If the psychoanalytic situation is properly explained to the patient, the patient's maximum of possible cooperation is made available. On the road to achieve that cooperation the patient can gain some exceedingly important information on conflicts in his ego of which he had not been aware. It is not advisable unless specific facets of the individual patient involve too great a risk, e. The impression of unreality may disappear surprisingly quickly, in my experience, if "the patient is put at his case," but then may never return again to the detriment of the patient's analysis. Acting in accordance with the patient's expectation unless the patients ego is weakened to such a degree as to be incapacitated for bearing up under the strain of the analytic situation, will not in general provide him with the best opportunity of becoming familiar with his psychic reality.
A careful study of the authors' case reports will show that the authors did not adduce any evidence of their patients having made progress in their capacity. As will be seen, the authors pursue therapeutic goals which are quite different from those Freud had in mind and, hence, their comparison with Freud's technique, is, not relevant and challenges critique. Alexander's theory of transference and resistance reduces itself to the patient's unwillingness to grapple with his real problems in life.
The following two quotations will familiarize the reader with the frame of reference into which Alexander tries to press that fundamental issue. Historically it is of interest to note that Alexander's frame of reference has narrowed down in this context to the two concepts with which Alfred Adler tried to explain the totality of the psychopathology of the neuroses.
The authors elaborate extensively on the goals of therapy and the necessity of making a therapeutic plan for each patient. The authors were right in demanding that psychotherapy be based on a plan like all other rational activity. Alexander Alexander, French et al. French devotes a chapter to "Planning Psychotherapy" ibid. But before going into details I believe we must decide on a fundamental issue which the authors have not sufficiently stressed, namely, the problem of structural changes of personality. Freud described the goal of psychoanalysis in various ways such as that of removing resistances or making unconscious material conscious or of filling out the amnesic gaps in the patient's memory Freud, a p.
The most comprehensive formulation refers to the transformation of id into ego Freud, , p. Freud has outlined a set of rules far various phases of "structural psychotherapy" in his technical writings. He never insisted that all those rules are to be strictly followed. He considered only a few of them indispensable, such as the advice not to take notes during the analytic interview. Every analyst is entitled to change those technical suggestions in accordance with his experience if he can demonstrate clinically that his innovation will lead to a structural change of the patient's personality.
Experience proved that Freud's technique did not lead to success in the case of schizophrenics and delinquents. However far these rules may have departed from Freud's original technique, all of them have one thing in common, namely, a high probability that the technique as outlined by its innovators is necessary far a structural change in the respective 4inical syndrome or age group.
Hence, it can be said that any technique whether it uses a couch or not, whether it requires daily or infrequent interviews, is a psychoanalytic therapy if by use of valid psychotherapeutic tools it aims at, or results in, structural changes of the personality [ Footnote 6 : The stress on valid psychotherapeutic tools has become necessary since Freeman's performance of lobotomies in psychoneurotics.
This operation unquestionably results in structural personality changes cf. A psychotherapeutic method may relieve a patient permanently from a symptom; it may make him happy and successful; its effect may gain the applause of the patient's family and society, yet if it does not effect a structural change, it is divorced from psychoanalysis although the therapist might have applied psychoanalytic theories in his therapeutic technique. I even would go so far as to claim that if another therapist had failed in previous treatment of the same patient, but can prove that the technique applied promised a reasonable chance of effecting a structural change in the patient, then he may claim to have used psychoanalytic methods.
We may say, perhaps, that he misapplied it or that be was wrong in his clinical judgment in endeavoring to achieve a structural change, but his method was true psychoanalysis. Proof of the reasonableness of this point involves some additional remarks in order to avoid misunderstandings. First of all, a distinction between structural change and change of content must be made. This distinction is historically and clinically justified. Historically, psychoanalysis started out as a therapy aiming at structural changes even before the theoretical foundation of the therapy had reached a comprehensive concept of structure.
Freud has repeatedly and unmistakably expressed the view that a psychotherapy which "cures" a patient,: by any other means cannot be regarded as psychoanalysis. Notwithstanding all the marked disagreements among analysts on technical questions, the goal of structural change has been common to them. Furthermore the difference between structural change and change of content is significant enough to warrant distinctive terms to designate techniques aiming at the one or the other. A structural change, as it is meant here, is an internal' change which leads to mastery.
It is a change performed in and on the ego in respect to extending its area of capacity mainly by the elimination of certain defense mechanisms. A change of content is a rechanneling of energy based on displacement, or new repressions, or on an exchange of illusions, or the building up of magical beliefs, or on imitation. A clinical example of this is the change of a spendthrift to a, miser; a metamorphosis, which is not too difficult to achieve.
Both attitudes are based on a pathological attitude towards money. The result of being a miser is socially more acceptable and less detrimental to the individual than that of the spendthrift, but from the structural viewpoint the patient remains the same. It is of paramount importance to keep in mind that extensive changes of content are possible without changes of structure. This can be proved by overwhelming clinical evidence.
Structural changes are painful to the person whereas changes of content usually are gratifying though they might be initiated by a short period of anguish. A patient, as can be regularly observed, is ready to accept extensive changes of content in order to evade a structural change. I admit that even with the greatest caution it is a very difficult clinical task to ascertain a structural change and it may happen more frequently than not that an assumed structural change turns out later to have been a change of content only [ Footnote 7 : Sharpe has presented clinical evidence of a change in dream structure as an index of recovery.
