Tubingen There one can find the references to older secondary literature. Paris ff. Against this strategy, La Croze set the rehabilitation of previously suppressed traditions of Christianity such as the Nestorians, and, as the living, and not philo- logically-falsifiable, evidence of the worth of this tradition, he cited the reports of missionaries of his day who described the remaining groups of these traditions, such as had been discovered in India. In my book on La Croze I examine this in greater detail.
Law and philosophy play only a secondary role in this model. Finally, we come to Isaac de Beausobre. The two gigantic volumes of the Histoire critique de Manichee et du Manicheisme only the first of the two was published during his lifetime were only the beginning; 18 the planned third volume was to have discussed the newer heretics who had been accused of being Manichean.
John Christian Laursen. Leiden , pp. As a response to the moral dilemma of theodicy, Bayle had brought the Manicheans into play: the existence of a principle of evil would exonerate God, and would not be rationally refutable.
Where did the roots of this dualism lie? Beausobre accused Bayle of having forgotten his own historical-critical principles in his Manichean sympathies and attempted to compensate for that failing. The result was the portrayal of a Zoroastrian kernel of Manicheism, which approached the ideal for a rational religion. Aspekte des intellektuellen und kirchlichen Lebens der ersten Generation des Berliner Refuge, in: Geschichte als Aufgabe. Festschrift fur Otto Busch, ed. Wilhelm Treue. Frankfurt und Leipzig ; Louis Maimbourg: Histoire du lutheranisme.
See Hartweg footnote Rotterdam , Art. Heterodoxie et rigorisme. Den Haag , pp. Zoroaster und die Europaische Religionsgeschichte der Friihen Neuzeit. This was exacdy in keeping with the Protestant ideal of a simple and moral Chritianity, such as was favored both by Beausobre and La Croze. The moral theme of evil that Bayle raised, is the starting point for Beausobre, but quickly makes way for a vision of a pure, non- Spinozistic primal religion.
I do not need to stress just how much I have already left out, such as the philosophical component of Carte- sianism. Unfortunately, we cannot go into all of this here. What do I mean by this? An unmade bed? A gaffe? A bunch of illegitimate children? In the intellectual sense, this is exactly what I mean. We shall begin with one case, where the relationship of such tilings with the large scholarly projects are obvious.
As Lenfant worked on his history of the Council of Constance, he stumbled across the figure of Poggio Bracciolini. Mulsow: Die drei Ringe footnote 12 , pp. Firenze In the Bibliotheque germanique, Lenfant had supplemented the Poggiana with a letter to his friend, La Croze, which makes clear how intensely this theme was debated from both sides. All his life, he had intended to write a book about Pietro Aretino, though he certainly never dared to carry it out. Nevertheless, it was rumored that he had a secret passion for pornographic texts.
Aretino, with his combination of anti-clericalism and libertine-obscene writing, presents a similar case to Poggio, with his combination of political interests, and utilization of such farces. Recanati: Osservazioni critiche ed apologetiche sopra il libro del Sig.
Jacobo Lenfant intitolato Poggiana. Venezia Obszonitat und die Urspriinge der Moderne, ed. Lynn Hunt. Frankfurt , pp. In fact, there existed a juridical mock-treatise from a certain Jacob Moller, who in had written two Discursus [. Finally, after Lenfant, La Croze, and Ancillon, yet a fourth case. Jacob Le Duchat was a scholar who specialized in literature, and who was not as prominent in the Refuge.
Conduct and Community in the Republic of Letters, New Haven Frankfurt ; New edition Berlin by Ancillon? The Ducatiana further the publications of Menage, de Thou, and Bayle: anecdotes on satirical and libertine writers, observations, and corrections. Le Duchat shows yet again how well this type of literature was known to certain circles within the Refuge. Now, what are we to conclude from all of this? This sphere, however, is not to be dismissed merely as possibly embarrassing compensational work, but rather, I think, it taps into the same source from which even the official projects sprung.
