Buchung von weiteren Fahrten auf Anfrage bei www. Alle Fahrzeuge sind mindestens 45 Jahre alt. Querfeldein auf immer neuen Wegen. Diese ca. Mit seinen 70 PS kann er bis zu 7 Mitfahrer durch die Landschaft schaukeln und dabei werden im Inneren die guten alten Schlager der er bis 70er-Jahre das nostalgische Erlebnis abrunden. Festes Schuhwerk und unempfindliche Kleidung werden empfohlen. Seien Sie gespannt! Gefeiert, gelebt, gelacht und geredet bei einem guten Glas Wein wird an jedem ersten und dritten Donnerstag im Monat von 19 - 22 Uhr in der Vinothek.
Infos und Buchung unter Tel. Die Rundfahrt kostet 5,00 Euro pro Person. Hier gibt es auch Gutscheine zum verschenken. Abfahrt ist in der Salzhausgasse. Ihre Geschichte und die ihrer Menschen ist spannend. Treffpunkt ist vor dem Rathaus. Unterwegs wird an 3 bis 4 Stationen Halt gemacht. Direkt am Weinberg werden die Trauben je nach Vegetationsstand und der entsprechende Wein vom Vorjahr verkostet.
Mittagstisch ab 11 Uhr. Wandern, den Wald bewusst mit allen Sinnen Er-Leben. Stress abschalten- Energie aufladen. Infos und Austausch zu Fragen werden individuell angepasst. Wir wollen essbare Wildpflanzen an ihrem Naturstandort kennen lernen. Ein langsames Herantasten an den Geschmack ist Erlebnis pur. Musikalische Unterhaltung, bei der auch getanzt werden darf, ist ebenfalls geboten.
Die kulinarische Sommernacht beginnt ab Bestaunen sie vor Ort die einmalige mittelalterliche Wasserversorgungsanlage der Lemberger Burg und versetzen Sie sich in die unglaublichen Arbeitsbedingungen der Bergleute im Jahrhundert hinein, wenn Sie mit mir den Meter langen Stollen entdecken. Die Teilnehmer treffen sich um Die Wanderung findet bei jedem Wetter statt. Es wird empfohlen, Trinkwasser mitzubringen und festes Schuhwerk zu tragen. Verbindliche Anmeldung unter der Tel. Fahrtechnikschulung mit ausgebildetem Fahrtechniktrainer u. Wichtiges Kursziel: Das automatisieren der Grundposition und somit der wichtigsten Abfahrtsposition!
Unter Strom! Die E-MountainBike Fahrtechnik ist immens wichtig! Du willst mit Deinem E-Bike die ganze Bandbreite nutzen? Vertraue auf unserere ausgebildeten und erfahrenen Fahrtechniktrainer! Fahrtechnikschulung durch ausgebildeten Fahrtechniktrainer u. Geeignete Stellen gibt es genug, unsere ausgebildeten Fahrtechniktrainer u. Unsere ausgebildeten Fahrtechniktrainer u. Tauchen sie ein in diese faszinierende Welt der Geschichte.. Eintritt frei! Um An ausgestellten Motoren und Schnittmodellen ist die Entwicklung des Motorrads eindrucksvoll abzulesen.
Heinz Luthringshauser Zwischen den Stellwerken gab es einen mechanischen Bahnhofsblock, was in dieser Kombination recht selten war. Das Fahrdienstleiter-Stellwerk ist noch museal vorhanden und soll in einem Anbau untergebracht werden. Hier ist die Zeit noch stehen geblieben. Das Lautertal ist durch die am Also, nix wie hin!
Mit mehr als drei Millionen Zuschauern weltweit ist "Linie 1" das erfolgreichste deutsche Musical. Es darf gelacht Der Abend klingt mit bekannten Schlager- und Popsongs aus, die von unterschiedlichen Musikacts dargeboten werden. Der Montag gilt nicht nur unter den Einheimischen als Geheimtipp. Dort begegnen wir nach einem kurzen, beschaulichen erlebnisreichen Zeitreisespaziergang dem Werkzeugmacher "Trebron von Hasalaha". Er zeigt uns wie man mit Holzbohrer, Feuerstein und Markasit ein Feuer entfacht.
Informationen zum Kalkbergwerk, zu den Eintrittspreise und weiteren Veranstaltungen finden Sie unter:. Weinreisen "unter Tage" - das besondere Erlebnis in den Stollen zwischen bizarren Felsen. Auf der Tour bekommen wir einen Einblick in die Entstehung der Erdgeschichte. Uriges Dorffest in Gersbach an der Mehrzweckhalle. Gefragt ist, viel gute Laune.
Die unendliche Vielfalt der Landschaft im Wechsel der vier Jahreszeiten auf sich einwirken lassen. Hier bietet sich mit artenreicher Flora und Fauna ein einmaliges Bild. Sie erwartet "ehrlicher", kerniger Sound — Livemusik, bei der die Akteure hinter ihren Instrumenten schon mal ins Schwitzen geraten. Dabei liegt der Schwerpunkt eindeutig auf dem Krimierlebnis, denn die Strecke ist gut zu meistern. Anmeldung bei der Tourist-Information Hillesheim, Tel.