I believe, however, no reliable measure for the "sincerity" of dreams has yet been found and, in my opinion, the degree to which the dream is accessible to secondary purposes comparable to mechanisms such as flight into health might have been underestimated though I readily admit that some analysts clinically more experienced than I, might be capable of using dream structures as reliable indices of recovery].
Furthermore, it is easier to determine in negative terms rather than in positive what theoretically a structural change is. As will be discussed later the authors have in my opinion not reported one instance of structural change and therefore should not have called their book psychoanalytic therapy although they used psychoanalytic knowledge in planning their therapeutic procedures [ Footnote 8 : Somehow the authors must have been aware of this state of affairs because with the exception of one Benedek they call themselves, in general, therapists.
In his opinion, do analysts make mistakes and therapists use the correct technique? In view of the authors' own distinction between analyst and therapist it is not quite understandable why Alexander insists upon regarding "all of the work set forth in this book as 'psychoanalytic"' ibid. The decision to induce structural changes or change of content is of primary importance in planning psychotherapy because there is usually only one road open to structural changes whereas there are several to the achievement of changes of content.
Therefore the technique aimed at change of content can be more flexible than that aimed at a structural change. I will call the former "magic" psychotherapy and the latter "rational". There are various ways of magic, but there is only one ratio. I feel entitled to designate the two groups of techniques in this way because they show the characteristics associated with these terms.
In rational psychotherapy there are no secrets between the analyst and the patient. As soon as a truth becomes evident to the analyst he shares his knowledge with the patient. Though in most instances this principle cannot be carried out ideally it remains a latent goal in psychoanalytic technique. The relief of the symptom is not the primary concern of the analyst, but the change of the psychic reality underlying a symptom is. Magic psychotherapy is always secretive and does not let the patient share the maximum possible knowledge and it h primarily interested in the relief of symptoms.
The authors are explicit on this point. They claim that it is of importance only for the therapist to know the dynamics and to understand the genetic history of the patient. Based on that knowledge he bas to devise a therapy which will enable the patient to deal with his reality problems successfully in the shortest possible time.
If that successful dealing withstands the impact of time, i. Indeed, if a symptom disappears and does not return a therapist satisfied with magic is content. In ideal rational psychotherapy the relief of symptoms may even be sacrificed in favor of maintaining the goal of structural changes [ Footnote 9 : Cf. Freud , footnote p. Perhaps it may depend, too, on whether the personality of the analyst allows of the patient's putting him in the place of his ego-ideal, and this involves a temptation for the analyst to play the part of the prophet, savior, and redeemer to the patient.
Since the rules of analysis are diametrically opposed to the physician's making use of his personality in any such manner, it must be honestly confessed that here we have another limitation to the effectiveness of analysis; after all, analysis does not set out to abolish the possibility of morbid reactions, but to give the patient's ego freedom , to choose one way or the other.
It was exceedingly interesting to me to notice that French emphasized in his passages on reality testing the place of anachronism, Le, that the patient's present reactions are in accordance with old patterns. There is a dearth of references to the more fundamental and genetically older principle of reality testing, namely, the individual's acquisition of the faculty of distinguishing what is external and what is internal of the psychobiological organism [ Footnote 10 : Cf.
Freud , p. In every psychopathological disturbance the primary disturbance concerns that function of the reality principle. It may be of importance to mention in this context that Schilder and Waelder both suggest that magic is based on the lack of enforcement of that very function of the reality principle. Therefore I surmise that there might be a causal nexus between the authors' ' neglect of that side of reality-testing and the technique they felt obliged, to apply.
Be this as it may, a few statements are encountered which reflect opinions barely disguising magic. When Weiss writes that "the therapist may choose to refer to the infantile neurosis in his interpretations and thus encourage a dependent transference relationship" Alexander, French et al. This, however, comes close to an exquisitely magic superstition. Why the interpretation of the childhood neurosis must lead to a dependent transfer relationship or why interest in that structure must lead to its repetition is not made clear by the authors.
Up to now it was generally assumed that interpretation of the infantile neurosis might give the patient an ability to master the repetitious compulsion which had pervaded his life history before his ego had learned to take cognizance of it. The technical innovations the authors introduce and the objections to be raised against their recommendations must be viewed from the aspect of the differences between rational and magic therapy. French supposes that there are two main principles of therapeutic approach: adaptation of the patients environment to his needs or modification of the patient's personality structure "in order to bring it into harmony with the requirements of his environment" Alexander, French et al.
This general outline of therapeutic possibilities, valid as it may be for the vast majority of present psychotherapeutic procedures, means a definite break with the basic tenets of psychoanalysis as it has been formulated up to now. The change of environment which apparently is considered by French as a therapeutic tool on equal level with that aiming at "modifications" of the personality structure is no etiologic therapy at all but at best can result only in a symptomatic: improvement.
French knows that of course, since he discusses in the same section the relief patients might obtain by supportive treatment. He counteracts the argument that results thus obtained are "transference cures" by pointing out the frequent permanent effect following such therapy. It is important to notice that French speaks of improvement of adjustment in connection with such results and thus seems to share Alexander's behavioristic viewpoint of, evaluating the patient's personality on the basis of outward behavior without raising the question of what the corresponding change of personality, if any, might be.
