The Future Eve (Annotated)

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Mellor states that the topic of pregnancy was avoided in literature by male authors during the time. Even when woman began to write, Mellor says the topic was seen as improper or even taboo. A connection is made with Frankenstein in how he parents his new creation. Mellor identifies the fact that Frankenstein, while never questioning whether his creature would have opposition to being the world, also never evaluated his lack of understanding and empathy for the monster he was creating. Instead of focusing on the perspective of the rejecting parent though, Shelley focuses on the abandonment of the child, as she could identify with the somewhat orphaned creature.

Musselwhite touches on three different aspects of the making of the monster. He is first suspicious by the fact that the monster has to work to learn anything at all in the novel. Musselwhite references two passages in the novel in which it is described the sort of people and language the monster is surrounded by—the domestic conversation within a group of fallen aristocrats.

The Creature seems confused by the fact that words express ideas, but that they are also articulations of sounds. Musselwhite evaluates the means and motivations by which the monster learns specific words, and how he relates names of people to the original meanings of the names. Musselwhite essentially tackles the idea that the monster created in Frankenstein threatens our identities by representing the bodies we as men fear, the sexualities we deny, the confusion we mask, as well as our history we try to escape from. In this article, Picart investigates the Frankenstein narrative within films specifically.

She tracks how parthenogenesis, better known as male self-birthing, is presented in films over time, as well as how adaptation films have transformed the topic through exaggeration and hyperbole. Both are ways through which the human psyche rids of the things it wishes to repress. Picart further discusses these by saying that the Frankenstein myth reveals two reactions to the machine—either people recognize it as a portion of themselves they must admit to, or as a separate monstrous entity that they themselves must control.

Picart creates a third shadow of her own, one that combines the feminine and monstrous aspects of film; a combination of the first two shadows. She believes this shadow is most needed in Frankenstein films to alleviate tension in the plots. Picart gives the example of Frankenstein , where both the female characters of Caroline and Judy are killed by the end of movie.

She believes the deaths take place in order to resolve the conflict in the film. Picart further discusses the issues of this third shadow and how feminine monstrosity is presented through the examples of films such as Bride of Frankenstein and Frankenstein Created Woman. As with the population as a whole, there is much evidence that children are being born most rapidly in those Negro families with the least financial resources. This is an ancient pattern, but because the needs of children are greater today it is very possible that the education and opportunity gap between the offspring of these families and those of stable middle-class unions is not closing, but is growing wider.

A cycle is at work; too many children too early make it most difficult for the parents to finish school. In February, , 38 percent of the white girls who dropped out of school did so because of marriage or pregnancy, as against 49 percent of nonwhite girls. Low education levels in turn produce low income levels, which deprive children of many opportunities, and so the cycle repeats itself. That the Negro American has survived at all is extraordinary—a lesser people might simply have died out, as indeed others have.

That the Negro community has not only survived, but in this political generation has entered national affairs as a moderate, humane, and constructive national force is the highest testament to the healing powers of the democratic ideal and the creative vitality of the Negro people. But it may not be supposed that the Negro American community has not paid a fearful price for the incredible mistreatment to which it has been subjected over the past three centuries. Mid-century liberals such as Moynihan used damage imagery to elicit sympathy for African Americans among whites and support for anti-racist legislation.

However, Scott argues that by playing upon white pity, proponents of the damage thesis failed to recognize African Americans as equal citizens. In the Black Power era of the late and early s, many African Americans challenged the damage thesis and asserted the equality or superiority of African American culture; they often targeted the Moynihan Report. Are American Negroes simply the creation of white men or have they at least helped to create themselves out of what they found around them? In essence, the Negro community has been forced into a matriarchal structure which, because it is too out of line with the rest of the American society, seriously retards the progress of the group as a whole, and imposes a crushing burden on the Negro male and, in consequence, on a great many Negro women as well.

There is, presumably, no special reason why a society in which males are dominant in family relationships is to be preferred to a matriarchal arrangement. However, it is clearly a disadvantage for a minority group to be operating on one principle, while the great majority of the population, and the one with the most advantages to begin with, is operating on another. This is the present situation of the Negro. Ours is a society which presumes male leadership in private and public affairs.

The arrangements of society facilitate such leadership and reward it. A subculture, such as that of the Negro American, in which this is not the pattern, is placed at a distinct disadvantage. Moynihan offered different explanations for the superiority of the male-headed family at different points in his report. Here an earlier word of caution should be repeated. These is much evidence that a considerable number of Negro families have managed to break out of the tangle of pathology and to establish themselves as stable, effective units, living according to patterns of American society in general.