Online-Buchung: www. Jeden Samstag ab Bewohnt war das Schloss bis Dann bietet Dir die Outdoor Akademie jetzt den richtigen Kurs dazu an. Soll man ein typisches Markenzeichen der Band nennen, dann ist dies ganz sicher der mehrstimmige Gesang. In Laumersheim wandern wir durch das Dorf und erfahren, was Raubritter dort zu suchen hatten und was der bargeldlose Zahlungsverkehr mit der Romantik des Weinbaus zu tun hat. Wir starten im Garten mit dem ersten Wein oder einem Sekt.
Je nach Witterung kann die Station-Weinprobe individuell den Gegebenheiten angepasst werden. Sollte das Wetter mal nicht mitspielen gibt es auch spontane allwettertaugliche Alternativen. Geschichte der Dire Straits. Ein Anmeldung ist nicht erforderlich.
Schnell reift in ihm der Plan auszuwandern. Dann geht alles Schlag auf Schlag. Es tauchen nacheinander zwei Polizisten, zwei gute Freunde und ein Taxifahrer auf, die alle dazu beitragen, die Abreise zu verhindern. Sie werden lachen bis der Arzt kommt!
Vorverkauf: Brillen-Bott Deidesheim, Weinstr. Durch eine Sondergenehmigung warten sie nun auf den kleinen, 1,5 Jahre alten Patrick. Kein Ziel - einfach sich treiben lassen, keine kilometerlange Wanderung, sondern achtsames und bewusstes Gehen. Keine Hetze - die Zeit vergessen und zu sich selbst finden. Infos und Anmeldung: Michael Ultes, michael.
Kurz: Boris hat es nicht leicht. Sein deutsch-kroatisches Leben schwankt stets zwischen Cevapcici und Weinfest. In seinem Viertel gilt Deutsch als Fremdsprache - da kommt Boris mit dem Integrieren gar nicht mehr nach. Eine besondere Radtour durch sehenswerte Weinorte und Weinberge mit einmaligem Panoramablick. Auskunft gibt es bei der Tourist-Information Deidesheim, Tel.
Die Ladies im Hormonrausch! Ort des Geschehens ist die Abflughalle eines Flughafens. Hier treffen die "Ladies im Hormanrausch" aufeinander. City: ab Tourist-Information Deidesheim, Bahnhofstr. In der Pause gibt es frisch gebackene Flammkuchen und im Anschluss an das Konzert bei gutem Wetter gegen Erleben Sie ein Unlugged Konzert der besonderen Art. Danach geht die Party weiter auf dem Dorfplatz in Elmstein. Bei den 2 Touren werden Sie Gelegenheit haben, das Erlernte direkt an zu wenden. Dabei fahren wir eine kleine Runde von ca 25 km mit Ihnen. Willkommen sind Jugendliche ab 13 Jahren.
Hier kann Playstation und Computer gespielt werden. Es gibt auch eine Yugioh-Zocker-Gruppe. Wer Lust hat mit zu zocken, einfach vorbei kommen. Ein ganz neuer Blick auf das alte Europa, auf seine Landschaften und Metropolen und vor allem auf die Menschen und die Art, wie sie heute leben, leiden, lieben. Die poetische Vermessung eines Kontinents. Literarische Vorkenntnisse sind nicht erforderlich. Weitere Infos gibt es unter www. Willkommen sind Jugendliche ab 16 Jahren. Auch werden hier Figuren bemalt.
City: Klosterruine Limburg, Luitpoldweg 1 Date: Jeden 2. Unser beliebtes Hoffest inmitten der Weinberge. City: Treffpunkt: vor der Tourist Information Date: Jahrhundertelang produzierte man in den Salinen Salz und verbrauchte dabei Unmengen an Holz. Bis im Jahrhundert mit den Gradierwerken die Revolution in der Salzherstellung gelang: Monumentale, bis zu m lange Bauten gradierten die Sole. Hambacher Schloss. City: Hardenburg, Treffpunkt: vor dem Besucherzentrum Date: Die im City: Treffpunkt: am Brunnen vor der Limburg Date: Wann haben Sie zum letzten Mal einen romantischen Abend erlebt?
Freinsheim in Festlaune. Die Stadt feiert ihr Weinfest rund um die historische Stadtmauer. Es wird Ihnen gefallen. An jedem 3. Das 2. Die monatlichen Treffen dienen nicht nur dem Backen, sondern auch dem Austausch von Brotrezepoten aus aller Welt, dem gegenseitigen Kennenlernen und der Geselligkeit. Kirche am Markt statt. Das Lamm wird um Bei Einzelbestellungen wird auch auf Tellern serviert.