Change of environment, beneficial as it may be in a great number of clinical instances is a typical device of magic therapy. It is an historical outgrowth of earlier customs of pilgrimage; it is a device supporting the patient's resistance insofar as it confirms his cherished belief that he is facing not an internal conflict but an external one; it offers a wishfulfillment as a compensation for impending displeasure; it further encourages the patient's desire for the feeling of magic omnipotence.
Although it is frequently the only resort available to mitigate the patient's suffering, it is essentially beyond the compass of rational psychotherapy in the sense of psychoanalysis. The second therapeutic approach, namely, that of personality modification for the purpose of establishing harmony between personality structure and environment, seems to attack the problem in a way closer to traditional psychoanalysis, but reveals to an even larger degree the extent to which the authors have discarded rational therapy.
The psychotherapeutic approach is no longer viewed as an aspect of the existing internal conflict, but exclusively from the angle of the demand of external reality. Here it is no longer the goal of therapy to give the patient's ego the greatest possible access to conflicts, but to confine therapy to the area of accidental collisions between the patient and society.
The therapist no longer needs to worry about the liberation of the ego, but, with the demands of society in mind, to restrict his activity merely to the narrow limits of the patient's present conflict. The past apparently is not real, only the present. Again French sides with the resistance of the patients. It is just that of which most of them try to convince the analyst, namely, that their trouble is a conflict with external reality. But what is the effect of this approach? It puts a premium on camouflaging the real issue of the internal conflict in favor of acceptance of a small sector of external reality in behavioristic terms.
Although French discusses one side of rational therapy ibid. He chooses the technique he believes necessary in cases of asthma and stresses the beneficial effect of confession:. The effect of such a therapy is, of course, at first merely symptomatic. By confessing what is disturbing him the patient gets relief for a time from his asthma attacks.
Often, however, symptomatic relief of this kind tends gradually to diminish the deep underlying insecurity and dependence of the patient Alexander, French et al. Here we meet not only in the term confession a time-honored magic device but also an entire procedure calculated to grant a wishfulfillment without insight, in the hope that this will make a superficial symptom disappear.
Every magic procedure collapses when the subject turns against the dispensor of the charm with hostility. Hence the authors give advice on how to avoid such an embarrassing event. Weiss proclaims: "Hostile attitudes toward the analyst, moreover, are often a needless complication of therapy. When the object of such a neurotic attitude can be a person in the patient's daily life, this complication is removed and the therapy thereby shortened" Alexander, French et al. French is aware that this may bring serious damage to the patient ibid. Hostile impulses are evidence of frustration and frustration is a sign of an unsolved problem.
If the problem can be solved, then frustration will cease and the resultant hostile impulses should disappear. What is meant by "digging in behind hostile impulses" is demonstrated by French's reference to Gerard's case report of a patient suffering from peptic ulcer and examination anxiety Alexander, French et al. The technique applied was to enable the patient to satisfy dependent cravings without his pride being hurt.
This was done by inducing the patient's wife to gratify his cravings for dependence, "to give him sympathy and extra tenderness" and by getting the patient's physician to cooperate in letting the patient a medical student "examine and plan the treatment for some ulcer patients" ibid.
Needless to say that the therapeutic effect was excellent as in nearly all cases reported, and the patient lost his examination fear, went on a regular diet, lost his abdominal pain, and when last heard of, had settled down as a physician in a middle-sized town with his three-months-old son. Although it is challenging to speculate why techniques of such kind have such miraculous effects, I want to mention only the extent to which the patient is kept in the dark concerning the true nature of his problems; to what extent, further, he is induced by wislifulfillments to act in a socially successful way.
All this is part and parcel of magic psychotherapy which in this instance does not make its appearance in crude forms but uses some valid psychological. Glover, French points out what complications might follow if duodenal ulcer patients are made aware of their intensive hostile feelings. He may be right or wrong with such warning. It may turn out that it is impossible to apply rational therapy to a certain clinical group.
A therapeutically ambitious physician might, therefore, relinquish the narrow pathway of rational therapy and apply magic. There certainly is no objection to such procedure; but it is not permissible to describe magic therapy in terms as if it concerned rational therapy. It is more in keeping with valid scientific thinking to admit that here the point might have been reached at which a real change of the ego is impossible, where the patient's personality structure is permanently injured and the therapist's goal is reduced to palliative measures. But in French's own words it appears not to be impossible to give such patients more than a palliative.
The magic attitude underlying the new technique which, however, is presented in terms of reason, provides the authors with a feeling of knowledge close to omniscience which is far beyond the limitations that still burden mental science. French describes the situation of the analyst in the first few hours when be becomes familiar with the patient's problem and, life history in terms of the following comparison: "The analyst during this period may be compared to a traveler standing on top of a hill overlooking the country through which he is about to journey.
At this time it may be possible for him to see his whole anticipated journey in perspective" Alexander, French et al. Freud's early description, however, of the same period of treatment may still be valid. He wrote: "This first account may be compared to an unnavigable river whose stream is at one moment choked by masses of rock and at another, divided and lost among shallows and sandbanks" Freud, A feeling of power derived from magic omniscience seems expressed in Johnson's comment on the cure of a case of bronchial asthma in 36 interviews.