Franklin Frazier has suggested that the middle-class Negro American family is, if anything, more patriarchal and protective of its children than the general run of such families.

The Future Eve (Annotated) by Villiers de L'Isle-Adam (2 star ratings)

They need no help from anyone, and ask none. While this phenomenon is not easily measured, one index is that middle class Negroes have even fewer children than middle class whites, indicating a desire to conserve the advances they have made and to insure that their children do as well or better.

Negro women who marry early to uneducated laborers have more children than white women in the same situation; Negro women who marry at the common age for the middle class to educated men doing technical or professional work have only four fifths as many children as their white counterparts. It might be estimated that as much as half of the Negro community falls into the middle class.

However, the remaining half is in desperate and deteriorating circumstances. Moreover, because of housing segregation it is immensely difficult for the stable half to escape from the cultural influences of the unstable one. The children of middle class Negroes often as not must grow up in, or next to the slums, an experience almost unknown to white middle class children. They are therefore constantly exposed to the pathology of the disturbed group and constantly in danger of being drawn into it.

It is for this reason that the propositions put forth in this study may be thought of as having a more or less general application. In a word, most Negro youth are in danger of being caught up in the tangle of pathology that affects their world, and probably a majority are so entrapped. Many of those who escape do so for one generation only: as things now are, their children may have to run the gauntlet all over again. That is not the least vicious aspect of the world that white America has made for the Negro.

Obviously, not every instance of social pathology afflicting the Negro community can be traced to the weakness of family structure. If, for example, organized crime in the Negro community were not largely controlled by whites, there would be more capital accumulation among Negroes, and therefore probably more Negro business enterprises. If it were not for the hostility and fear many whites exhibit toward Negroes, they in turn would be less afflicted by hostility and fear and so on.

There is no one Negro community. There is no one Negro problem. There is no one solution. Nonetheless, at the center of the tangle of pathology is the weakness of the family structure. Once or twice removed, it will be found to be the principal source of most of the aberrant, inadequate, or antisocial behavior that did not establish, but now serves to perpetuate the cycle of poverty and deprivation. It was by destroying the Negro family under slavery that white America broke the will of the Negro people. Although that will has reasserted itself in our time, it is a resurgence doomed to frustration unless the viability of the Negro family is restored.

A fundamental fact of Negro American family life is the often reversed roles of husband and wife. Moynihan argues here that not only are families headed by single mothers a problem, so too are intact families in which women are dominant. Robert O. Blood, Jr.

The matriarchal pattern of so many Negro families reinforces itself over the generations. This process begins with education. Although the gap appears to be closing at the moment, for a long while, Negro females were better educated than Negro males, and this remains true today for the Negro population as a whole.

The difference in educational attainment between nonwhite men and women in the labor force is even greater; men lag 1. The disparity in educational attainment of male and female youth 16 to 21 who were out of school in February, , is striking. Among the nonwhite males, A similar difference existed at the college level, with 4.

Eve's Diary (Annotated)

The poorer performance of the male in school exists from the very beginning, and the magnitude of the difference was documented by the Census in statistics on the number of children who have fallen one or more grades below the typical grade for children of the same age. The boys have more frequently fallen behind at every age level. White boys also lag behind white girls, but at a differential of 1 to 6 percentage points. In , 39 percent of all white persons 25 years of age and over who had completed 4 or more years of college were women.

Fifty-three percent of the nonwhites who had attained this level were women. However, the gap is closing. By October , there were slightly more Negro men in college than women. Among whites there were almost twice as many men as women enrolled. For example, I have examined the honor rolls in Negro high schools for about 10 years. As a rule, from 75 to 90 percent of all Negro honor students are girls.

Thompson reports that 70 percent of all applications for the National Achievement Scholarship Program financed by the Ford Foundation for outstanding Negro high school graduates are girls, despite special efforts by high school principals to submit the names of boys.

The finalists for this new program for outstanding Negro students were recently announced. Based on an inspection of the names, only about 43 percent of all the finalists were male. However, in the regular National Merit Scholarship program, males received 67 percent of the scholarship awards. In 1 out of 4 Negro families where the husband is present, is an earner, and someone else in the family works, the husband is not the principal earner.

The comparable figure for whites is 18 percent.


More important, it is clear that Negro females have established a strong position for themselves in white collar and professional employment, precisely the areas of the economy which are growing most rapidly, and to which the highest prestige is accorded. Moynihan notes here that, as compared with African American women, African American men were economically vulnerable due to their overconcentration in industrial employment.