In Ruppertsberg wird Tee angebaut! Sehen Sie was neben dem Weinbau in der Pfalz noch gedeiht. Informationen und Anmeldung unter Tel. City: Forster Winzerverein, Weinstr. Vorverkauf: Tourist-Information Deidesheim, Bahnhofstr. Wie entsteht Wein und was gibt es zu beachten? Dazu gibt es ein Glas Wein oder Traubensaft.
Besonderheit: Es ist keine Anmeldung erforderlich! Juli in der Jakobskirche eine Foto- und Fundausstellung. Werner Holz, Hans Schmidt gezeigt, welche das hiesige Naturschutzgebiet bzw. Die Ausstellung ist an allen 3 Tagen von Am Samstag und Sonntag um jeweils Ansprechpartner in der Ausstellung sind auch die Aufsichtspersonen, welche die Fragen der Besucher gerne beantworten. Freitag, Juli ab Er sammelte Erfahrung als DJ in Clubs u. Samstag, Dies zeigt sich in einem hervorragenden mehrstimmigen Gesang wie auch in kreativ dargestellten Solos.
Hallo zusammen, wir veranstalten am City: Pergola, Oberst-Barrett-Str. Martin Date: In St. In ca. Es erwartet sie ein reichhaltiges Speisenangebot und eine Auswahl an St. Martiner Weinen. Am Ende gibt es eine deftige Winzervesper und verschiedene Weine unserer Winzer.
Inklusive Besichtigung der Kirche. Martin mit tollem Blick auf die Weinlandschaft, die Kropsburg und den Ort. Karte n bestellen. Anmeldung bis Uhr am selben Tag auf dem Festplatz oder direkt jetzt hier per Mail einen Startplatz sichern. Auch das fand im Rahmen des Fassschlubberfeschdls statt. City: Pleisweiler Parkplatz Sportverein Date: Die Tour endet in Oberhofen mit Besuch eines der vielen Weinlokale.
City: Wein- u. Sektgut Fam. Geburtstag von Max Slevogt. Von dort wandern wir auf dem Slevogtwanderweg hinauf zur Ruine Neukastel. Immer wieder ein Grund zu feiern! Begleiten Sie uns auf einem Rundgang durch Herxheim mit Schauspielern. Ein kurzweiliger und spannender Spaziergang. Dauer ca. Sportfest inkl. Elfmeterturnier am Bei weniger als 5 Teilnehmer, kann es sein das wir den Termin verschieben. Sie haben sich in den letzten Programmen von Rena Schwarz kennengelernt und zu sich gesagt:. Man bestellt nach Belieben.
Die Gerichte kommen dann zum Teilen auf den Tisch. Es erwartet Sie eine unterhaltsame Kurzwanderung hinauf zur Kleinen Kalmit. City: Raiffeisenstr. Bekannt ist O. Mitte des Jahrhunderts wurden die letzten Wolfsvorkommen bei uns ausgerottet. Das Gebiss des Wolfes ist wie eine Schere. Der Nahrungsbedarf eines Wolfes liegt bei ca.
Die Rangordnung innerhalb des Rudels sichert das friedliche Zusammenleben der Wolfsfamilie. Sie winseln, wuffen, bellen, knurren, schreien und heulen. Es singt der Gesangverein "Harmonie" Ramberg. Juli Freuen Sie sich auf Herrn Prof. Sprich uns vor Ort an. Besuchen Sie uns. Wir freuen uns auf Sie. Aus Bad Bergzabern kommend ca. Eintrittspreise: Erw.
Einkaufen mit Genuss bis 24 Uhr. Wir freuen uns auf. Probieren Sie diese doch auf dem Hoffest des Weinguts Rothhaas vom 5. Juli in Birkweiler. Weitere Informationen zu den Weinjahreszeiten in Birkweiler finden Sie unter www. Wir schreiben das Jahr Eine damals wie heute unvorstellbar hohe Summe! Meisterhaft dargestellt durch den Schauspieler Markus Maier. Anmeldung: Wegen der begrenzten Teilnehmerzahl wird eine Reservierung empfohlen unter Tel.
Wir laden Sie ein zu einer ca. Am Sonntag, dem Sie kommt direkt aus dem Jedes Gericht wird nach einem Rezept aus der Epoche des Barock zubereitet.
Angeletics Work in Progress
Juli bis zum Erleben Sie ein Abenteuer unter Tage. Innovativ, klug und weltoffen, man darf spekulieren. Im Von Korallenriffen, Kalksteinen und dem Keltenring. Die Geschichte des Eifelwaldes kann man an vielen Stellen anschaulich nachvollziehen. Rucksackverpflegung empfohlen, nicht kinderwagentauglich, nicht barrierefrei, ein Anstieg, geeignetes Schuhwerk erforderlich. Veranstalter: Naturpark Nordeifel e. Joe Wulf und Angela van Rijthoven in einem Programm, in dem das Publikum sowohl bekannte Titel in neuem musikalischem Gewand wiedererkennen, als auch in den Genuss hier weniger bekannter Songs kommen wird.