The authors enjoy an enviable optimism. Limitations to knowledge or to possible achievements of psychotherapy are scarcely mentioned; Johnson even goes so far as to give the impression that our present knowledge of asthma is sufficient for all practical purposes. True magic is usually colorful and appealing to the emotions; rational procedures appear drab and monotonous, and only the discerning eye perceives how rational procedures adjust to the peculiarities of the reality situation.
Alexander believes that psychoanalysis has not-adapted its technique to the diversity of cases and that its "therapeutic tool is rigidly fixed and the patients made to conform" Alexander, French et al. He evidently bases that impression on the fact that most patients are treated daily while lying on a couch. Alexander does not mention that the treatment of a hysteria or of a compulsive neurosis proceeds on entirely different lines; his impression of monotony or rigidity in psychoanalytic technique results from his keeping his eye fixed on the paraphernalia.
The naive observer might believe that painting is a monotonous procedure because one always uses brushes and pigments [ Footnote 12 : Cf. Sharpe , p. In view of their acceptance of magic techniques, it is quite understandable that the authors do not esteem too highly the importance of using insight as a tool in their psychotherapeutic technique. Alexander attributes to "corrective emotional experiences necessary to break up the old reaction pattern" the highest therapeutic value above "emotional discharge, insight and a thorough assimilation of the significance of the recovered unconscious material" Alexander, French et al.
French postulates emotional readjustment as the goal of therapy, not insight ibid. He describes a case in which the therapist decreased the patient's anxiety by supportive therapy and then concludes: "By thus diminishing her anxiety, we hope to make it possible for her spontaneously to face the realities of her situation" ibid. This clearly expresses the secondary value put on insight, and hence, on interpretation.
The therapist hopes that an emotional change which he has induced not by interpretation but by an understanding attitude, will produce insight by chance. The reader must really gain the impression that insight is connected with considerable danger. Three pages are devoted to "complications resulting from attempts to force insight" Alexander, French et al.
It may help in clarifying this problem if the use of the term "goal" is made more precise. Evidently the unqualified use of the word goal here burdens the discussion. A differentiation of goals and means is necessary. Emotional support is a psychotherapeutic tool just as is interpretation but the latter leads to insight if it is integrated by the patient. I think that greater stringency in keeping tools and goals apart would make the difference between psychoanalysis and the new psychotherapy clearer.
Most analysts will agree that an ego which has attained mastery over previously unconscious parts of the personality will have no difficulty in its emotional and social adjustment. Mastery without insight is inconceivable in the adult; but this by no means claims that adjustment is possible only by insight.
To induce adjustment - a secondary goal to the analyst - is not too difficult in many clinical instances. In this context I wish to refer the reader to Alexander's description of the resistance an ego presents against knowledge of its unconscious part and, further, to the importance he attributed to the analysis of those resistances Alexander, , pp.
When French stresses the trust and confidence a patient must have in his physician before an unwelcome interpretation should be given, he emphasizes a point of minor importance. The main issue is the ego's resistance to the interpretation of its defensive setup which can be successfully combatted only by giving the patient insight into that part of his personality. French rightly stresses the preparatory work necessary before giving certain interpretations but he fails in his presentation to describe the exact nature of that preparatory work which is a series of minute interpretative steps centering on that secondary resistance to acknowledgment of the main conflicts which Alexander has described in the reference just quoted.
If French advocates avoidance of that analytic work by the establishment of certain positive feelings in the patient towards the physician, then he is bringing magic devices into play. This might be done or avoided depending on whether the physician wants his patient to achieve mastery or whether he limits his intention to the inducement of adjustment. Insight may be achieved by a variety of means, the main one of which is still interpretation. It may be that many analysts, even after prolonged practical experience, handle interpretation and insight like magic tools.
It would not be surprising, since the products of rational thinking more frequently. Railroads, electricity, and the persistently quoted atomic bomb are subjectively magic instruments to most of us, but that does not preclude their objective rational meaning and their possible efficiency in mankind's battle for survival. The persistent attempt which pervades the book to "debunk" insight is a significant result of the victory of magic over rational psychotherapy. Alexander even goes so far in his distrust of rational therapy as to contend that psychoanalysis must necessarily fail with a patient who seeks therapy because of psychogenic physical distress, if that patient is convinced of the organic nature of his disease.
He writes:. If this man were to be treated by the standard psychoanalytic method the analyst would assume an understanding but impersonal attitude, waiting for the transference neurosis to develop and offering little or no suggestion or direction. Alexander himself must have once upon a time been more successful in the application of standard psychoanalysis since he wrote in an earlier publication: "Often it requires a substantial bit of psychoanalytic work to rob the patient of his conviction that there is an organic basis for his illness" Alexander, , p.
Some of the new technical advice presented can be understood only in the light of the distrust of insight harbored by the authors. A device introduced by Alexander, and accepted by, the rest of the authors insofar as they make reference to it, is the staggering of interviews, i. The beneficial effect of the device, as claimed by the authors, is varied and significant and the scope of technical problems allegedly solved by it is so broad that I, too, was inclined to think of a magic wand.
The advantage of manipulating interview frequency is often presented by referring to the damage done by a technique of daily interviews. On the other hand proper manipulation of frequency of interviews will achieve the right emotional level, avoid regressions, facilitate a natural termination of analysis, prevent dependence of the patient on the analyst, etc. It is difficult to discuss here all the claims the authors make in favor of that device and to repudiate their unfavorable comments on Freud's technique of daily interviews.
