Reading Ellmann reading Joyce. European Joyce Studies 14 , pp. Domesticating the Other. James Joyce: Triestine Futurist? Joyce on National Deliverance. ISBN: 4. La sfida del cinema per i oder isti: l ese pio di Jo e i Oltre la pagina. Quel grande e originale narratore che fu Stelio Crise in Stelio Crise: Relazioni, Corrispondenze il bibliotecario, il critico, lo scrittore, ed. Globetrotter irlandesi: dal viaggio del non-ritor o al ritor o ell i agi ario ulturale e turistico i Fisonomia, fisiologia, psicologia del giramondo, eds.
Per Giorgio Melchiori, un anno dopo, ed. Trieste in James Joyce in Context, ed. I, eds. My words in her Mind. Giacomo of Trieste: James Joyce on the Adriatic. Gorizia: Laboratorio Europeo, , pp. Renzo S. The Music of Joyce, ed. ISBN: X. WVT Wissenschaftlicher Verlag, XX, no. X , pp. University Press of Florida, Figure 2.
Unemployment rates in Italy and German y. Young people did. In order to assess the labour market conditions of Italian youth, we will focus our attention on two groups of people. First, young people aged 20 to 24 years who hold an upper secondary or post-secondary but non-tertiary education diploma.
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Second, people aged 25 to 29 years holding a tertiary education degree. As we can see from Fig. Figure 3. Employment in Italy by age and educational attainmen t.
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Their employment rate lost more than 10 points as well, although it grew in In sum, we can say that the economic recession affected young graduates less than their younger brothers and sisters holding only a high school diploma, but more than the labour force as a whole.
Figure 4. We do not use Eurostat data but rely on national data collected by AlmaLaurea. Table 3. We consider employed graduates, people saying they have a paid job, excluding training activities such as internships, traineeships, and practicums, compared to their colleagues who are neither employed nor searching for a job mostly because they are still in education or training and to those who are not employed but are searching for a job. The percentage of employed first-cycle graduates dropped between and , and again between and , while the percentage of employed second-cycle graduates remained practically unchanged in the two periods under consideration.
Table 4. The percentage of employed graduates by gender is very similar and both sexes were affected in the same measure by the economic crisis.
Among men, the percentage of employed graduates is higher than among women, and men seem to be affected by the economic crisis slightly more than women. The picture was different for second-cycle graduates. In fact, they were affected more strongly in the first phase of the crisis.
In , Table 5. Italians employed one year after graduation who were not employed and started to work after graduation graduation who were not employed and started to work after graduation. The calculation includes only first-cycle graduates who are not enrolled in other study programmes, as well as all second-cycle graduates. The resulting picture is slightly different from the above-mentioned one, but the perceived impact of the business cycle is similar. Among first-cycle graduates the employment rate dropped from We can distinguish two main working conditions.
The first category brings together self-employed graduates and those having a permanent contract. The second category includes graduates having various kinds of temporary employment. As shown in Table 7, average monthly net wages decreased during the first phase of the crisis, recovering after for both first and second-cycle graduates.
It can also be seen that second-cycle graduates benefit from a rather small but increasing wage premium compared to first-cycle graduates. Although with some slight differences, the impact of the business cycle following the world financial crisis in terms of the employment conditions and wages of both first and second-cycle fresh graduates is evident, but it is less so in terms of their type of contract.
In particular, the employment conditions of young German university graduates have improved, while this has not happened with young Italian university graduates. In Italy, 0. In Italy, large enterprises employ Table 8. Firms and employees by size in Italy and Germany It is worth noting that data on Italy include mostly university graduates while those on Germany include both university graduates and FH graduates. Although family-controlled businesses are similarly frequent in Italy and in Germany, family involvement in management is higher in Italy than in Germany Bugamelli et al.
Moreover, it has been largely dominated by one type of institution, namely the university, and there has been less room for diversification between higher education institutions. A new framework with three main degrees replaced the old one. As a consequence, the Reform has given a steeper vertical structure to the Italian higher education system.
Italy has never experienced a binary system in the past, nor is this the case nowadays. Between the mids and the end of the s, participation slowed down, and it was only after that the movement towards universal access restarted. In there were 53 students enrolled for the first time out of young people aged The number of students completing their studies holding the old degree has progressively decreased, while the number of those gaining the new degrees has increased. Deducting from the total the number of second-cycle degrees, i.
