the number of neutrons in an atom by subtracting the number or protons from the mass number!
Bess Ruff. Shamitha Kuppala.
Why do some elements have 3 letters for their atomic symbols? Include your email address to get a message when this question is answered. Tips Edit Reading the periodic table is hard for many people! Some periodic tables may simplify the information.
For example, they may provide just the symbol and atomic number. Look for a table that meets your needs. Related wikiHows Edit. This article was co-authored by Bess Ruff. Co-authors: Updated: March 29, Categories: Periodic Table. Article Summary To read the periodic table, start at the top left with the elements with the lowest atomic numbers, which tells you how many protons each atom has.
Italiano: Leggere la Tavola Periodica. Deutsch: Das Periodensystem lesen. Bahasa Indonesia: Membaca Tabel Periodik. Nederlands: Het periodiek systeem van de elementen begrijpen. More References. ST Sloan Thomas Apr The author, Bess Ruff, clearly went above and beyond. I learned a lot from this article. Thanks for writing it, Bess! RJ Rosy Jacobs Apr 23, I needed to know how and you helped me a great deal. I studied accounting at high school and not science. SJ Suvarna Jha Apr 24, HT Harpo Tobiichi Oct 10, CB Caleb Bohn Apr 12, AI Aryan Ishu Mar 17, LR Luis Ramirez Dec 15, More reader stories All reader stories Hide reader stories.
Did this article help you? Translation, as we know, allows for such adjustments.
Chemistry permits, in the Table, a reflection on subject and form. Though it is as old as thought itself, this reflection here extends to new objects. The relationship between literary material and form is questioned: how does form shape experience, how does experience seek its form? If on the macro level form is metaphorized by the very notion of the system, universal container, and matter by the elements, on the micro level we encounter it through representations of recipients that must contain and limit the shapeless matter and, conversely, of building materials that must yield to a certain form.
Nei periodi in cui le ordinazioni erano molte, bisognava mobilitare i recipienti di complemento, di cui del resto la casa di Emilio era ricca: una zuppiera, una pentola Regina di ferro smaltato, un lampadario stile Novecento e un vaso da notte. Since the crystallization was slow, it required many receptacles, and since hydrochloric acid corrodes all metals, these receptacles had to be glass or ceramic. That discarnate form of the future, pure energy, can be interpreted as a metaphor for the form that, both invisible and infinitely resistant, shapes literary matter.
This reminds us how the prisoner makes choices among the products he plans to steal, according to their solid form. His position is that of a mason who agrees to use uneven, polyhedral or prismatic bricks mixed in with the regular ones. You have the bricks molecules , and then you need to find the right combination, the points of equilibrium and resistance, the play of forces and the supports to erect your building.
If you find them, the house gets built and is solid, the product is designed and can be produced. He was clearly interested then in the process by which new literary codes emerge.
Danis Michaud, Auteur à Classe de 8e année du CAHM
The relationship between the fragment and the whole is resolved here through both metaphor and metonymy: the scientific model to which this mosaic refers includes it in a representation of the totality. The narrated episodes describe by default a whole of which they are the visible part.
At stake for Levi is not only a mastery of nature, but equally that of his own biography, which is drawn in dotted lines through the stories of his ancestors and a few sequences about childhood, progressing through episodes related to the rise of fascism, his experiences in the resistance and the camp, and ending post-camp.
The empty space is therefore captured and made legible. The Table justifies and reduces the unsaid and the gaps: it ensures that nothing can be lost. Its elements, and the episodes associated with them, reveal a memory that has fully retained the experience of the camp. Levi depicts a man endowed with total memory, who remembers everything that has happened on Earth from well before his birth.
He recounts his origins, as Calvino did in Le Cosmocomiche , from the appearance of life on Earth to the beginnings of the human adventure. But the character, as the title indicates, invents and creates himself, adapting to evolution, moulding his own body according to changes in the environment, and organising the history of life as he pleases through his journal.
The intertextual maze demonstrates that total memory is used for the benefit of self-creation. It is a question, through this method of gathering experiences under the collective label, of building for himself an identity as a free man and not only as a prisoner, of plotting a continuity between the Levi of before imprisonment and the Levi of after. He also allows a glimpse of a complex generic unity among the various components of his work. He is a self-creator to the extent that he seeks to produce autonomous languages within the language, by systematizing disparate elements.
We will not dwell here on the place that scientific discourse, mobilized for that purpose, occupies in the demand for intelligibility that Levi constantly poses, that question having already been discussed extensively. The reference to a system emerges as an act of resistance, but not only to fascism. We may note that, while any system of classification encourages comparison with the alphabet, it proves effective here and led to a literary posterity.
I begin suspecting that behind the enormous machine of the universe, there might be a driver who controls its movements, maybe even built the machine itself. But rest assured, my suspicion does not effect my conviction that the driver, if he exists, is indifferent to the matters of mankind.
The world? What is the meaning of the world? Is there no manager? To whom shall I make my complaint?
I had a curious sensation: that there was a plot at my expense, that family and school kept something hidden from me, which I went looking for in the places that were reserved for me: for example, chemistry or also astronomy. I was substantially a romantic, and also in chemistry it was the romantic aspect that interested me. I hoped to go very far, to the point of possessing the universe, to understanding the why of things. Is the world ultimately as inexplicable as the camp?
It is, moreover, certain that his very survival was due in part to his ability to feel curiosity, and therefore to question the world around him: the aptitude to question is certainly one factor that made adaptation to the Lager possible. It might be surprising that in the Camps one of the most frequent states of mind was curiosity. And yet, besides being frightened, humiliated, and desperate, we were curious: hungry for bread and also to understand. The world around us was upside down and so somebody must have turned it upside down, and for that reason he himself must have been upside down: one, a thousand, a million antihuman beings created to twist that which was straight, to befoul that which was clean.
But this time, Levi gives free rein to his creative imagination. Of course he qualifies that mental operation as simplistic, 19 probably of the same nature as the one that makes it possible to postulate a cruel or absurd God:. And the hypothesis of a bad God repels me.
In fact it was Ferdinand Meyer, whom he found not through a chance incident at the chemical factory where he worked, but because he had sought to make contact with him by sending If This is a Man through the intermediary of Hety Schmitt-Mass.