Yet Negro males represent only 1. Negro males represent 1. Again, in technician occupations, Negro males represent 2. It would appear therefore that there are proportionately 4 times as many Negro females in significant white collar jobs than Negro males. This is substantially similar to the rate of all females in such jobs. Approximately 7 out of every Negro females are in technician jobs. This exceeds the proportion of all females in technician jobs—approximately 5 out of every Nine out of every Negro males are in skilled occupations while 21 out of of all males are in such jobs.

This pattern is to be seen in the Federal government, where special efforts have been made recently to insure equal employment opportunity for Negroes. These efforts have been notably successful in Departments such as Labor, where some 19 percent of employees are now Negro. A not disproportionate percentage, given the composition of the work force in the areas where the main Department offices are located. However, it may well be that these efforts have redounded mostly to the benefit of Negro women, and may even have accentuated the comparative disadvantage of Negro men.

Because Moynihan thought that stable families required male breadwinners, he believed that job opportunities should be reserved for African American men. Seventy percent of the Negro employees of the Department of Labor are women, as contrasted with only 42 percent of the white employees. Among nonprofessional Labor Department employees—where the most employment opportunities exist for all groups—Negro women outnumber Negro men 4 to 1, and average almost one grade higher in classification.

The testimony to the effects of these patterns in Negro family structure is wide spread, and hardly to be doubted. Whitney Young Whitney M. Young, Jr. Young publicly praised the Moynihan Report after it was released.

Both as a husband and as a father the Negro male is made to feel inadequate, not because he is unlovable or unaffectionate, lacks intelligence or even a gray flannel suit. But in a society that measures a man by the size of his pay check, he doesn't stand very tall in a comparison with his white counterpart.

To this situation he may react with withdrawal, bitterness toward society, aggression both within the family and racial group, self-hatred, or crime. Or he may escape through a number of avenues that help him to lose himself in fantasy or to compensate for his low status through a variety of exploits.

Embittered by their experiences with men, many Negro mothers often act to perpetuate the mother centered pattern by taking a greater interest in their daughters than their sons. The Negro statistics are symtomatic [sic] of some old socioeconomic problems, not the least of which are under employment among Negro men and compensating higher labor force propensity among Negro women.

Both operate to enlarge the mother's role, undercutting the status of the male and making many Negro families essentially matriarchal. The Negro man's uncertain employment prospects, matriarchy, and the high cost of divorces combine to encourage desertion the poor man's divorce , increases the number of couples not married, and thereby also increases the Negro illegitimacy rate.

In the meantime, higher Negro birth rates are increasing the nonwhite population, while migration into cities like Detroit, New York, Philadelphia, and Washington, D. Of the 93 unmarried Negro youths interviewed, 22 percent did not have their mother living in the home with them, and 42 percent reported that their father was not living in their home.

One third of the youth did not know their father's present occupation, and two-thirds of a sample of Negro adults did not know what the occupation of their father's father had been. Forty percent of the youths said that they had brothers and sisters living in other communities: another 40 percent reported relatives living in their home who were not parents, siblings, or grandparent.

The white family, despite many variants, remains a powerful agency not only for transmitting property from one generation to the next, but also for transmitting no less valuable contracts with the world of education and work. In an earlier age, the Carpenters, Wainwrights, Weavers, Mercers, Farmers, Smiths acquired their names as well as their trades from their fathers and grandfathers. Children today still learn the patterns of work from their fathers even though they may no longer go into the same jobs.

Not always, to be sure. The Negro community produces its share, very possibly more than its share, of young people who have the something extra that carries them over the worst obstacles. But such persons are always a minority. The common run of young people in a group facing serious obstacles to success do not succeed. A prime index of the disadvantage of Negro youth in the United States is their consistently poor performance on the mental tests that are a standard means of measuring ability and performance in the present generation.

There is absolutely no question of any genetic differential: Intelligence potential is distributed among Negro infants in the same proportion as among Icelanders or Chinese or any other group. American society, however, impairs the Negro potential. Arthur Jensen cited it in his widely discussed article arguing that genetic differences in intelligence explained disparities between white and black educational achievement. Arguments for hereditary racial disparities in intelligence have no scientific basis, yet persist today.

Eighth grade children in central Harlem have a median IQ of IQ declines in the first decade of life, rising only slightly thereafter. The effect of broken families on the performance of Negro youth has not been extensively measured, but studies that have been made show an unmistakable influence. Coleman: a document commissioned by the Department of Education and officially titled Equality of Educational Opportunity.