Acoustic Activity sind eine Gitarre und zwei Stimmen, die Songs aus den Genre Rock und Pop zu simplen und dynamisch spannenden Arrangements verwandeln. Zu dieser tollen Musik unser idyllischer Marktplatz und ein frisch gezapftes Bier, und Sie werden einen unvergesslichen Abend erleben. Das traditionelle Dorffest findet auf dem Brunnenplatz statt. Ab Am Sonntag ist ab Mittagessen gibt es ab City: Gemeindehaus in der Lindenstrasse Steffeln Date: Hier braucht man nicht viel Phantasie, um an Feen, Trolle und Kobolde zu glauben.
Oktober an allen Sonn- und Feiertagen statt. Stiftskirche St. Martin u. Falls Sie eine Gruppe ab ca. Muenstermaifeld gmx. Bei Gruppenanmeldungen werden. Meisterwerken des Bildhauers Jan Genoots, der in der St. Die Burg ist rund Jahre alt. Folterkammer und Lager. Teilnehmer erhalten eine beeindruckende Aussicht auf die Altstadt. Ein gewisser J. Munkler t-online.
Montag, City: Innenstadt u. Das 3. Wir haben mit herausragenden Bands ein tolles, swingendes Wochenende anzubieten. Alle Konzerte finden Open-Air statt. Also kommt hungrig! Organisator: Gewerbeverein. Das ist ein Grund mehr den Abend auf dem Brunnenplatz zu verbringen. Anna Kirche in Gerolstein. Wir freuen uns auf die sieben leidenschaftlichen Musiker aus Dahlem und Umgebung. Die Band marschiert durch die City und begeistert so das faszinierte Publikum. Der beeindruckende Zentralbau im neoromanischen Baustil mit den funkelnden Goldmosaiken begeistert jedes Jahr tausende Kirchenbesucher.
Mineralwasser im neuen Kurpark an der Kyll. In der. Am Krater der Papenkaule. Ein subtropisches Flachmeer in der Eifel? Flirrende Hitze- sanftes Meeresrauschen. Riffbildner wie Korallen und Stromatoporen. Ein Vulkan und doch kein Vulkan? Wo hauste der Neandertaler? Wer ist Caiva? All diese Fragen beantworten wir auf unserer Zeitreise durch die Jahrmillionen. Tauchen Sie ein in die bunte Welt der tropischen Riffe. Preis: Erw. Danach versteht man beim Wandern in der Region.
Spazieren gehen, wandern,laufen Jeden Dienstag, ab Uhr mit Live-Musik. Der Eintritt ist frei! Im Naturkundemuseum Gerolstein. Wollt ihr gerne ein Wasserdetektiv sein? Dann geht mit uns mit Lupenbechern und Sieben auf eine spannende. Wir machen eine Geschmacksprobe an der Helenenquelle und erfahren dabei. In der Kyll suchen wir nach Lebewesen und besonderen. Es warten Spiele und Experimente rund ums Wasser auf euch. Daher bitte mitbringen: wassergeeignete Schuhe Sandalen, Gummistiefel , ein Handtuch und einen Trinkbecher.
In Neroth dreht sich alles um die Maus. Wegstrecke: ca. Heute gilt es einen sogenannten Multicache zu finden. Kontakt und Anmeldung: Johannes Munkler, Tel. Hinweis: Bitte einen Fahrrad Helm mitbringen. Wer jedoch genau hinsieht, wird erkennen, dass der Mosenberg, hier bei der Landschaftsgestaltung. Jahre alte Erde gegraben. Info und Anmeldung: Karl Weiler, Tel.
Geschaffen wurde das Meerfelder Maar vor rund Der ca. Haubentaucher haben hier eines ihrer seltenen Refugien. Meerfelder Maares. Ein entspannender und zugleich spannender abendlicher Spaziergang rund um Manderscheid in der herrlichen Naturkulisse des GesundLand Vulkaneifel. Nehmen Sie sich und die entspannende Wirkung der Natur mit allen Sinnen wahr. Schon alleine der Spaziergang wird Ihnen gut tun. Aber nicht nur die Gesundheit steht im Mittelpunkt. Blick zur Mosenbergvulkan-Kette.
Die Vulkane schlafen Vorbei an einer Streuobstwiese, was kreucht und fleucht denn dort? Dies sehen wir in der Natur, sowie anschaulich auf einer Schautafel zusammengefasst. Besonders hier ist ein geeigneter Ort zur Besinnung. Graf Dietrich III. Er lebte in der Zeit von und regierte als Reichsgraf von - So konnte er sich seit Dietrich III.
Dauer: ca. Jeden Donnerstag spielen von Der Eintritt ist frei Grillabende ausgenommen. An Feiertagen findet keine Live-Musik statt. Der Kram- und Wochenmarkt in Adenau ist immer ein Besuch wert. Gegrilltes ab Grillhaxen nur auf telefonische Vorbestellung. Solange der Vorrat reicht! Es wird um tel. Anmeldung gebeten. Dieses Motorsport-Erlebnis entlang der Nordschleife ist kostenfrei. Vom Juli bis Juli steigt mit dem Int. Da neun Veranstaltungen ausgetragen werden, gibt es in der Meisterschaftswertung zwei Streichresultate.