Le Duchat, recueilie par M. Burleske Kommentarparodien, Gegenkommentare und Libertinismus in der friihen Neuzeit. Forthcoming in: Der Kommentar in der Friihen Neuzeit, ed. Ralph Hafner and Markus Volkel. Distanz und Luge, in idem: Holzaugen. Uber Distanz und Nahe. Constellation analyses consist of reconstructing how persons of a network interact, with respect to their intellectual creativity. Helmut Zedelmaier and Martin Mulsow. Rotterdam , pp. I quote from the edition Leiden , vol.
A network of scholarly academic projects, and of people constantly exchanging information with each other, did not have only internal backsides, it also had external borders and gray areas. As marges , Jacques Derrida indicates that border zones, and, at the same time, discretionary spaces are that, which from philosophy is left as external extra muros, but at the same time defines that which is the internal.
Are there Freudian slips of suppressed ideas? Even when the majority of the Berlin Refuge was moderately orthodox—and indeed they showed this to be the case in their conflict with Barbeyrac—, there was, in their scholary work, as well as in their previously described inofficial backside, ample discretionary space for such slips of the pen. Indeed, these gray areas are both darker and harder to make out than the back sides. In contrast to the back sides, at stake in the borders were not only problematic issues of decorum, which were nontheless indifferent to dogmatics, but also core principles of the Calvinist world view.
Dogmatically marginalized were, most importantly, those notorious problematic points: Socinianism, Skepticism, and Spinozism. All of these aspects overlap each other, since dogmatic precariousness seldom emerges in the center, but rather on the social and geographical edges.
At this point, I can only make a few suggestions and toss out some ideas, which might be persued later. Mai Isreal: Radical Enlightenment. Philosophy and the Making of Modernity — Oxford Berlin , 2. Stuck, pp. The research on clandestine literature has shown us that the visions of the conservatives were not always completely wrong. I have spoken above of the effect of distanciation through the skeptical-libertine culture litteraire, which aimed, above all, at the question of decorum.
One merely needs to trace back the skeptical-libertine tradition, to names such as Menage and Gassendi. Then one stumbles on—though in French categories, mind you—a Wittenberg professor by the name of Georg Michael Heber. The last of these is the case of Symbolum spaientiae. Milano , pp.
Radikale Fruhaufklarung in Deutschland Hamburg , p. Feipzig und Halle ff. Christian Thomasius. Halle , pp. Justel was a Calvinist, a lawyer, and a historian, who in these years had formed a well-known circle around himself, which even Leibniz had frequented since David Ancillon, the father of Charles and, incidentally, minister at the Berlin Refuge at the end of his life, was at that time one of the best friends, and young adjutants of Justel.
Antipedantism, criticism of authority, and skepticism were evidendy those common ideals that had brought Heber into contact with the young Christian Thomasius, to whom in —3 he had sent the announcement for his juristic lectures under the programmatic title Scepticismus Juridicus Wittebergensis. Heber was interested in the hermeneutic problem of ambiguity 61 and uncer- 56 This time span can be infered from the fact that Heber was born in ; he probably began his peregrinatio academica around at the age of 25, after his university law studies, i.
Samhresco: Menage polemiste, philologue, poete. Actes du colloque de Caen nov. Suzanne Guellouz. Wittenberg However, Heber distanced himself from a radical epistemological skepticism in the style of the Jesuit Frangois Veron, and instead put forward the moderate skepticism of the Huguenot Jean Daille, who had emphasized, that logical conclusions are not the problem, but rather the choice of a starting point.
Charenton ; see Richard H. Berkeley , p. Prominent in this debate were e. Gassendus tradidit. Here we see a radically tinged convergence with the early- Enlightenment thinkers in Halle, which followed in the footsteps of the French libertine-skeptical tradition, and exactly because of this is perceptible through the lens of the Berlin Refuge. Daille was paradoxicae adversus Aristoteleos, Grenoble Den Haag ; Tullio Gregory: Scetticismo ed empirismo.
Studio su Gassendi. Bari ; Popkin footnote 63 , pp. Valentin Ernst Loscher: Praenotiones theolo- gicae. Illic omnem assensionem cohibeo, cum exploratum habeam, in Civilibus nihil pro aliqua sententia dici posse, cujus opposi- tum non speciosis rationibus defendi queat, cum earum ea indoles sit, ut claram distinctamque perceptionem, quae uniuscujusque intellectum constringat, non adniit- tat. As long as God analogous to guilt! One example is Konigswalde, where Samuel Crell looked after a small Socinian congregation.