Yet insofar as the very core of the psychoanalytic situation is misrepresented, discussion should follow. It cannot be conceded that the analytical situation of daily interviews per se involves any regular emotional reactions in patients. Their emotional reactions depend on their individualities and the analyst's technique. Since Alexander has emphasized the factor of dependence not only in connection with daily therapeutic interviews but also in connection with almost all problems of clinical psychiatry. It would be of interest to find out by questionnaires if his experience is confirmed by that of other analysts.
Do so many patients really become dependent on their analysts to such an extent that termination of the analysis becomes a problem of such seriousness as to require, manipulation by tools other than those of, classic analytic therapy? My own experience and what I have heard from others tends to indicate that the problems of inducing the patient to continue his treatment and to accept the fact that there is still unresolved psychopathology present are encountered at least as frequently. It seems reasonable to raise the question whether the importance which Alexander assigns to dependence reactions was the outgrowth of the way he applied the classical technique.
He interprets the patient's dependence on the analyst as a regression to a happy, gratifying archaic condition. Is it conceivable that: it is the content of the interpretation which makes it ineffective in "weaning" the patient from the analyst? May it be possible to reduce the number of strong and unmanageable dependence reactions in patients if dependence on the analyst is interpreted as transference resistance? Dependence is not a primary entity; it has a great variety of meanings and must be dissolved into its components in order to be understood.
More frequently than not it is a reaction formation against hostility and against an inflated desire to be independent. Furthermore, is it not possible that a majority of strong and unmanageable dependency reactions occur if the classical technique has been inappropriately applied in the early phases of treatment? It is of historical interest to quote Alexander's opinion on that matter 20 years ago: "The resistance to giving up the analytic situation, which, moreover, has many prototypes besides the biological separation at birth, such, for example, as weaning, learning to walk, leaving the parental home, etc.
I wonder what clinical experience made Alexander change his former opinion that dependency reactions to the analyst are transference resistances. French writes: "He the patient may find the therapeutic relationship seductive and therefore disturbing in that it stimulates erotic impulses within him. In such cases, too frequent interviews may complicate the therapy, especially, if the therapist fails to interpret and discuss the conflicts arising out of this erotic transference" Alexander, French et al.
This reminds me of a surgeon who warns against surgery because if it is performed under. Interpreted as what-as a reaction to the therapy? The question arises again to what extent the authors' unhappy experiences with the technique of daily interviews might have been due to improper handling of that magic wand, interpretation. I think the authors should have published the report of one of their analyses including a report on the interpretations given to convince the reader of the correctness of their objections.
But even assuming that the authors applied ah the knowledge accumulated up to now and, further, that they conducted the analyses of their patients correctly, it is significant how they solved the problems they met. They do not take the attitude that more knowledge is necessary for their patients, they do not request that better understanding of dependency reactions is required in order to combat them successfully but they proclaim.
Whatever the patient's specific reactions to the analytic situation may be, they must be viewed as significant data concerning his personality structure. They enrich in every instance the analyst's and the patient's knowledge. This aspect has not been sufficiently stressed by the authors and therefore I believe they made the short circuit of making the analytic situation per se responsible and of shifting to an a-rational psychotherapeutic device where rational therapy is still in its full right.
It may be that the staggering of interviews will affect the patient's behavior as the authors describe it. Nevertheless, it is not evident from their reports that this technical device worked to the patient's benefit. After a reduction of the number of interviews, we hear, the patient becomes aware of the extent of his dependency. But did the authors then switch back to daily interviews in order to make him understand the origin of his dependency reaction? Nothing of the kind. Quite generally, I think, the authors underestimate the magic component in the human mind.
I have noticed in some patients of mine that after discontinuance of the treatment due to external factors, they established a situation in which they continued to owe me a small amount of money. It amounts to the maintenance of the illusion that they did not really separate from me. Such a fantasy of magic content might enable them to behave outwardly in a seemingly mature way. From the psychoanalytic viewpoint, however, the treatment was a failure in spite of a possible success in terms of standards of social adaptation. Certainly if Alexander "weam" his patients by interspersing longer and longer periods between interviews, he nourishes certain magic fantasies in the patient although he might convert actual dependency into phantasied dependency and apparent external independence.
La rete si mobilita. Per le organizzazioni internazionali e il movimento giovanile azero le accuse sono state fabbricate ad arte. Tra storia, coscienza e memoria A che punto siamo dopo questo ventennale? In particolare su quali aspetti? Cosa ha rivelato questa commemorazione sullo stato mentale e culturale del continente?
Anche grazie a questa ricorrenza le memorie sono meno divise? Cosa vorremmo ancora capire sull'Ottantanove? L'importo di ogni singola borsa di studio ammonta a 3. Le domande di partecipazione alla selezione, redatte in carta libera, in lingua italiana, firmate dagli aspiranti, dovranno essere fatte pervenire a mezzo posta, a mano o via posta elettronica.
Questa settimana la newsletter di OBC con un giorno di anticipo. A partire da domani disponibile inoltre il documento introduttivo al convegno e il videoreportage ''Generazione '89'' di Francesco Martino e Davide Sighele. Vai alla pagina dedicata al convegno. Scontro per Pristina. Toni aspri per il controllo di Pristina. In forse la partecipazione dei serbi. La campagna elettorale nella cronaca del nostro corrispondente. Marina a Torino. Come castelli di carta. Gli eventi salienti di quell'anno, la questione etnica e i tentativi di lustrazione in un'intervista con Zhelyu Zhelev, filosofo e dissidente negli anni del regime e primo presidente democraticamente eletto dopo il crollo del Muro.
