They will ask of impartial foreigners who have been among us, whether they saw or heard on the spot any instances of anarchy. They will judge too that a people occupied as we are in opening rivers, digging navigable canals, making roads, building public schools, establishing academies, erecting busts and statues to our great men, protecting religious freedom, abolishing sanguinary punishments, reforming and improving our laws in general, they will judge I say for themselves whether these are not the occupations of a people at their ease, whether this is not better evidence of our true state than a London newspaper, hired to lie, and from which no truth can ever be extracted but by reversing everything it says.
I did not begin this lecture my friend with a view to learn from you what America is doing. Let us return then to our point. I wished to make you sensible how imprudent it is to place your affections, without reserve, on objects you must so soon lose, and whose loss when it comes must cost you such severe pangs. Remember the last night. You knew your friends were to leave Paris to-day. This was enough to throw you into agonies. All night you tossed us from one side of the bed to the other. No sleep, no rest. The Surgeon then was to be called, and to be rated as an ignoramus because he could not devine the cause of this extraordinary change.
This is not a world to live at random in as you do. To avoid these eternal distresses, to which you are for ever exposing us, you must learn to look forward before you take a step which may interest our peace. Everything in this world is matter of calculation. Advance then with caution, the balance in your hand. Put into one scale the pleasures which any object may offer; but put fairly into the other the pains which are to follow, and see which preponderates. The making an acquaintance is not a matter of indifference.
When a new one is proposed to you, view it all round. Consider what advantages it presents, and to what inconveniencies it may expose you. Do not bite at the bait of pleasure till you know there is no hook beneath it. The art of life is the art of avoiding pain: and he is the best pilot who steers clearest of the rocks and shoals with which it is beset.
Pleasure is always before us; but misfortune is at our side: while running after that, this arrests us. The most effectual means of being secure against pain is to retire within ourselves, and to suffice for our own happiness. Those, which depend on ourselves, are the only pleasures a wise man will count on: for nothing is ours which another may deprive us of. Hence the inestimable value of intellectual pleasures. Ever in our power, always leading us to something new, never cloying, we ride, serene and sublime, above the concerns of this mortal world, contemplating truth and nature, matter and motion, the laws which bind up their existence, and that eternal being who made and bound them up by these laws.
Let this be our employ. Leave the bustle and tumult of society to those who have not talents to occupy themselves without them. Friendship is but another name for an alliance with the follies and the misfortunes of others. Our own share of miseries is sufficient: why enter then as volunteers into those of another? Is there so little gall poured into our own cup that we must needs help to drink that of our neighbor? A friend dies or leaves us: we feel as if a limb was cut off. He is sick: we must watch over him, and participate of his pains.
His fortune is shipwrecked: ours must be laid under contribution. He loses a child, a parent or a partner: we must mourn the loss as if it was our own. And what more sublime delight than to mingle tears with one whom the hand of heaven hath smitten! To share our bread with one to whom misfortune has left none! When languishing then under disease, how grateful is the solace of our friends! How are we penetrated with their assiduities and attentions!
How much are we supported by their encouragements and kind offices! When Heaven has taken from us some object of our love, how sweet is it to have a bosom whereon to recline our heads, and into which we may pour the torrent of our tears! Grief, with such a comfort, is almost a luxury! In a life where we are perpetually exposed to want and accident, yours is a wonderful proposition, to insulate ourselves, to retire from all aid, and to wrap ourselves in the mantle of self-sufficiency!
For assuredly nobody will care for him who cares for nobody. But friendship is precious not only in the shade but in the sunshine of life: and thanks to a benevolent arrangement of things, the greater part of life is sunshine. I will recur for proof to the days we have lately passed.
On these indeed the sun shone brightly! How gay did the face of nature appear! Whence did they borrow it? From the presence of our charming companion. They were pleasing, because she seemed pleased. Alone, the scene would have been dull and insipid: the participation of it with her gave it relish. Let the gloomy Monk, sequestered from the world, seek unsocial pleasures in the bottom of his cell! Let the sublimated philosopher grasp visionary happiness while pursuing phantoms dressed in the garb of truth! Their supreme wisdom is supreme folly: and they mistake for happiness the mere absence of pain.