Coleman argued that disparities in educational resources was a not a significant reason why black schoolchildren failed to test as well as white schoolchildren. Moynihan championed the Coleman Report when it came under fire. Martin Deutch and Bert Brown, investigating intelligence test differences between Negro and white 1st and 5th graders of different social classes, found that there is a direct relationship between social class and IQ.

As the one rises so does the other: but more for whites than Negroes. This is surely a result of housing segregation, referred to earlier, which makes it difficult for middle class Negro families to escape the slums. Further, they found that children from homes where fathers are present have significantly higher scores than children in homes without fathers.

This difference in ability to perform has its counterpart in statistics on actual school performance. Nonwhite boys from families with both parents present are more likely to be going to school than boys with only one parent present, and enrollment rates are even lower when neither parent is present. When the boys from broken homes are in school, they do not do as well as the boys from whole families. Grade retardation is higher when only one parent is present, and highest when neither parent is present. The loneliness of the Negro youth in making fundamental decisions about education is shown in a study of Negro and white dropouts in Connecticut high schools.

Only 29 percent of Negro male dropouts discussed their decision to drop out of school with their fathers, compared with 65 percent of the white males 38 percent of the Negro males were from broken homes. In fact, 26 percent of the Negro males did not discuss this major decision in their lives with anyone at all, compared with only 8 percent of white males. Negroes are not apt to have relatives, friends, or neighbors in skilled occupations. Nor are they likely to be in secondary schools where they receive encouragement and direction from alternate role models.

The combined impact of poverty, failure, and isolation among Negro youth has had the predictable outcome in a disastrous delinquency and crime rate. In a typical pattern of discrimination, Negro children in all public and private orphanages are a smaller proportion of all children than their proportion of the population although their needs are clearly greater. On the other hand Negroes represent a third of all youth in training schools for juvenile delinquents.

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It is probable that at present, a majority of the crimes against the person, such as rape, murder, and aggravated assault are committed by Negroes. There is, of course, no absolute evidence; inference can only be made from arrest and prison population statistics. The data that follow [chart not reproduced] unquestionably are biased against Negroes, who are arraigned much more casually than are whites, but it may be doubted that the bias is great enough to affect the general proportions.

Though acknowledging racial bias in crime reporting, Moynihan nevertheless treats arrest data as reliable. Moynihan hoped to convince readers that improving the economic position of African American men would help reduce crime, but his reference to violent black criminals evoked racist stereotypes.

Again on the urban frontier the ratio is worse: 3 out of every 5 arrests for these crimes were of Negroes. In Chicago in , three-quarters of the persons arrested for such crimes were Negro; in Detroit, the same proportions held. In , 37 percent of all persons in Federal and State prisons were Negro. In that year, 56 percent of the homicide and 57 percent of the assault offenders committed to State institutions were Negro. The overwhelming number of offenses committed by Negroes are directed toward other Negroes: the cost of crime to the Negro community is a combination of that to the criminal and to the victim.

Some of the research on the effects of broken homes on delinquent behavior recently surveyed by Thomas F. Pettigrew in A Profile of the Negro American is summarized below, along with several other studies of the question. Mary Diggs found that three-fourths—twice the expected ratio—of Philadelphia's Negro delinquents who came before the law during did not live with both their natural parents. In predicting juvenile crime, Eleanor and Sheldon Glueck also found that a higher proportion of delinquent than nondelinquent boys came from broken homes.

They identified five critical factors in the home environment that made a difference in whether boys would become delinquents: discipline of boy by father, supervision of boy by mother, affection of father for boy, affection of mother for boy, and cohesiveness of family. In , when the New York City Youth Board set out to test the validity of these five factors as predictors of delinquency, a problem quickly emerged.

However, the Youth Board group was 44 percent Negro and 14 percent Puerto Rican, and the frequency of broken homes within these groups was out of proportion to the total number of delinquents in the population. The final prediction table was reduced to three factors: supervision of boy by mother, discipline of boy by mother, and family cohesiveness within what family, in fact, existed, but was, nonetheless, 85 percent accurate in predicting delinquents and 96 percent accurate in predicting nondelinquents.

Recent psychological research demonstrates the personality effects of being reared in a disorganized home without a father.

Annotated Bibliography: Mary Shelley's Creation of the Monster

One study showed that children from fatherless homes seek immediate gratification of their desires far more than children with fathers present. Finally, Pettigrew discussed the evidence that a stable home is a crucial factor in counteracting the effects of racism upon Negro personality. A Yale University study of youth in the lowest socioeconomic class in New Haven in whose behavior was followed through their 18th year revealed that among the delinquents in the group, 38 percent came from broken homes, compared with 24 percent of nondelinquents.