Mathias Schmockel: Humanitat und Staatsraison. Koln Untersuchungen zur Metaphysik- und Religionskritik des Stuttgart , pp. Helmut Holzhey and Martin Fontius. Berlin ; Sandra Pott: Reformierte Morallehren footnote I cannot here explain what discretionary spaces emerged, but I can point to the keywords of Antitrinitarianism and Spinozism.
Martin Mulsow and Richard H. Popkin forthcoming. These questions were in his view more important than dogmatic ones, because he held that dogmatic questions should not be essential for the church historian. Winfried Schroder. La Croze, therefore, was no isolated case. For the religious dialogue of Tortosa see Kirche und Synagoge, ed. Karl Heinrich von Rengstorf and Siegfried von Kortzfleisch. Miinchen , vol. Oxford , p.
Desne, Brockmeier and Voss. Stuztgart , pp. Laursen footnote 3 , pp. Pocock: Barbarism and Religion. Cambridge , Introduction. I envision a future constellation analysis of the Berlin Refuge to work along these lines. However, the dispute is not the main reason why we remember Spanheim. In addition to his important publications, he is said to have founded the first numismatic society in London in With appendix: Aus deni Briefwechsel zwischen Spanheim und Leibniz. Berlin , and, ibid. Gunter Lottes.
Flowever, it is safe to say that the work of his grandfather, Daniel Tossanus made a deeper impression on him. Tossanus was a well- known reformed theologian, who taught in Fleidelberg. At first he studied in Fleidelberg, then in Geneva, where he received a professorship for philosophy in and later also for theology.
But in contrast to the resolutions passed in Dort, this resolution did not lead to an intra-denominational exclusion of the nova dogmata, nova vocabula and novas distinctions, when the argument culminated in Lipsiae Friedrich W. But God knows in advance, who will find the true faith. But he did not do it and did not want to do it, Amyraut said. That is why we have to ask a different question. Not only did this allow to reflect on questions of Christian ethics—Amyraut would do this in an extensive way in his unending work La Morale chretienne; this conception also offered the chance to create a union between Reformed Christians and the Lutherans, since, apart from the Christo- logical conception of the communicatio idiomatum and the doctrine on ubiquity and the presence of Christ at the Communion, it is just the very same strict conception of the predestination that seemed to be theologically unacceptable to the Lutherans.
The attacks on the new theology reached their climax when their members were accused of following Arminianism, i. In the language of that time this is equivalent to demanding a synod regulation. Cameron is one of the providers of new ideas for Amyraut and other French Reformed Christians. From the mid 17th century on it was assumed that Friedrich Spanheim himself had published this work. Also cf. Francois Faplanche: Orthodoxie et Predication.
Marburg , pp. But this does not exclude the weaker statement by Spanheim, who names Alexander Morus as the opponent. The theses of were aginst Morus, see Donald D. In the middle of the 17th century, Saumur became the symbol of this new theology with the help of Amyraut, Ludovicus Capellus Louis Cappelle, andjosua de la Place Placeus, The reformed orthodoxy considered this new theology a threat.
In this document, the first three canones are directed against Cappell, the fourth to the ninth and the thirteenth to the twenty-second against Amyraut, the tenth to the twelfth against La Place; but, in contrast to initial intentions, neither against Cocceian theology nor against Cartesian philosophy. But being the Rector of the University, he seemed to have Toronto , p. Laplanche and Swinne were apparently ignorant of these remarks by Spanheim. Amstelodami Pars prior. Salmvri ; pars secunda , pars tertia et ultima In effect, this collection aims at the substitution of die orthodox codihcation by Johannes Polyander , Andreas Rivetus , Antemius Walaeus and Antonius Thysius , which was published in the form of 50 disputations, the Synopsis puriores, in the year In , a virtual peace treaty could be concluded between philosophy and theology, mainly due to the intervention of Abraham Heidanus , an advocate of the theologia cartesiana.