Had they ever felt the solid pleasure of one generous spasm of the heart, they would exchange for it all the frigid speculations of their lives, which you have been vaunting in such elevated terms. Believe me then, my friend, that that is a miserable arithmetic which would estimate friendship at nothing, or at less than nothing. Respect for you has induced me to enter into this discussion, and to hear principles uttered which I detest and abjure.
Respect for myself now obliges me to recall you into the proper limits of your office. When nature assigned us the same habitation, she gave us over it a divided empire. To you she allotted the field of science, to me that of morals. When the circle is to be squared, or the orbit of a comet to be traced; when the arch of greatest strength, or the solid of least resistance is to be investigated, take you the problem: it is yours: nature has given me no cognisance of it. In like manner in denying to you the feelings of sympathy, of benevolence, of gratitude, of justice, of love, of friendship, she has excluded you from their controul.
To these she has adapted the mechanism of the heart. Morals were too essential to the happiness of man to be risked on the incertain combinations of the head. She laid their foundation therefore in sentiment, not in science. That she gave to all, as necessary to all: this to a few only, as sufficing with a few. A few facts however which I can readily recall to your memory, will suffice to prove to you that nature has not organised you for our moral direction. When the poor wearied souldier, whom we overtook at Chickahominy with his pack on his back, begged us to let him get up behind our chariot, you began to calculate that the road was full of souldiers, and that if all should be taken up our horses would fail in their journey.
We drove on therefore. But soon becoming sensible you had made me do wrong, that tho we cannot relieve all the distressed we should relieve as many as we can, I turned about to take up the souldier; but he had entered a bye path, and was no more to be found: and from that moment to this I could never find him out to ask his forgiveness. Again, when the poor woman came to ask a charity in Philadelphia, you whispered that she looked like a drunkard, and that half a dollar was enough to give her for the ale-house.
Those who want the dispositions to give, easily find reasons why they ought not to give. When I sought her out afterwards, and did what I should have done at first, you know that she employed the money immediately towards placing her child at school. You began to calculate and to compare wealth and numbers: we threw up a few pulsations of our warmest blood: we supplied enthusiasm against wealth and numbers: we put our existence to the hazard, when the hazard seemed against us, and we saved our country: justifying at the same time the ways of Providence, whose precept is to do always what is right, and leave the issue to him.
In short, my friend, as far as my recollection serves me, I do not know that I ever did a good thing on your suggestion, or a dirty one without it. I do for ever then disclaim your interference in my province. Fill paper as you please with triangles and squares: try how many ways you can hang and combine them together. I shall never envy nor controul your sublime delights. But leave me to decide when and where friendships are to be contracted. You say I contract them at random, so you said the woman at Philadelphia was a drunkard.
I receive no one into my esteem till I know they are worthy of it. Wealth, title, office, are no recommendations to my friendship. On the contrary great good qualities are requisite to make amends for their having wealth, title and office. You confess that in the present case I could not have made a worthier choice. You only object that I was so soon to lose them. We are not immortal ourselves, my friend; how can we expect our enjoiments to be so?
It is the law of our existence; and we must acquiesce. It is the condition annexed to all our pleasures, not by us who receive, but by him who gives them. True, this condition is pressing cruelly on me at this moment. I feel more fit for death than life. But when I look back on the pleasures of which it is the consequence, I am conscious they were worth the price I am paying.
Notwithstanding your endeavors too to damp my hopes, I comfort myself with expectations of their promised return. Hope is sweeter than despair, and they were too good to mean to deceive me. In the summer, said the gentleman; but in the spring, said the lady: and I should love her forever, were it only for that!
Knowing then my determination, attempt not to disturb it. If you can at any time furnish matter for their amusement, it will be the office of a good neighbor to do it. I will in like manner seize any occasion which may offer to do the like good turn for you with Condorcet, Rittenhouse, Madison, La Cretelle, or any other of those worthy sons of science whom you so justly prize.