Half of all the nonwhite rejectees in the study with a court record came from broken homes. The work sensitized Moynihan to the problems faced by poor African American men, who formed a disproportionate percentage of draft rejects, and partly inspired him to write The Negro Family. An examination of the family background of 44, delinquency cases in Philadelphia between and documents the frequency of broken homes among delinquents.

Sixty two percent of the Negro delinquents and 36 percent of white delinquents were not living with both parents. In , 33 percent of nonwhite children and 7 percent of white children in Philadelphia were living in homes without both parents. Repeaters were even more likely to be from broken homes than first offenders. The ultimate mark of inadequate preparation for life is the failure rate on the Armed Forces mental test.

Failure of the Armed Forces mental test was a significant reason why men were rejected for military service. The Armed Forces Qualification Test is not quite a mental test, nor yet an education test. It is a test of ability to perform at an acceptable level of competence. It roughly measures ability that ought to be found in an average 7th or 8th grade student.

A grown young man who cannot pass this test is in trouble. The Army, Navy, Air Force, and Marines conduct by far the largest and most important education and training activities of the Federal Government, as well as provide the largest single source of employment in the nation. Military service is disruptive in some respects. For those comparatively few who are killed or wounded in combat, or otherwise, the personal sacrifice is inestimable. But on balance service in the Armed Forces over the past quarter-century has worked greatly to the advantage of those involved. The training and experience of military duty itself is unique, the advantages that have generally followed in the form of the G.

Bill, mortgage guarantees, Federal life insurance, Civil Service preference, veterans hospitals, and veterans pensions are singular, to say the least. Moynihan had personally benefitted through military service, as a naval officer who enlisted during World War II. Bill funded his Ph. Moynihan worried that African American men were disproportionately excluded from such benefits of military service. Although service in the Armed Forces is at least nominally a duty of all male citizens coming of age, it is clear that the present system does not enable Negroes to serve in anything like their proportionate numbers.

This is not a question of discrimination. Induction into the Armed Forces is based on a variety of objective tests and standards, but these tests nonetheless have the effect of keeping the number of Negroes disproportionately small. In Negroes constituted This proposal acquired sinister overtones after the escalation of the Vietnam War in the summer of , particularly given the disproportionate casualties borne by black soldiers in Vietnam for example, one in four servicemen killed in combat in was African American.

Though framed in terms of benefitting disadvantaged Americans, Project , in fact aimed mainly to recruit more soldiers to fight in Vietnam. The significance of Negro under representation in the Armed Forces is greater than might at first be supposed. If Negroes were represented in the same proportions in the military as they are in the population, they would number , plus. This would be over , more than at present using strength figures.

If the more than , unemployed Negro men were to have gone into the military the Negro male unemployment rate would have been 7.

See a Problem?

In the Civil Rights Commission commented on the occupational aspect of military service for Negroes. There is, however, an even more important issue involved in military service for Negroes. If this is a statement of the ideal rather than reality, it is an ideal that is close to realization. In food, dress, housing, pay, work—the Negro in the Armed Forces is equal and is treated that way.

There is another special quality about military service for Negro men: it is an utterly masculine world. Given the strains of the disorganized and matrifocal family life in which so many Negro youth come of age, the Armed Forces are a dramatic and desperately needed change: a world away from women, a world run by strong men of unquestioned authority, where discipline, if harsh, is nonetheless orderly and predictable, and where rewards, if limited, are granted on the basis of performance.

Army you get to know what it means to feel like a man. Yet a majority of Negro youth and probably three quarters of Mississippi Negroes fail the Selective Service education test and are rejected. Negro participation in the Armed Forces would be less than it is, were it not for a proportionally larger share of voluntary enlistments and reenlistments. Thus The term alienation may by now have been used in too many ways to retain a clear meaning, but it will serve to sum up the equally numerous ways in which large numbers of Negro youth appear to be withdrawing from American society.

One startling way in which this occurs is that the men are just not there when the Census enumerator comes around. According to Bureau of Census population estimates for , there are only 87 nonwhite males for every females in the toyear age group. The ratio does not exceed 90 to throughout the toyear age bracket. In the urban Northeast, there are only 76 males per females toyears of age, and males as a percent of females are below 90 percent throughout all ages after There are not really fewer men than women in the to age bracket.

What obviously is involved is an error in counting: the surveyors simply do not find the Negro man. Donald J. Bogue and his associates, who have studied the Federal count of the Negro man, place the error as high as The Negro male can be found at age 17 and On the basis of birth records and mortality records, the conclusion must be that he is there at age 19 as well.