This agreement set limits to philosophy in the field of the truths of the Revelations, but it tried to protect both sides with their individual rights. Heidanus said that theology was to be confined to the Holy Scriptures and had to be free of any philosophy, whereas philosophy was to deal with natural philosophical truths. Philosophy on the other hand was not Christian in so far as it did not base its claims of knowledge on the Holy Scriptures; but still it was able—following the Cartesian thinking—to prove the prerequisites of Christian theology, e.
At first glance, this separation into different sectors may have seemed quite elegant. With the party being deprived of its political rights in , the pressure of those against a theologia cartesiana grew. Friedrich Spanheim Jr was one of those who played a leading role 8 Cf. Lutz Damieberg: Schleiermacher und das Ende des Akkommodationsgedarikens in der hermeneutica sacra des Ulrich Barth und Claus-Dieter Osthovener. Berlin, New York , pp.
Heidanus: Oratio funebris on obitum reverendi celeberrimique theologi Friderici Spanhemii [.
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Lugduni Batavorum As early as it came to a row with Theodor Craanen — , who only shortly before was offered the chair in Philosophy. As a result, he was transferred to the Faculty of Medicine. There is, for example, not one single word about the conflicts with the Aristotelian idea of the forma substantialis. Therefore it seemed quite wise—as it was the case with Pierre Bayle and Gottfried Arnold— to refer to this quarrel by using the writings of Friedrich Spanheim and Antonius Hulsius, who were both doubtlessly biased.
The last of the 21 incriminating utterances— Philosophia scripturae sacrae interpres —expresses a point the first generation Cartesians were reproached of, but which only the second generation envisaged. Namely not just to reduce the Holy Scriptures into its component parts, but to view it in its entirety. And this topic was the title of a writing that was considered—also by the early Cartesians—to be at 10 Cf. Hulsius: Authentia Absoluta S. Viri Isaaci Vossii [ Roterodami Molhysen: Bronnen tot de Geschiedenis der leidsche Universiteits. Deel, The Hague , pp.
Kant would take this idea up more than a hundred years later. Shortly before that, Johann Salomo Semler — had published the text by Lodewijk Meyer , still maintaining his anonymity, and had doubled its size by adding scholarly annotations. But now the interpreting force of these writings was no longer the Cartesian, but the Practical Reason of the interpretatio authentica of the Holy Scriptures.
This idea was merely acceptable to all religious and non-religious texts. But it was well known, that as a theologian you were not looking for shelter among the classical philologists or the philosophers. He was born in Geneva in His mother and grandmother were of French origin and thus French was probably more to him than just a lingua franca , 13 At the age of 13 he enrolled at the University of Feiden, following his father. Fotis Jannides et al. Berlin, New York A century later still, Johann Christoph Gottsched enrolled at the age of The same was true for the even more outstanding Johann Heinrich Dauber — On receiving his degree in his eleventh year, i.
On the top of that, he had knowledge of the Syriac, Chaldean and Arabic languages. The fact that Ezechiel was so young when he enrolled was on the one hand a sign of a certain intellectual precocity, but it also gave proof to the commitment of his father, especially in the field of the knowledge of foreign languages, but not really of anything else.
Of course such a subject could in those days only be a highly controversial subject if it contained theological aspects. At the age of 21, Ezechiel received a chair of Eloquence at the University of Geneva—which by then had had its day, to be sure—where stayed to teach for five years. This was the last time he worked at a university. In he was the educator for the electoral prince at the Court of Heidelberg. There he met his younger brother, who helped rebuild the ailing university. Since at that time there was no real civil service to speak of, Spanheim could fulfil various diplomatic missions and serve several masters.
The two of them were friends with Roger Aschams , who registered at the age of 14 or With respect to the classes of the Preparatory Academy for Artists, early enrolments of that kind were apparently not that unusual. Classes here were similar to the first three years at university, but they did not have the right to award doctorate degrees.