Die Strecke genau unter die "Lupe" nehmen. Die Kunst des Raku hat sich seit dem Diese Arbeiten trocknen mindestens 2 Wochen und werden dann von uns vorgebrannt. Auch im Jahr bieten wir Theater der Spitzenklasse. Juni auf der Genovevaburg Premiere feiert! Egal bei welchem Wetter - Theater ist mehr als nur ein unterhaltsamer Abend. Immer am 3. Die Stadt Mayen veranstaltet am Lutzerath war mehr als zwei Jahrhunderte eine zentrale Haltestelle der Postkutschen zwischen Koblenz und Trier.
Postkutschen gelten als von Pferden angetriebene Oldtimer. April an jedem 1. Sonntag im Monat stattfinden wird. Ein Bilderbuch einer. Eine Gelegenheit, das Kaiserbad zu entdecken. Das wollen wir mit unserem Publikum feiern. Die Veranstaltung inkl. Essen ist im Abo enthalten. City: Modellsportanlage in der Wiesbach 4 Date: Jeweils dienstags, am 2. Juli, 9. Juli und Juli , wird um Juli um. The development of these organizations occurred within a specific value system consistent with Nazi ideology and prac- tice.
In a patriarchal movement based on the biological-eugenic tenets of Adolf Hitler, women had three important interrelated functions: to serve as helpmates to the men, to bear them children and rear them according to Nazi values, and to be faithful homemakers. Early Nazi women themselves posited the superiority of men, especially as embodied in Hitler. Women tended to shy away from the male-dominated Nazi Party; only about 5 percent of females had joined by early At that time the Nazi Party, being on the right-radical fringe, was held in contempt by a plurality of Germans, especially the truly dedicated citizens of the Weimar Republic.
German Girls for Matrimony and Motherhood 75 Not the least of such female ministrations consisted in presenting themselves at public meetings, to achieve a respectable Nazi body count and to cheer on male speakers through their sheer physical pres- ence. Several women and girls were wearing Hitler dress and even joined the SA march through the town, although they were pre- vented from parading before Hitler.
Apart from flocking to meetings for the sake of full attendance and a sense of communal belonging, women performed the kind of house- hold and nurturing work for their men that was expected in a Nazi home. Women darned socks and mended trousers, collected money from door to door, and helped to distribute flyers. In February of , for instance, Joseph Goebbels, then the propaganda chief of the Party, received some money from groups of women to help men recently wounded in street fights. It served as a gener- ous SA kitchen for those in need, despite having its windows broken every day and being under constant police surveillance.
It was not a hatred derived from abstract anti-Semitic theory, although undoubtedly Nazi ideology fanned fires that had been set long before. And it was this racism of the adult females that was passed on to their daughters who eventually made their way into the BDM. They originated haphazardly, locally and region- ally, and were different from one another; some, the Party chronicle alleges, began as early as However, in , Hitler himself seems to have had a hand in commissioning professional designers to come up with a costume which would appeal to the girls and which eligible young men would find attractive.
The BDM never acquired an independent leader directly responsible to Hitler, as was the case with Schirach as leader of the boys. Instead, after an interregnum lasting until June when no particular woman was consistently in charge, a so-called BDM-Reichsreferentin Reich Deputy was appointed, reporting directly to Schirach. Thirty-two years old, from a middle-class family, she was suitably undereducated; never having completed Gymnasium, she had worked in the lower echelons of the national postal service.
Rudiger would serve under Schirach and later Axmann in that role until the end of the Third Reich. Perhaps the HJ leadership, displeased with the fact that Mohr married and left the BDM, reasoned that highly educated women would scare away potential husbands, and thus Rudiger was perceived as having a fairly good chance of remaining dedicated only to her girls. As it turned out, she did stay single. Another possible rea- son for the choice of Rudiger is that Schirach, a man with some univer- sity education, may have realized that psychological understanding of girls would be helpful in a difficult-to-supervise mass organization like the BDM.
Even in the macho Nazi Reich, there were paths that no marching boots could tread. However anti-academic the Nazis were, they exploited the applied arts and sciences for their own purpose. Earlier there had been a gap in the post-fourteen-year cohort in the BDM, probably because more girls would join the work force after primary school at age fourteen than boys. There was also less job-site pressure on girls to join the BDM, at least until the policy of compul- sory HJ membership by the summer of The female leaders in the more responsible positions would be schooled in special training centers, especially as those with the highest authority became full-time salaried staff.
Apart from the leadership structure as such, most other factors were identical, and leadership shortage prob- lems plagued both the female and the male HJ. It was especially so with the youngest and most impressionable age cohort from ten to fourteen, a group called Young Girls, or Jungmadel, the female equivalent of the Pimpfe.