Toponimi slavati. Ma ora in Albania si vuole istituire una commissione governativa per albanesizzare i toponimi di origine slava. Che sono moltissimi. S blocco. Dialogo alevita. Il documentario albanese. Un'intervista ad Artan Minarolli, direttore dell'Archivio di Stato.
Sorry we still under construction!
Capire la democrazia nel Intervista a Ghia Jorjoliani. In Caucaso e poi a Torino. Conflict prevention and management theories, reconstruction and reconciliation of divided societies after violent conflicts and political tensions, integration policies and the establishment of good governance throughout Europe are in focus in this Joint PhD Programme. Students interested in the programme apply to one of the consortium partners as their home university.
The electronic application documents have to be sent to the e-mail address joint. Citazioni di film della storia del cinema e suspence. Dialogo con il pubblico. Tocca molti temi. Un rumore di remi? Domenica 22 novembre. La storia di una nota musicale che si annoia in un brano di Bach e decide di ribellarsi. La scalata verso il successo di un giovane operatore di Borsa ,si blocca di fronte alla scoperta di loschi traffici.
Labiritico racconto sperimentale strutturato per accumulazione visiva, sonora, cambi di formato, segnali alchemici e cabalistici. Tra essi segnaliamo:. Leo ed.
See a Problem?
Il lungo ' Nella notte del 9 novembre di vent'anni fa l'Europa cambiava faccia. Aspettative in parte realizzate, in parte disattese. Nei Balcani e nel Caucaso il apriva un decennio tragico, fatto di conflitti, vittime e milioni di profughi. Vai alla pagina dedicata. Stoccolma junction. Lo sguardo di Jasmila. Nostra intervista. La voce scomoda della Clessidra. Ambasciatori dall'Iraq. Il dialogo possibile. I giorni della rivoluzione. Il 16 dicembre dell'89 scese in piazza con migliaia di suoi concittadini.
Tra boom e crisi. Due parole. Una retrospettiva ragionata sul lavoro dell'artista sarajevese, un libro sull'Europa di questi dieci anni. Un anno senza risposte. Ad un anno dall'insediamento del presidente Yevkurov, in Inguscezia non ci sono segni di una svolta imminente. Andy Garcia recita Saakashvili. Oltre a esercito e aviazione, alle riprese parteciperanno anche Andy Garcia e Val Kilmer. Ti ricordi del Caucaso? A vent'anni dalla caduta del Muro di Berlino. Migrants de Calais.
- Enfant et lAnimal (L) (Sciences Humaines) (French Edition).
- ged and me Manual.
In Grecia l'arrivo al governo di Ghiorgos Papandreu sembra aprire nuove strade di diaologo con i paesi vicini. La sua prima visita all'estero dopo essere stato eletto? In Turchia, rompendo con la tradizione che voleva i neopremier greci visitare, come primo passo, Cipro. Infine gli strafalcioni sulla Wikipedia in lingua albanese.
Il sociologo Rando Devole mette in risalto come molto potrebbe esere fatto per porvi rimedio. In nessun luogo, da nessun dove.
Occasioni perdute e cambiamenti. Sotto il tappeto. A pezzi. Quando Wiki parla albanese. Dalla Bosnia al Kurdistan. Che questa volta non convince. Lo scandalo Vegeta. Papandreu apre alla Turchia e in un bar greco di Smirne non si parla d'altro. Riavvicinarsi alla Mitteleuropa.
Dall'architettura alla letteratura, dalla lingua allo sci. Un contributo al nostro dossier ''Il lungo '89''. La lunga lotta dell'Azerbaijan. In Karabakh si inizia nell' Vent'anni di cambiamenti vissuti da Stepanakert. Allestimento curato da Mateja Benedetti e Massimiliano Schiozzi. Protocolli, intese, controvertici. Se ratificato dai parlamenti di Ankara e Yerevan, il confine tra i due Paesi - chiuso dalla Turchia nel a sostegno dell'Azerbaijan in guerra con l'Armenia per il Nagorno Karabakh - potrebbe essere riaperto nel giro di due mesi.
Con la faccia al muro. Un racconto di vita. L'alleato Medvedev. Il punto di vista dei kurdi. Le bandiere di Bursa, il dibattito nella stampa. Serbia: eurottimismo. Riconosciuti i progressi compiuti dal Paese, finalmente si attenuano gli ostacoli e aumentano le certezze. Dayton 2. Ad un passo dalla meta. Ma la disputa sul nome e i rapporti di buon vicinato con la Grecia rimangono ancora i principali ostacoli sulla strada di Skopje ad un effettivo via libera.
Il bilancio del controvertice. Un interessante contributo al nostro dossier: Il lungo ' Nota dolente, invece, per la Bosnia, a rischio fanalino di coda. L'Armenia dopo la firma. La battaglia politica, il dibattito pubblico, la forza della posizione di Sargsyan. Parla una sopravvissuta del genocidio del Si prefigge di offrire a giovani professionisti le conoscenze e gli strumenti idonei per introdurre, sostenere e coordinare i processi di cambiamento e trasformazione a livello locale. Relatrice Anne-Marie Sandler.