There does not seem to be a reason to doubt of either of these faculties. For reasons that we cannot trace back anymore, he went to Italy in The weekly meeting of scholars may have become a role model for the Spanheim conferences of later times. Above all, one intellectual passion was fostered in this time: the numerous numismatic collections offer the empiric foundation for his main work on this subject: Dissertationes de praestantia et usu numismaticum antiquorum , which was published in Rome in , edited various times thereafter and in completed by writings found in his intellectual inheritance.
The ideas of the Jesuit Jean Hardouin — —a remarkable scholar, the contentious chro- nologist, professor of theology and librarian of the Jesuit College Louis-le-Grand—were notorious. Hardouin took upon himself the charge of refuting modem atheists, among whom he counted Descartes, Malebranche and Arnauld. He said that years earlier in France, a syndicate of frauds had counterfeited almost all Greek and Latin authors and he held that not only was all the Patristic literature fraudlent, but that it and the monuments of Church History were all forged by monks.
In quae edi- tae antea Dissertationes recensentor, mutisque accessionibus locupletantur [ Tomus primus. Londini This work contained the original nine dissertations which had been previously published in two volumes. Amstelaedami Spanheim: Vsu Numismatum antiquorum, Diss. II, pp. On the basis of the coins found, he started the Chronologiae ex nummis antiques restitutae at the end of the 17th century. It seems as if large parts of his inheritance were lost.
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We can assume that his biographer were right in saying that the very close contact with the Roman Church did not influence his protestant convictions. After this comparatively tranquil period, a political mission and family affairs brought him to England in By the end of the year he was back in England. Simon: Lettre choisies [ Hardouin, qui est de mes amis, et qui est fort obligenat. Qvam [.
Alphonsus Turretinus [ Dissertation, University of Wisconsin-Madison He stayed there for nine years, except for occasional interruptions. This time came to an end with the death of the Great Elector and a changed world. The most important event during his stay, though, was the abolition of the Edict of Nantes. As late as , he was committed to help his brothers in faith in Paris.
This led to various diplomatic complications, and obviously he was succeeded in making public the Brandenburg reaction, i. Agreeing to a request to document his knowledge of the Court of Paris —Relation de la corn de France —created a historical source, which provided him with late honours in French historiography. Between the years and he stayed in Berlin.
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I cannot go into detail about his numerous activities in this context, as far as they are still tangible today. It would be an exciting task to decipher the very rare hints that he gave us. Except for Spanheim, no other participant was mentioned so often.
Stefan Lorenz: Ezechiel Spanheim footnote 2. Emil Schmiele, Berlin , pp. One year before his attendances at the Spanheim conference, theologians sternly reprimanded him for this stance. Full of despair, he turned to Philipp Jakob Spener in Berlin. This Codex also played a role in the arguments between Spanheim and Simon. Grabe became a member of the Anglican Church and kept conducting correspondence with Jablonski, who obviously considered the Anglican Church to be a model for that in Brandenburg.
Grabe: De Forma consecrationis eucharisticae, s. With an scholarly severity, Grabe e. Whiston considered this to be the central early-Christian text that was handed down directly by Jesus. London , III, 14— Grabe: [Vetus Testamentum iuxta Seputuaginta interpretes], quod ex antiquissimo Mss. Codice Alexandrino accurate descriptos [ Oxonii ; cf. Spanheim: Lettre footnote 17 , pp.
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After a short mission in Paris, he had been working for the English Court since There he spent the rest of his life until his death in , and the funeral took place in a chapel of Westminster Abbey, just the way he had wanted. But except for his correspondence e. I call those philologists saniores, who have sana philologica, who warrant and promote the safety of the Holy Scriptures. I will not go into this, however—, pp. Ernst Friedrich Neubauer.
Giessen , lib. I, cap. Buxtorfii, de eodem argumento, Dissertationi [. The criticism now was a radical one about the dignity of the Hebrew version of the Old Testament. Also, it was about the acceptance of the Samaritan Pentateuch by Jean Morin , who had converted to Catholicism.
This also led to a high esteem of the tradition of the Septuagint. Lvgdvni Batavorvm Buxtorf: Dissertationes [ Spanheim: Lettre footnote 17 , p. Of course, very revealing was the fact that such an analysis could be used in different ways. Parisiis Parisiis , Ex. VI, pp. Simon , Reponse footnote 26 , p. Just shortly thereafter, Simon published a number of letters that mainly dealt with the problems of the Samaritan Pentateuch.