I thought this a favorable proposition whereon to rest the issue of the dialogue. So I put an end to it by calling for my nightcap. Methinks I hear you wish to heaven I had called a little sooner, and so spared you the ennui of such a tedious sermon. I did not interrupt them sooner because I was in a mood for hearing sermons. You too were the subject; and on such a thesis I never think the theme long; not even if I am to write it, and that slowly and awkwardly, as now, with the left hand. But that you may not be discoraged from a correspondence which begins so formidably, I will promise you on my honour that my future letters shall be of a reasonable length.
I will even agree to express but half my esteem for you, for fear of cloying you with too full a dose. But, on your part, no curtailing. If your letters are as long as the bible, they will appear short to me. Only let them be brim full of affection. We have had incessant rains since your departure.
From Thomas Jefferson to Maria Cosway, 12 October 1786
These make me fear for your health, as well as that you have had an uncomfortable journey. The same cause has prevented me from being able to give you any account of your friends here. Danquerville promised to visit me, but has not done it as yet. De latude comes sometimes to take family soupe with me, and entertains me with anecdotes of his five and thirty years imprisonment.
How fertile is the mind of man which can make the Bastille and Dungeon of Vincennes yeild interesting anecdotes. You know this was for making four verses on Mme. But I think you told me you did not know the verses. Gospel poems : Throughout her life, Dickinson wrote poems reflecting a preoccupation with the teachings of Jesus Christ and, indeed, many are addressed to him.
The Undiscovered Continent : Academic Suzanne Juhasz considers that Dickinson saw the mind and spirit as tangible visitable places and that for much of her life she lived within them. At other times, the imagery is darker and forbidding—castles or prisons, complete with corridors and rooms—to create a dwelling place of "oneself" where one resides with one's other selves. The surge of posthumous publication gave Dickinson's poetry its first public exposure. Backed by Higginson and with a favorable notice from William Dean Howells , an editor of Harper's Magazine , the poetry received mixed reviews after it was first published in Higginson himself stated in his preface to the first edition of Dickinson's published work that the poetry's quality "is that of extraordinary grasp and insight",  albeit "without the proper control and chastening" that the experience of publishing during her lifetime might have conferred.
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Maurice Thompson , who was literary editor of The Independent for twelve years, noted in that her poetry had "a strange mixture of rare individuality and originality". Andrew Lang , a British writer, dismissed Dickinson's work, stating that "if poetry is to exist at all, it really must have form and grammar, and must rhyme when it professes to rhyme.
The wisdom of the ages and the nature of man insist on so much". She was deeply tinged by the mysticism of Blake , and strongly influenced by the mannerism of Emerson Critical attention to Dickinson's poetry was meager from to the early s. Rather than seeing Dickinson's poetic styling as a result of lack of knowledge or skill, modern critics believed the irregularities were consciously artistic.
Dickinson was suddenly referred to by various critics as a great woman poet, and a cult following began to form. Her gift for words and the cultural predicament of her time drove her to poetry instead of antimacassars She came The second wave of feminism created greater cultural sympathy for her as a female poet. In the first collection of critical essays on Dickinson from a feminist perspective, she is heralded as the greatest woman poet in the English language.
She carefully selected her society and controlled the disposal of her time Some scholars question the poet's sexuality, theorizing that the numerous letters and poems that were dedicated to Susan Gilbert Dickinson indicate a lesbian romance, and speculating about how this may have influenced her poetry. Bianchi promoted Dickinson's poetic achievement. Bianchi inherited The Evergreens as well as the copyright for her aunt's poetry from her parents, publishing works such as Emily Dickinson Face to Face and Letters of Emily Dickinson , which stoked public curiosity about her aunt.