Index of /horroti.textlinksdepot.com
Sono intense le storie raccontate nei reportage che abbiamo pubblicato questa settimana. Rimasto alla storia col nome di "grande escursione", ha lasciato cicatrici profonde su chi l'ha vissuto. I primi due, in un intenso fotoreportage, si soffermano sulla vita quotidiana in un piccolo villaggio. Giorgio Comai, invece, incontra gli attivisti per i diritti umani della capitale Tbilisi, obbligati a subire pressioni intollerabili e spesso pestaggi da parte della polizia. La vittoria degli studenti. Al centro della rivolta la sostituzione del direttore del liceo di Cetinje, avvenuta con motivazione prettamente politica.
In ginocchio. E la crisi che sta colpendo duro. In una Slovenia ancora alla ricerca di ricette anticrisi il governo promette sovvenzioni, ma annuncia tagli e sacrifici. Si ipotizzano le elezioni anticipate. Cinema in Kosovo, un nuovo inizio. Kasapolli] Glamour e tappeti rossi, oltre ad una star del cinema internazionale come Vanessa Redgrave, sono i tratti distintivi del primo film festival di Pristina.
Rilanciare l'immagine del Kosovo sulla scena internazionale. Riflessi della 'grande escursione'. L'esodo di massa, rimasto alla storia col nome di "grande escursione", ha lasciato cicatrici profonde su chi l'ha vissuto. Ironia, memoria individuale e collettiva. Tempi pericolosi. Si dimette il direttore di RTK, la tv pubblica del Kosovo. In un commento di BIRN il senso di servizio pubblico in un contesto dove la classe politica sembra determinata a limitare l'indipendenza dell'informazione. Butcovan, immigrazione e lingua del cuore.
Il lento ma inesorabile incattivirsi del clima contro gli immigrati, la sicurezza usata come esca elettorale, la scelta di scrivere in italiano. Un'intervista ripresa da Bota Shqiptare. Lubiana calling.
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Poi la morte di Tito, la crisi economica e il cammino verso l'indipendenza. Un nuovo contributo per il nostro dossier ''Il lungo '89''. Un villaggio azero in Georgia. Un fotoreportage. Jeep, spranghe e diritti umani. Il governo minimizza le accuse e parla di una Georgia che procede decisa sulla via della democrazia. Migrantes Nazionale e Migrant's Law, in collaborazione con il Centro Internazionale Studenti La Pira, la Caritas Diocesana di Firenze e Migrantes Regionale Toscana, organizzano il corso di formazione alla luce delle modifiche intervenute nella normativa italiana.
Per esigenze organizzative la scheda di adesione deve essere inviata non oltre il 20 ottobre. Sono trascorsi vent'anni dalla caduta del Muro di Berlino, evento che ha portato alla fine della divisione in Europa, rappresentato la promessa di una pace duratura nel continente e rilanciato il processo di allargamento dell'Unione europea. Vai alla pagina dedicata al convegno OBC Tutto per un libro. Il malcontento, dovuto a sviste e pregiudizi, ha toccato sia macedoni che albanesi, superando anche i confini nazionali. Stimolo Irlanda. Le reazioni in Serbia al referendum irlandese.
Campo di battaglia. Il presunto assassino si arrende alla polizia, per poi scappare dopo poche ore. Tensione in Bosnia Erzegovina, il resoconto del nostro corrispondente. Di cosa vive l'uomo? Brecht e il rapporto tra arte e politica al centro della manifestazione curata da un collettivo di Zagabria. Ceausescu chi? Un reportage scritto da Osservatorio per lo speciale di Diario dedicato ai vent'anni dalla caduta del muro di Berlino, in edicola nel numero di ottobre. Strategie di palazzo. Buongiorno George. L'ultimo esponente della dinastia politica dei Papandreu ha dominato la tornata elettorale in Grecia dello scorso 4 ottobre.
I socialisti hanno ora la maggioranza assoluta in parlamento e si apprestano a governare. Crisi d'autunno. Il premier democratico liberale Emil Boc si trova a guidare un esecutivo di minoranza dopo le dimissioni dei ministri socialdemocratici. Sullo sfondo la lotta tra Basescu e Geoana per le presidenziali di novembre. Verso l'Europa. Sotto assedio. La diplomazia del calcio. Ma la normalizzazione dei rapporti tra i due Paesi deve passare al vaglio dei rispettivi Parlamenti. Il dibattito in Turchia. Hanno sbagliato tutti. I punti principali del report e le reazioni in Georgia.
Il goal della bandiera. La perestrojka e i raggi cosmici. Un'intervista a Ashot Chilingarian, direttore dell'Istituto di fisica di Yerevan. Organisation, logistique. Dugommier ligne 6. Bus : 29, 46, Renseignements et inscriptions Patricia Bronet. Deux approches : neurobiologique et anthropologique. Antony secteur 92 I 06 , psychanalyste. Intervenants : Sylvain Missonnier, professeur de psychopa-. Intervenants : Marie-Christine Laznik, psychanalyste, consul-.