Furthermore a biography of Morin was included in this work, in which he himself made a stand, cf. Simon : Anitquitates Ecclesiae orientalis [ Quibus praefixa est Jo. Morini [. Kritische Gesamtausgabe, Weimar , pp. Weimar , p. Recentiores vero Hebraeos, qui iudicium de vero sensu et intellectu linguae sibi sumunt, qui tamen non amici, sed hostes scripturae sunt, non recipio. Ideo saepe contra puncta prononcui, nisi congruat prior sentencia cum novo testamento, ex punctis enim nihil aliud relin- quitur, quam merae divinationes: [.
Flacius realised that here was the reason for the ability to create doubts in the ambiguity of the text and in the following insecurity of its interpretation. From a Protestant point of view, the certidudo of the interpretation was necessarily connected with the the unitas sen- sus. The decisive point in this matter was the connection which the Protestants assumed to exist between the theological proof-theory probatio theologica and hermeneutics , hermeneutica sacra. This served as an explanation to the question why they were at least until the middle of the 18th century so hesitant to accept these findings.
Due to the weaker connection between their doctrine concerning proofs and hermeneutics, Catholic scholars experienced far less problems in this area. Leiden, New York, Copenhagen, Cologne , pp. Ghalfont St Giles , ed. Jordanova and Roy Porter, pp. Basilae , Tract. Neque enirn ullo modo credendum, Spiritum sanctum docendi magistrum omnium optimum tarn obscure ac omnino certitudine omni carente, sicut daemonum orac- ula olim fecerunt, ratione coelestem doctrinam tradere voluisse. Even though anonymously, Simon blew his own trumpet, stating that this was one of the best passages in his work.
Without going into detail, we can say that this self-praise was quite justified.
Simon determined the authenticite of his text in the view of the proof-theory which originated in theological claims of knowledge, i. The question of authenticity can then be connected to the theory of the testimony, i. On the other hand, the origin was not a question of the probatio theologica, but of the hermeneutica , i. This preserved the authority 2 as being the origin of the Holy Scriptures, of the autographa and with that of the Hebrew text the veritas hebraica , as far as the Old Testament is concerned. It is the problem of how one argued philologically about a question for which one used complex connections of historic testimonies with general theological ideas in order to find an answer.
The author of the writing was detected very soon, although Cappell admitted his authorship of this work only after quite a long time. He used methods of contemporary logics to classify and emphasise the well-known arguments. I will simplify: At first he recognised that the arguments for or against the age of the punctuation belonged to the doctrine of the Loci of the probable estimations. Simon : Reponse footnote 26 , p. The non-proficient arguments were those of a testimonial character, i.
The proficient arguments, on the other side were grammatica, historica and theologica. He evaluated both kinds of arguments. The argumentum ab auctoritate , i. Lugduni Batavorum , lib. II, cap. Et authoritate quidem Iudaeorum, maxime vero recentiorum, adeoque hodiernorum. Amstelodami , pp. This reactions were published after his death. Saumur , p. Danneberg: Sakualarisierung, epistemische Situation und Autoritat, in: Zwischen christlicher Apologetik und methodologischem Atheismus, ed.
Berlin, New York , chap. Ac non raro contingit, ut hoc posterius testimony genius priore illo non sit minus certum, aut validum. These ideas already pardy formulated the distinction of philological and theological arguments, particularly as far as the tradition of the works is concerned. The hierarchy in this matter was clear, although he formulated it by means of a comparison. These two publishers were not truthful to the original text; they altered several passages, and were therefore severely reprimanded by the author.
But the passages that are important to me were not altered. In the second book, he focused on a comparison between the quotations of the Old Testament in the New Testament. Eheleute sollten darauf achten, dass sie. Hausmutter bezogen. Kinder zu zeugen und aufzuziehen, war ihre ureigenste Bestimmung. Psalms durch Martin Luther eng aufeinander bezogen. Die gegenseitige Hilfe erhielt Liebe und Einigkeit unter den Menschen. In diesen Bereichen waren auch die Obrigkeiten verpflichtet,. Kinder machten die Ehe zum Haus, sie sicherten langfristig die Altersversorgung und das Erbe.