The latter number can reasonably be compared to the number of students graduating in the last year before the implementation of the Reform, that is, in That year, there were , graduates from Italian universities. The Italian university system reached the highest point in its expansion, with 1,, enrolled students, just before the international economic crisis broke out.
In periods of economic crisis, one would expect some of the tools used to connect higher education and the world of work to be strengthened in order to face a more critical situation. This does not seem to be the case.
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Take for instance one of the more widespread tools employed to shorten the distance between higher education and the economic sector, namely traineeships during study. Considering this indicator is especially important in Italy, for two reasons. First, before the implementation of the Bologna Process very few students participated in traineeships and internships during study.
But the second series of data is even more important. As you can see, the proportion of students participating in traineeships outside their university dropped in , although there was a subsquent recovery. Public education was an important factor in an area where the literacy rate was still one of the lowest, and it is easy to understand why publishers counted on young readers in order to increase their business. But let us describe the collections and retrace their origins before suggesting a hypothesis on the reasons of their creation.
Fabietti felt embarrassed for commissioning those authors works without giving any news on the outcome A couple of months later, in October , Fabietti expressed his concern for the success of such a series to Bemporad, who by then was the exclusive publisher 14 :. As a matter of fact, in his letter, Fabietti mentioned a meeting, held in Milan city hall on 6th November i. The aim of the meeting was to reflect on the future of popular readings in a period where the publishing industry had to face major difficulties, such as the increased price of paper Fabietti insisted on the lack, in the Italian book market of the time, of cheap adaptations and popularisations of the classics that he judged essential for popular acculturation.
Actually, the volumes are particularly fine, if compared with popular collections of the time; they even had, in the first phase , decorated Art Nouveau guards by Ezio Anichini, one of the most renowned illustrators working for Bemporad at that time Ill. Publishers were persistently experimenting new strategies for reaching and luring the new emerging audiences. Not always such activities had a proper outcome: it was not infrequent that previously published books were collected under a generic title as if they were a collection, but without any project subtended.
Thirdly, a real strategy of the publishing series was still to be defined. In the post-war period a strong concern for innovative promotion strategies led to further success. Fabietti had to remind his publisher that they should go ahead with the publication The rest of the titles was going to be abandoned Fabietti was not offered the chance to discuss such decision, nevertheless this would have been useless, since, a couple of months later, the publisher announced his intention to definitively stop the collection Such statements allow us to suggest that school market still represented a relief valve for publishers, which also explains the persisting presence in the market of a number of paraliterary educational works.
The subtitle reveals that the series was born and conceived as a didactic tool, benefitting from the interest in school libraries, on which pedagogues and intellectuals had insisted since the previous century A study on the subsidiary activities for primary teaching in , insisted on how each classroom should be equipped with a small library, its books being purchased by the pupils themselves when possible , combined with a central school library financed by the municipality As a matter of fact, in this case, the word Bibliotechina [Small library], not only alludes to a metaphoric library given to the pupils, but proposes a complete collection to be offered to teachers and school administrations, so that they could feel guided in their purchase for school libraries.
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Schools and school libraries were meant as a potential and useful customer for such volumes. And who better than Ettore Fabietti could conceive, for Bemporad, a collection responding to such expectations? You proposed some, but no one of them met my satisfaction. The latter, as we know, was accepted by Bemporad. Nonetheless, it was time to get to work, since the threat of competitors was around the corner: in Fabietti informed Bemporad that the Turinese Paravia had 30 volumes of a similar collection in course of publication There would be no didactic purpose, even though the stories would inevitably contain examples of morality, edifying maxims, etc.
Actually the title pages contained a reading suggestion, i. Fabietti had actually expressed a doubt on giving such indication, since he had noticed that some texts were fitting various grades 64 ; at the same time, it was easier to find materials for the third than for the second grade Bemporad, however, decided to keep such distinction. On the contrary, characters are all mean subjects and the story is the one of a misdeed.
Vieri — and that is strange! But the material aspect also had to be cared for.
Therefore he insisted that each volume had to contain two plates 71 , while Bemporad had previously proposed one 72 , that must have seemed appropriate for very thin volumes of , maximum 36 pages.