Henri Danon-Boileau, psychiatre, psychanalyste. Xavier Pommereau, psychiatre, chef de service,. Sono solo alcuni degli intellettuali a cui abbiamo chiesto di raccontare il loro e di analizzare i vent'anni che ne sono seguiti. Questa settimana abbiamo pubblicato un saggio della sociologa Melita Richter e un articolo di Risto Karajkov nel quale si analizza il processo di lustrazione nei Balcani. Prossimamente l'intervista a Ashot Chilingarian, fisico armeno di fama internazionale che negli anni tormentati della Perestrojka non ha mai abbandonato i suoi laboratori in cima al monte Aragats, il lungo racconto di un eroe per caso dei primi giorni della rivoluzione rumena e la video-intervista al primo Presidente della Repubblica della Bulgaria post-comunista.
Vai al programma. Perdonare o dimenticare. E in molti si chiedono se, con quasi due decenni di ritardo, rovistare negli archivi abbia ancora un senso. Un contributo del nostro dossier ''Il lungo '89''. Addio Bosnia, vado a Sarajevo. La profezia di Husein Kapetan Grada? Le mafie e l'Est Europa.
Roberto Saviano, autore del bestseller "Gomorra", si sta dedicando all'analisi dei flussi criminali nell'Europa orientale, tema del suo prossimo libro. Il biker e la religione. Il curioso caso di Spaska Mitrova. Amore e altri crimini. Una giornata della Belgrado di periferia, tra amori, tradimenti e sogni di riscatto. Nostra recensione. Cambio della guardia. Dopo 8 anni, il leader comunista lascia la presidenza per consentire l'elezione a premier del liberal democratico Vlad Filat. Integrazione europea e soluzione della crisi in Transnistria le sfide del nuovo esecutivo.
All'ombra del Muro. L'intervento della sociologa Melita Richter. Star wars, ultimo episodio. Cabaret pseudo-emigrante. I "Foltin" sono sicuramente il fenomeno musicale del momento in Macedonia. Osservatorio ha intervistato Branko Nikolov, cantante e front-man della formazione. Tra musica e poesia. Una partnership im praticabile? Grasset Les Puf septembre Ed du Seuil Aubier Elena Peltier. Pathologie de la Pelade et incidences psychiques - Jean Heno.
Jean Pierre Martin. NEWS - settembre Aperto a psichiatri, psicologi, insegnanti ed educatori,. Vortice e turbolenza. Cambiamento conversione. Analisi terminabile, formazione interminabile. Caretti e G. Craparo, Astrolabio, ;. Ancelin Schutzenberger e E. Bissone Jeufroy, Di Renzo Editore, Quali confini? Pour info : la loi HPST. Renseignements : Andrea Rossini, giornalista di Osservatorio Balcani e Caucaso ha vinto l'edizione del premio giornalistico Enzo Baldoni, sezione internet.
Leggi l'inchiesta: Morte di uno sminatore. Condannati a morte. Cordialmente freddi. Stato impotente. L'annullamento del Gay pride a Belgrado ha messo a nudo la debolezza dello Stato nei confronti di gruppi estremisti, e delle loro minacce di pestaggi e violenze. Il commento della nostra corrispondente. Fare breccia in Transnistria. L'abbiamo incontrata nella sede dell'organizzazione a Tiraspol. Colmando le distanze. L'edizione di quest'anno della Biennale di arte contemporanea di Tirana prova a stimolare il dibattito sullo sviluppo urbano. Un'intervista al suo direttore Edi Muka.
L'incertezza sulla loro sorte tormenta un milione di famigliari. Il filo comune tra Kosovo, Bosnia Erzegovina e Croazia. Il tesoro fragile dei Sassoni. Arrivano gli italiani. Tra i torbeshi della Macedonia.
Seconda puntata di un nostro reportage. Karabakh, sottovoce. Il resoconto del nostro corrispondente. Attivisti sotto inchiesta. Ora si trova indagata per diffamazione. L'ennesimo caso di giovane attivista sotto inchiesta nel Caucaso meridionale. The research project will be launched in October Applicants should hold a postgraduate degree in an appropriate discipline Peace Studies, Conflict Resolution, International Relations, Security Studies, etc.
Experience of action-research methodologies, experience of practice projects in the field of conflict transformation, experience of conference management are desirable elements. The exact job description and remuneration will be fixed according to qualifications and experience. For application please send a full CV and a covering letter of intention by email to the director of Berghof Conflict Research, Prof. Hans J.
Giessmann: info berghof-center. Quelle place accorder de. Contact : Andrea Baldassarro : balthassar katamail. Cosimo Trono : cosimo. Intervenants-relatori :. Giuseppe LEO psichiatra, psicoterapeuta, Lecce. Les textes traduits seront accessibles sur place. I testi tradotti saranno disponibili sul luogo del convegno. Par virement bancaire sur le compte - per bonifico bancario sul conto:. Vol A-R Paris-Rome. Volo A-R Parigi-Roma. Questioni di Stati. Si respirava una sintonia tale tra il premier croato Jadranka Kosor e quello sloveno Borut Pahor che non sembrava il loro incontro fosse stato preceduto da un anno di vera e propria guerra diplomatica.
I due paesi sono infine arrivati ad un accordo che sblocca il percorso d'integrazione nell'Ue della Croazia e individua una strada condivisa per risolvere il contenzioso di confine. Mosca interviene con i propri mezzi. Nell'ultimo periodo il tema del contrasto tra Georgia e Abkhazia nelle acque del Mar Nero ha ottenuto sempre maggiore attenzione.
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