Die Konfessionen unterschieden sich darin in ihren Aussagen nicht wesentlich. Aus dieser Gerichtssituation heraus wurde der Tod auf das christliche Leben hin orientiert, wie die katholische Leichenpredigt zeigt. Sabine Holtz. Schrifft Alten und Neuen Testamentes […]. Teil Leipzig Gelumbeckaite, Jolanta Bearb. Hochstetter, Andreas Adam: […] Der H. Schrifft Doctoris und Profess. Luther, Martin: Kirchenpostille , in: D. Luther, Martin: Hauspostille , in: D. Reyscher, August Ludwig Hg. Verzeichnis der im deutschen Sprachraum erschienenen Drucke des Welzig, Werner Hg.
Backmund, Norbert: Art. Bautz, Friedrich Wilhelm: Art. Jahrhundert, in: Vestigia Bibliae 3 , S. Jahrhundert, in: Rudolf Lenz Hg. Ehmer, Hermann: Art. A few scuffs and chips in leather at front board and base edge of rear board. Top compartment and bottom with evidence of removed labels, possibly private library as there are no library markings or stamps within or throughout this book. Paste-down papers with small book and name plates, with names inked out in black and red.
Printed in double columns. Text clean and bright throughout. Overall a rather good tight copy. Hinges are strong, binding tight. Text in Spanish. Second Edition. Hard Cover. Very Good. It is now in the National Gallery, London. The composition illustrates, in a very imaginative way, a parable related in the Gospel of Luke: a rich man, dying, sees a beggar named Lazarus ascending to Heaven as he is dragged toward Hell.
In this image, we don't see Lazarus, but there is a very memorable representation of the rich man, which is far from unsympathetic. David Teniers the Younger was the last of the great Flemish masters. The son of a painter, he was married to Pieter Bruegel's granddaughter, and clearly was influenced by the great Flemish master. Like Bruegel, his work was enriched by the study of demonic creatures in Hieronymous Bosch d. The original painting is in the National Gallery, London. Interestingly, Teniers did a mate to this painting which shows Mad Meg a Flemish folk figure marching out of Hell with a sword in one hand and a basket of loot in the other, a striking and humorous contrast to the poor "rich" man.
Richard Earlom - was one of the best mezzotint engravers in England. His reputation rests primarily on the renditions of Old Master paintings, like this one, that he did for the Boydells. His mastery of tone and light has never been exceeded and is beautifully exemplified in this proof pull.
Earlom has altered Teniers original, adding Cerberus on the left mixing mythologies in effect and intensifying the demonic hilarity. Proof before letters. Not in Wessely. Von einem Frauenzimmer. Mit 24 ausgemalten Desseins. Hier liegen die ersten 3 Teile mit je eigenem Titelblatt und je 6 Tafeln vor.
Insgesamt erschienen vier Teile. Octavo, [ii], pp. Science in the wake of Pacific exploration. Curious and eclectic collection of essays on geography, astronomy, and recent voyage discoveries. Belair blends astronomy, discoveries and other scientific observations with excerpts from Voltaire and other poets.
The author, Pierre-Alexandre Julienne de Belair, was born in Paris in and rose to become a general during the defence of Paris against the Prussians in Collation : 4 , VI, 58 pp. En feuilles. Exemplaire en feuilles, tel que paru. Nissen ZBI. Galabin, Octavo, 76 pp. English lessons for Omai. Very rare English grammar which records the unique method used to teach English to Omai. While Joseph Banks was happy to have Omai tour the celebrity circuit, other, more devout souls recognised his potential to spread the gospel in the Pacific and made particular efforts to improve his religious instruction at the same time as his elocution.