The labor force participation rates of nonwhite men have been falling since the beginning of the century and for the past decade have been lower than the rates for white men. In , the participation rates were Almost one percentage point of this difference was due to a higher proportion of nonwhite men unable to work because of long-term physical or mental illness; it seems reasonable to assume that the rest of the difference is due to discouragement about finding a job. If nonwhite male labor force participation rates were as high as the white rates, there would have been , more nonwhite males in the labor force in If we further assume that the , would have been unemployed, the unemployment rate for nonwhite men would have been The unemployment statistics for Negro teenagers—29 percent in January —reflect lack of training and opportunity in the greatest measure, but it may not be doubted that they also reflect a certain failure of nerve.

Richard A. They are not able to absorb setbacks. Minor irritants and rebuffs are magnified out of all proportion to reality. Perhaps they react as they do because they are not equal to the world that confronts them, and they know it. And it is the knowing that is devastating. Had the occupational structure remained intact, or had the education provided to them kept pace with occupational changes, the situation would be a different one.

But it is not, and that is what we and they have to contend with. Narcotic addiction is a characteristic form of withdrawal. In , Negroes made up 54 percent of the addict population of the United States. There is a larger fact about the alienation of Negro youth than the tangle of pathology described by these statistics. It is a fact particularly difficult to grasp by white persons who have in recent years shown increasing awareness of Negro problems.

The present generation of Negro youth growing up in the urban ghettos has probably less personal contact with the white world than any generation in the history of the Negro American. Until World War II it could be said that in general the Negro and white worlds live, if not together, at least side by side. Certainly they did, and do, in the South. Since World War II, however, the two worlds have drawn physically apart. Increasingly the inner cities have been left to Negroes—who now share almost no community life with whites.

In turn, because of this new housing pattern—most of which has been financially assisted by the Federal government—it is probable that the American school system has become more , rather than less segregated in the past two decades. He neglects to mention here the effects of redlining practices, not outlawed until , that excluded most African Americans from enjoying the benefits of federally - subsidized housing mortgages. School integration has not occurred in the South, where a decade after Brown v. Board of Education only 1 Negro in 9 is attending school with white children. And in the North, despite strenuous official efforts, neighborhoods and therefore schools are becoming more and more of one class and one color.

In New York City, in the school year there were 64 schools that were 90 percent of more Negro or Puerto Rican. Six years later there were such schools. Along with the diminution of white middle class contacts for a large percentage of Negroes, observers report that the Negro churches have all but lost contact with men in the Northern cities as well.

While some publishers have opted to apply OCR optical character recognition technology to the process, we believe this leads to sub-optimal results frequent typographical errors, strange characters and confusing formatting and does not adequately preserve the historical character of the original artifact. We believe this work is culturally important in its original archival form.

While we strive to adequately clean and digitally enhance the original work, there are occasionally instances where imperfections such as blurred or missing pages, poor pictures or errant marks may have been introduced due to either the quality of the original work or the scanning process itself. Despite these occasional imperfections, we have brought it back into print as part of our ongoing global book preservation commitment, providing customers with access to the best possible historical reprints.

We appreciate your understanding of these occasional imperfections, and sincerely hope you enjoy seeing the book in a format as close as possible to that intended by the original publisher. Raz-Krakotzkin examines the principles and practices of ecclesiastical censorship that were established in the second half of the sixteenth century as a part of this process. The book examines the development of censorship as part of the institutionalization of new measures of control over literature in this period, suggesting that we view surveillance of Hebrew literature not only as a measure directed against the Jews but also as a part of the rise of Hebraist discourse and therefore as a means of integrating Jewish literature into the Christian canon.

The censorship imposed upon the Jews had a definite impact on Hebrew literature, but it hardly denied its reading, in fact confirming the right of the Jews to possess and use most of their literature. By bringing together two apparently unrelated issues—the role of censorship in the creation of print culture and the place of Jewish culture in the context of Christian society—Raz-Krakotzkin advances a new outlook on both, allowing each to be examined through the conceptual framework usually reserved for the other.

Roche, Daniel. Berkeley: University of California Press, Rose, Jonathan. The Holocaust and the Book: Destruction and Preservation. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, Saxby, H. Spalding, Paul. West Lafayette: Pursue University Press, The story of the controversy the work aroused and of its eventual suppression sheds light on many aspects of the eighteenth century, as well as the nature of censorship in our time.