Bianchi's books perpetrated legends about her aunt in the context of family tradition, personal recollection and correspondence. In contrast, Millicent Todd Bingham's took a more objective and realistic approach to the poet. Emily Dickinson is now considered a powerful and persistent figure in American culture. Eliot , and Hart Crane as a major American poet,  and in listed her among the 26 central writers of Western civilization.
Dickinson is taught in American literature and poetry classes in the United States from middle school to college. A digital facsimile of the herbarium is available online. In , in recognition of Dickinson's growing stature as a poet, the Homestead was purchased by Amherst College. It opened to the public for tours, and also served as a faculty residence for many years.
The Emily Dickinson Museum was created in when ownership of the Evergreens, which had been occupied by Dickinson family heirs until , was transferred to the college. Emily Dickinson's life and works have been the source of inspiration to artists, particularly to feminist -oriented artists, of a variety of mediums. A few notable examples are as follows:. A public garden is named in her honor in Paris: 'square Emily-Dickinson' , in the 20th arrondissement of the French capital. A few examples of these translations are the following:.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Emily Dickinson. Daguerreotype taken at Mount Holyoke , December or early ; the only authenticated portrait of Emily Dickinson after childhood . Main article: List of Emily Dickinson poems. Biography portal Poetry portal. Retrieved August 25, Archived from the original on August 7, The New York Times. November 29, Archived from the original on October 4, Retrieved September 12, June 16, The Nation. Retrieved June 29, September 6, The Emily Dickinson Journal.
A Journal of Feminist Cultural Studies. The Guardian. February 13, Retrieved August 20, May 17, The LiederNet Archive. Retrieved March 8, Emily Dickinson School website, Bozeman, Montana. Archived from the original on October 2, Retrieved January 16, Archived from the original on December 20, Retrieved July 24, Retrieved December 18, Harvard University Library.
Archived from the original on July 12, Retrieved June 22, Emily Dickinson Museum. Retrieved September 23, Harvard University Press. Retrieved August 4, Herbarium, circa — MS Am Jones Library, Inc. Archived from the original on December 25, Emily Dickinson Museum website, Amherst, Massachusetts. Archived from the original on October 23, Retrieved December 13, Brooklyn Museum. March 14, Retrieved August 12, Retrieved August 21, July 26, Retrieved January 14, Bianchi, Martha Dickinson. Hamden, Conn. Blake, Caesar R. Caesar R. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
Bloom, Harold. New York: Harcourt Brace. Buckingham, Willis J. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press. Comment, Kristin M. Crumbley, Paul. Lexington: The University Press of Kentucky. D'Arienzo, Daria. Winter Retrieved June 23, Farr, Judith ed. Prentice Hall International Paperback Editions. Farr, Judith. The Gardens of Emily Dickinson. Ford, Thomas W.
University of Alabama Press. Franklin, R. The Master Letters of Emily Dickinson. University of Massachusetts Press. Gordon, Lyndall. The Emily Dickinson Handbook. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press. Habegger, Alfred. New York: Random House. Juhasz, Suzanne ed. Feminist Critics Read Emily Dickinson. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
Juhasz, Suzanne. Knapp, Bettina L. New York: Continuum Publishing. Martin, Wendy ed.
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The Cambridge Companion to Emily Dickinson. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. McNeil, Helen. London: Virago Press. Mitchell, Domhnall Mitchell and Maria Stuart. The International Reception of Emily Dickinson. New York: Continuum. University Press of New England. Oberhaus, Dorothy Huff. Parker, Peter. Retrieved January 18, Pickard, John B. Emily Dickinson: An Introduction and Interpretation. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston. Pollak, Vivian R.
Sewall, Richard B. The Life of Emily Dickinson.
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New York: Farrar, Straus, and Giroux. Smith, Martha Nell. Rowing in Eden: Rereading Emily Dickinson. Austin, Texas: University of Texas Press. Stocks, Kenneth. New York: St. Martin's Press. Walsh, John Evangelist. The Hidden Life of Emily Dickinson. New York: Simon and Schuster. Wells, Anna Mary. November Wilson, Edmund. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux. Wolff, Cynthia Griffin. New York.
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