He made such progress in the use of letters, that on his voyage to the South Seas, while staying at the Cape of Good Hope, he wrote a letter to his friend Dr. The method he employed, published here as An English alphabet: for the use of foreigners, was based on his earlier work, A Short treatise on the English tongue, of Just over a decade after Omai returned to Huahine with Cook, Sharp published An English alphabet, probably in anticipation of a need for such a work in the spread of the gospel in the South Seas. In any case, it must have been produced in very small numbers, as today it is very scarce indeed.
Große Pomrische Kirchen Chronicon by Daniel Cramer - AbeBooks
Alston VI, adds a copy at Heidelberg University. A single copy passed through our hands six years ago. To which are added Notes Historical. London, G. Robinson, Extremities very lightly rubbed, tiny chip to head of spine on Volumes II and III, top corners slightly worn, small label of Easton Neston private library and armorial bookplate of Sir Thomas Hesketh former owner of Easton Neston on front pastedowns, occasional very slight pale foxing, a little neat underlining and some neat vertical lines in the margin, a few pointing hands, old ink note to 12 margins, neat ink correction to 1 page, small closed tear to 1 margin affecting 2 letters, repaired neatly with no loss, no ink marks or notes to Volume III except for 1 very small correction.
Bindings tight and firm. A very good set of a rare work. The observations and historical notes which follow 2 or 3 excerpts from these writers on 1 personage are by Holt. Primera Farmacopea denominada General editada en el mundo. La Obra contiene 2 tomos de texto y 1 tomo de Atlas con mas de grabados de plantas y animales. Coincidio varias veces con Johann Wolfgang Ghoethe. Ref 16 Biblioteca A. Paris, Prault, Contemporary marbled calf, spines richly gilt extremities damaged. With 2 engraved maps and 3 folding plates stained. The author's observations cover a wide range of topics concerning the geography, society, and history of the emerging United States, and include many references to events of the American Revolution' James Ford Bell Library p.
He travelled through the States of Virginia, Pennsylvania, Connecticut, Massachusetts, and New Hampshire, giving with great detail the incidents and impresssions of colonial life. Containing an account of the inhabitants, soil, animals, and other Productions of those Countries, and including a particular Description of Botany Bay.
London, John Fielding, in Pater-noster Row, According to Ferguson, Bibliography of Australia, Volume I, page 5, our pamphlet published by Fielding is the first edition, "second edition" being printed on the title page of the second edition, also published by Fielding. The edition published by John Stockdale is the third with the map printed by John Fielding bearing the same date as in the other editions "Novr.
Forster, and there attributed to "An Officer". Smith, No. Matthew William Peters, by one of the finest eighteenth century engravers. This charming print is engraved after a painting by Rev. Matthew William Peters, and is a fascinating example of this period in British printmaking.
Matthew Peters was trained in London under the portraitist Thomas Hudson. He quickly became a prominent member of the Society of Artists, exhibiting portraits in oil and pastel, and attracting a number of prominent aristocratic patrons, including the Duke of Manchester, the Marquess of Granby, and Lord Grosvenor, for whom he painted some of his most controversial pictures. Urged by his patrons, Peters painted a series of quasi-erotic character studies of courtesans, which at that time were quite unusual in Britain.
Following his ordination in , Peters quickly denounced his early erotic pictures as immoral. Upon being appointed Honorary Chaplain to the Royal Academy, Peters expressed a profound regret "that he ever devoted his talents to such subjects". With this in mind, this picture becomes extremely interesting.
In this work, Peters continues to observe and appreciate charming subjects in fancy costumes, but eliminates the erotic overtones present in his earlier works. Instead he has chosen to depict an age-old moral subject, fortune-telling, an institution in western art since the Renaissance. This print, which is expertly engraved by one of the finest eighteenth century printmakers, is a fascinating view into a turbulent period in Peters' life, when he struggled to produce images that would appeal to his viewers while remaining true to his moral beliefs.
Coloured mezzotint. In good condition with the exception of some faint soiling in upper margin. Bottom margin outside platemark is coated with white paint. Water stains on verso of sheet, not noticeable on front of sheet. Spilsbury, His Majesty? President of the Royal Society; and the other from a person residing at Isernia: to which is added, a discourse on the worship of Priapus, And its Connexion with the mystic Theology of the Ancients.