Accordingly, the memoirs of former BDM inductees reflect the pub- lished propaganda of the organization itself, with an emphasis on pleasure, friendship, the warmth and charisma of somewhat older lead- ers, communal fun, and play rather than physical exertion in drills, athletics, and competition.
Many young recruits of those days typically recall the joys of joining the BDM and being welcomed by sympa- thetic leaders and groups of like-minded friends. It was all fun in a way and we cer- tainly got plenty of exercise. These young BDM leaders taught us songs and tried desperately to maintain a certain amount of discipline without ever really succeeding. In the early years of the regime, and cer- tainly for the younger groups, political indoctrination was practiced lightly and hardly noticed by the admittedly innocent target group.
Play and games, however, were decoys for sterner things to come. It is true that the standard costume — dark blue skirt, white blouse both reminiscent of the youth movement , and black kerchief with a knot- ted tie of leather strips — made girls look alike. Judged singly, however, the garments were generally thought to be attractive, especially the spiffy tie. A mustard-yellow vest. Kletterweste was not so popular with most, but a few found it especially fashionable. On one hand, there was a sort of lemming effect, where peer group pressure motivated girls to belong by imitating.
There were other opportunities to dress up in different clothes, for instance the white dresses with colorful aprons and ribbons that were worn for the public performances of folk dance — a very satisfying experience for the girls involved. Usually, rhythmical gymnastics took the place of athletic strain. Thus the girls practiced organic Volksgemeinschaft. At the same time, the flow of gymnastic movements was closely related to the femi- nine anatomy and the future role of women as childbearers.
Where boys had to be forceful, girls had to show grace. In the BDM, the white and blue uniform was considered feminine enough without even a touch of elegance or sensual suggestiveness, and except for a ring and a watch, no jewelry was allowed. High-heeled shoes and silk stockings were off limits. Hence the ideal of a healthy mother was always proclaimed, and so were her typical chores as a homemaker. Certain activities were thought to appeal to the girls because of their gender-specific nature: the door-to-door selling of trinkets for welfare purposes, or the household collections of toys and clothes for the needy.
These were both accomplished in vari- ous programs under the labels of Pflichtjahr, or Duty Year, or the Landdienst or Landjahr, these latter two simply denoting service in the country. The farm programs lasted anywhere from a few months in the sum- mer to two solid years, and until early , they were voluntary. They arose from a combination of ideological motives, grounded in the racist Artamanen doctrine of the s, which aimed at rooting more young Germans in the soil and further developing the infrastructure of the rural East.
Beginning in early 1 the BDM took care of employment for fourteen-year-old girls just released from school, who were looking for jobs in industry. On the one hand, the Nazis discour- aged the gainful employment of women, as there was still unemploy- ment in the cities because of the lingering Depression.
In , 7, German girls started farm work; by , 43, had been sent out — mostly to farmsteads in the East, in Silesia, Pomerania, or East Prussia. The girls lived and worked with the farmers and in the evenings mingled socially with the youths of the village. Nazi social engineers such as demo- graphic planners looked upon this as creatively molding the Volks- gemeinschaft. Retrain- ing and schooling facilities were established to help as many city girls become farm girls as possible.
Rural farm labor was seen as developing feminine qualities and readying a girl for marriage and motherhood all the more effectively. With the girls kept away from urban ills and cor- ruption, it was hoped that young women would be more likely to choose an occupation consonant with the Nazi agenda for females: nurse, social worker, teacher, or — in the rarest cases and at a higher German Girls for Matrimony and Motherhood 85 plane — pediatrician.
Thus by , there were , German girls starting Pflichtjahr work in agri- culture, and another , in domestic service. It observed the same triple goals of ideological indoctrination, discipline, and national economic improvement as did the BDM. Even though the RAD had been around for some years as a voluntary institution, its real mission and force would only emerge in wartime. That service had already been established in the Weimar Republic on a voluntary basis.
It was made compulsory for young men in , as a prerequisite for the newly 86 HITLER YOUTH introduced general conscription, whereas it became a duty for the girls only with the beginning of hostilities in Female volunteer work camps had existed since They were expanded to receive all girls from ages seventeen to twenty-five who were single, not yet employed, or not in some formal training or educational institution.
By April more than twice that number were con- centrated in over two thousand camps all around Germany, and shortly thereafter in annexed and occupied territories such as the Pro- tectorate, Alsace, and Denmark. Things were much less carefree in the RAD, however. The girls in these camps were ruled by a different regimen from the one they had experienced in the regu- lar BDM. Paramilitary drill replaced communal gymnastics, and an atmosphere of compulsory service supplanted the genial, voluntary spirit.
The changed atmosphere manifested itself in a change of attire: unflattering navy or olive-green work dresses and a plain hat replaced the stylish BDM costumes; roll calls demanding quick changes in uni- form, interrupted only by tasteless meals and noxious sports and drill, became the daily routine. However, young men of around seventeen were drafted into a separate two-year RAD service which immediately took them closer to the fronts — something that these early RAD Maidens never experienced.