Stark, Gary. New York: Berghahn Books, Thake, Robert. Athanasourelis, John Paul. Fall , Vol. Barker, Martin, ed. Barnett, Jerry. Porn panic! First they came for the pornography… and then strip clubs, lads mags and music videos.

Michelangelo’s Creation of Adam

And then they came for hate speech… and then speech that was merely offensive. They eroded free speech online and on university campuses. They sought to divide people by gender and by race. Benjamin, Louise Margaret. Freedom of the air and the public interest: First Amendment rights in broadcasting to Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, Cohen, Henry. Freedom of speech and press : exceptions to the First Amendment. New York: Novinka Books, Lucia, Black, Gregory D. Bourrie, Mark. Bronstein, Carolyn.

Clegg, Cyndia Susan. Press Censorship in Caroline England. Cohen-Almagor, Raphael. New York: Palgrave, Corn-Revere, Robert. Couvares, Francis G. Culbert, D. Daly, Christoper. Today many believe that American journalism is in crisis, with traditional sources of news under siege from a failing business model, a resurgence of partisanship, and a growing expectation that all information ought to be free.

In Covering America, Christopher B. Daly places the current crisis within a much broader historical context, showing how it is only the latest in a series of transitions that have required journalists to devise new ways of plying their trade. Drawing on original research and synthesizing the latest scholarship, Daly traces the evolution of journalism in America from the early s to the digital revolution of today.

Analyzing the news business as a business, he identifies five major periods of journalism history, each marked by a different response to the recurrent conflicts that arise when a vital cultural institution is housed in a major private industry. Throughout his narrative history Daly captures the ethos of journalism with engaging anecdotes, biographical portraits of key figures, and illuminating accounts of the coverage of major news events as well as the mundane realities of day-to-day reporting.

Darnton, Roche and Robert, Daniel eds. Doherty, Thomas. New York: Columbia University Press, Dee, Publisher, Everson, William K. French, Philip and Julian Petley. Censoring the Moving Image. Garreau, Laurent. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France, Digital media freely delivers movies at our fingertips—content that not long ago was controlled by censors. Some of them were flamboyant champions of decency who tried to tame maverick filmmakers challenging established morals. Men like Major M. Funkhouser, police censor of Chicago, Lloyd T. Grieveson, Lee. Policing cinema: movies and censorship in early-twentieth-century America.

Griffith, Gareth. X rated Films and the regulation of sexually explicit material. Haberski Jr. Hawthorne, Christopher and Andras Szanto. The New Gatekeepers: emerging challenges to free expression in the arts. Hale, Oron J. Hilliard, Robert L. Dirty discourse: sex and indecency in American radio. Ames, Iowa: Iowa State Press, Leff, Leonard and Jerold L. New York: Grove Weidenfeld, Lucia, Queesnsland, Jennings, Brian. Johnson, William Bruce. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, Kenyota, Gregory. Lacub, M. Paris: Fayard. Does a country exist where one can say anything without legal sanctions?

For us Europeans, the US appears to be that promised land where everyone is free to express themselves without consequence. Of course, in matters of political opinion and general interest issues, the Americans are proud heirs of the Enlightenment. In a fascinating analysis of Supreme Court case, Marcela Iacub explains this double phenomenon of total liberty for political speech and repression of sexual speech.

She demonstrates that, the exclusion of the latter from the democratic debate is not just a marginal problem, indeed it imperils the entire structure of freedom of speech because it redefines what speech means. The special treatment of pornograpy is less about the protection of children or women, than about the very notion of speech in a democratic society, and hence of the scope and power of public debate. Marcela Iacub is a lawyer and researcher. Leab, Daniel J. Leff, Simmons and Leonard, Jerold L.

Hard Core. Mehta, Monika. Censorship and Sexuality in Bombay Cinema. Austin: University of Texas Press, Mills, Kay. Changing channels: the civil rights case that transformed television. Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, Munro, Colin R. Prince, Stephen. Classical film violence: designing and regulating brutality in Hollywood cinema, New Brunswick, N. Ricci, Steven. Cinema and Fascism: Italian Film and Society, Rigney, Jacob T. Robb, David L. Romanowski, William D. He shows how a broad spectrum of religious forces has played a role in Hollywood, from Presbyterians and Episcopalians to fundamentalists and evangelicals.

Romanowski shows that the rise of the evangelical movement in the s radically altered the picture, in contradictory ways. Randall, Richard S. Sanford, Bruce W. Semonche, John. Schulte, Henry F. Standing Comm. Stein, Laura. Strong, R. Sweeney, Michael S. Thompson, Loren B. Vanhorne, H. Wittern-Keller, Laura. Arthurs, Alberta; Wallach, Glenn, eds. Barbeau, Clayton C. Art, Obscenity and Your Children. St Meinrad, Indiana: Abbey Press, Becker, Carol, ed. Bruckner, D.