As far as the women were concerned, they were supposed to take the place of industrial workers who had re- cently been conscripted by the Wehrmacht. By October 1, , to aid German Girls for Matrimony and Motherhood 87 the newly opened campaign against the Soviet Union, those RAD Maidens who were just due to be released were ordered to serve an additional six months, for a total of twelve, in what was called Kriegs- hilfsdienst, or Auxiliary War Service.
From then on, every RAD co- hort, upon its release, had to do secondary duty in the war industry. For this work, each of the girls was paid 45 marks a month in contrast to unpaid regular RAD service , which was still a pittance in relation to what they were commissioned to do.
This could mean sorting and crating ammunition like grenades, gluing together rubber gas masks for horses, or sewing up Army uniforms. Many young women were trained as radio and telephone operators, telegraphers, and stenographers. Yet especially in early , facing the advancing Russians, this became a frightening experience for many. A smaller proportion of these girls still labored in households or in fields, as well as in hospitals, particularly military ones. Either as part of their obligatory Pflichtjahr or on a vol- unteer basis, girls usually aged sixteen and older would assist Polish- Germans and German resettlers from eastern Europe in the arts of keeping a house, using the mother language properly, and bringing up their children in accordance with Nazi hygienic standards.
The situa- tion was very confused ethnically and culturally in the Wartheland: there were ethnic Poles with German names speaking mostly German, and Germans with Polish names speaking mostly Polish. The grand scheme was to drive the Poles out of Wartheland and into Occupied Poland, leaving the ethnic Germans behind on much larger home- steads. As the war in the East progressed, other ethnic Germans from the Baltics, Bukovina, Volynia, and Bessarabia, eventually even from the Soviet Volga Basin, were supposed to join them. In this scheme of things, the crucial task for the regime demographers was to establish beyond a doubt who was truly German and who was Polish.
The population transfer of German Girls for Matrimony and Motherhood 89 Poles and Germans was massive and complicated. It has been estimated that approximately one million Poles were removed from Wartheland to the Generalgouvernement, to make room for , ethnic Ger- mans from outside Poland, including up to , juveniles. This does not include the tens of thousands of ethnic Germans who were already in Poland. The girls were ordered to work in teams of up to fifteen, each team being responsible for four or five Polish villages, often in collaboration with the SS who had just finished driving out the Poles.
One report talks about having to hack away at layers of caked dirt in a former Polish dwelling, to make room for cleaner ethnic Germans. Fre- quently illiterate, these ethnic Germans had an extremely high infant mortality rate, incest was rampant, and some could not be weaned from their wood alcohol. Above all, they could not understand why German girls like the BDM zealots would want to work so hard on their behalf.
Any shyness or even politeness on the part of Nazi representatives would be tantamount to a betrayal of the ethnic Germans. All you have to say is: Get out, you pigs! The next day at the same site, she discovered forty Poles lying side by side on the grass, shot in retaliation by the Germans. An SS soldier was keeping watch. Poles, this girl took note, had to keep their distance from the Germans in all public places. Fully recognizing their subju- German Girls for Matrimony and Motherhood 91 gated status, the Poles viewed their conquerors with hate.
She saw that all civilians were immediately forced to vacate her compartment, only to threaten her, through the window of the adjacent one, with clenched fists. This meant fewer drills and sports, and almost no hiking, camps, or cookouts in the peacetime mode. By , bombing raids were already making these activities impossible.
There was a plethora of chores on an almost daily basis, with the effect that school or occu- pational instruction suffered markedly. Many of those chores were gender-specific or at least gender-neutral, as HJ boys of similar ages were drawn to warrior-like tasks in the war effort, some in paramilitary postings and increasing numbers close to or at the fronts. In the entire Reich in the period —, over a million BDM members spent 6. There she was to function alongside four female teachers and three junior BDM leaders, to manage girls from ages ten to thir- teen.
She and other camp directors of comparable age and rank were joined by representatives of the BDM health corps, who had been trained by and were deployed in conjunction with the German Red Cross. Already in the first year of the war, more than eleven thousand girls were perform- ing clerical work in police stations and fifteen hundred of them were with emergency fire departments. In the civilian sector, BDM members were regu- larly found at train stations, where they assisted mothers with children or handed out sandwiches and hot drinks to hungry passengers; this work became ever more significant as the conflict wound down and fugitives, mostly from the East, were crisscrossing the Reich in search of an elusive safety.
A program described as Katastro- pheneinsatz. Action in Catastrophe, employed teenagers for grueling tasks which were far removed from the dreams of eleven-year-old Hitler Girls in The larger and more strategic the German city, the greater were its chances of being attacked. Hence in Bremen, a major northern port, scores of BDM girls were toiling in kitchens try- ing to feed 1, suddenly homeless people three times a day — and the girls themselves were always on the run from the next bomb attack. In the capital she was preparing sandwiches with com- German Girls for Matrimony and Motherhood 93 rades, who were cooking soup, in Then the sirens sounded.