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Choldin, Marianna Tax and Friedberg, Maurice eds. Conolly, L. The Censorship of English Drama, San Marino: The Huntington Library, DiMaggio, Paul. Impact of Public Funding on Organizations in the Arts. Freedberg, David. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, Freedman, Leonard. Gordon, Linda and Gary Y. Okihiro editors. New York: W. Heartney, Eleanor. Postmodern Heretics: the Catholic imagination in contemporary art. New York: Midmarch Arts Press, Censoring the Body Manifestos for the 21st Century. Kolkota: Seagull Books, MacAdam, Barbara A.

MacPhee, Josh. Realizing the Impossible: Art Against Authority. Paul, Boston, December Mitchell, W. What Do Pictures Want? Why do we have such extraordinarily powerful responses toward the images and pictures we see in everyday life? Why do we behave as if pictures were alive, possessing the power to influence us, to demand things from us, to persuade us, seduce us, or even lead us astray?

According to W. Mitchell, we need to reckon with images not just as inert objects that convey meaning but as animated beings with desires, needs, appetites, demands, and drives of their own. Ranging across the visual arts, literature, and mass media, Mitchell applies characteristically brilliant and wry analyses to Byzantine icons and cyberpunk films, racial stereotypes and public monuments, ancient idols and modern clones, offensive images and found objects, American photography and aboriginal painting.

A work by one of our leading theorists of visual representation, it will be a touchstone for art historians, literary critics, anthropologists, and philosophers alike. Sherman, New York, October Negash, Girma. Jun , Vol. Ohear, A. Columbia Univ. Peter, Jennifer A. Stephens, John Russell. The Censorship of English Drama Theatre Censorship: From Walpole to Wilson. Woods, Michelle. New York: Continuum, It examines three forms of censorship in relation to translation: ideological censorship; gender censorship; and market censorship.

Michelle Woods uses this previously unresearched archive to explore broader questions on censorship, asking why texts are translated at a given time, who translates them, how their identity may affect the translation, and how the constituents of success in a target culture may involve elements of censorship. Worrall, David. Beaver, W. Bissonnette, Susan Travis.

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  3. Juste à côté (Littérature Française) (French Edition).
  4. ISBN 13: 9781517068622;
  5. Crovitz, G. Dautrich, Kenneth; Yalof, David. Deibert, Ronald and John G. Palfrey, Rafal Rohozinski, Jonathan Zittrain editors. Endeshaw, Assafa. Kolbert, Kathryn; Mettger, Zak eds. Levmore, Saul and Martha C. Nussbaum editors. Lipschultz, Jeremy. Philadelphia: Lawrence Erlbaum, MacKinnon, Rebecca. Mehta, Michael.

    This paper explores how Canada and the United States of America have attempted to control of the flow of contentious material coming through the Internet. The paper focuses on the issue of controlling obscene material and provides several case-law examples to illustrate how attempts at censorship have evolved over the decades in both countries. It is concluded that censorship is a tool of the nation-state that is unlikely to significantly reduce the amount of contentious material crossing borders. Morozov, Evgeny. New York City: PublicAffairs, Nunziato, Dawn.

    Palo Alto: Stanford Law Books, Ringmar, Erik. London: Anthem Press, Rogers, Jacob. Who rules the net? Washington, D. Wallach, Alan. Exhibiting contradiction: essays on the art museum in the United States. In Exhibiting Contradiction, a leading scholar considers the way art museums have depicted—and continue to depict—American society and the American past.

    In closely focused and often controversial essays, Alan Wallach explores the opposing ideologies that drove the development of the American art museum in the nineteenth century and the tensions and contradictions characteristic of recent museum history. Warf, Barney. Williams, Kara D. Public Schools vs. Downes, Sophie. The New York Times, 10 Sept. Friedersdorf, Conor. Atlantic Media Company, 04 Mar. Hanlon, Aaron. The New York Times, 16 Feb. Baase, Sara. A Gift of Fire. New Jersey: Pearson Education, Barber, D. Pornography and Society.

    London: Charles Skilton, Watts, New York, Boyce, Bret. Bristow, Edward J. Coulton, G. Gloucester, MA, De Negroni, Barbara. Lectures Interdites. Paris: Bibliotheque Albin Michel, Fiss, Owen. Irony of free speech. Cambridge, Ma. Freedman, Fragnito, Gigliola. Hare, Ivan. admin