Into the cellar! The walls tremble, and the horri- fied screams almost tear apart my ear drums.
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Fearful eyes glance at the ceiling. Will it hold? Already in the first year of the war more than 60, BDM girls were lending a hand in sickrooms. These were not strictly medical tasks, but nonethe- less, such nursing took the place of school work, regular BDM duty, and any free time she would otherwise have had — until the next Katas- tropheneinsatz occurred, and then she had to be in the shelters to help those hurt by air raids. More immedi- ately and symbolically, the girls were finding themselves back in the service of German men, for whom they had been said to be destined.
Many of those soldiers had already received care packages and morale- supporting letters at the fronts from the BDM girls, or group enter- tainment like folk singing during furlough. Certainly, the girls would bring flowers and gifts to the wounded men and would serenade them to cheer them up. However, there was also service to the SS. Some three thousand young girls, coming straight out of the BDM, allowed themselves to be recruited as assistants to the SS, and several became concentration camp guards.
Many of these young women were caught up in the brutal practices around them and became cruel them- selves, thus moving far away from the feminine ideal of nurturance which the BDM leadership had preached to them earlier. Girls like Irma Grese succumbed completely to the abandonment of all human- ity and indulged in grossly criminal behavior without a backward glance. Others could do so only with major doses of cigarettes and cognac.
One of the female SS assistants was a stenographer behind the lines at the eastern front. Evidence shows that a few others who could tolerate it no longer eventually were allowed to make arrangements to return home. Much of this occurred in close cooperation with the SS, which, of course, ultimately groomed the male elite, the incarna- German Girls for Matrimony and Motherhood 95 tion of male supremacy in the Third Reich.
Not coincidentally, Speer and Riefenstahl, who were themselves unusually attractive, col- laborated on cultural projects such as the filming of Party rallies and the Olympics, with heightened concentration on beautiful young bod- ies in synchronized motion. At first glance the program seemed to be out of line with other Nazi phenomena.
She remained at her post until she got married to another Count in and resigned. However, her title had already served its purpose of attracting aspiring young women. The program made a point of appealing to especially beautiful and Nordic-looking young women who were already physically mature. These women had to be unmarried and could be gainfully employed; their course of duty would be for four years, and normally they would meet once a week.
Membership was entirely voluntary, even in wartime, as if there were no dictatorship and women were free to make their own decisions. As with the early BDM, fashion — this time glamorous apparel for women with film-starlet figures — was a major enticement. The young women were encouraged to peruse fashion magazines in an attempt to create well-fitting attire for themselves; during the summer they were clad in tight teeshirt-like tops and well-cut, pleated, very short skirts, all in suggestively innocent white.
By any standards, they were sexually alluring. They had to register for courses that were optional; group gymnastics, however, was mandatory at least once. Moreover, three very elite sports were offered that the ordinary BDM girls never had access to: tennis, horse riding, and fenc- ing. These young women were to help create a Nazi-specific home-decoration and furni- ture aesthetic, the capstone for an elite Nazi family.
Therefore, we want to use this time of adolescence, as the developmental stage of our Nordic race between childhood and wom- anhood, to learn as many pedagogical lessons as is possible for us in our volkisch existence. It was Himmler, that inspiring mentor to Schirach and Axmann in the business of human recruitment, who had very distinct notions about Nordifying the Ger- man people and already was on record for coveting superior Hitler Youths for his SS.
In addition, he was interested in outstanding young women as future mates for his prized warriors, as was common knowl- edge throughout the BDM. By the time they were no older than twenty-eight, they would be ready to assume the title of Hohe Frau, or High Woman. Himmler also thought that ordinary Party leaders should divorce their wives for the sake of mar- riage with a Flohe Frau. Positive selection, as he was attempting to prove within his SS and as was routinely discussed in the higher BDM eche- lons, meant that biologically superior males should be allowed to sire as many children as possible, consensually with a eugenically appropri- ate partner, out of wedlock.
This was stated unmistakably by J. In addition to his dour wife Marga with whom he had his daughter Gudrun , he too had a mistress — his attractive secretary, Hedwig Potthast. With her he sired a boy, Helge, and a girl, Nanette Dorothea. These experiences and their implicit racial indoctrination constituted the single signifi- cant exception to an otherwise largely non-political socialization for girls in the Bund Deutscher Madel after It was their racial iden- tity which was central to the Nazi agenda. In the Third Reich, enduring images of racial aliens as biological foes, with Jews in the first rank, followed by Gypsies and Slavs, under- lay much instruction.
Since his time in Palestine, the Jew was said to have absorbed Negro blood and to have a particular affinity to those French colonial Negroes who terrorized the German population under the French occupation of the Rhineland in the early s, notably through their compulsive rape of women. Such propaganda fell on fertile soil. I like this train- ing very much and I am glad to be able to keep my knowledge up to date. She has to wait for a long time. She leafs through the journals on the table. But she is much too restless to read even a few sentences.
And especially not German girls! Many a girl who sought treatment from a Jew doctor found only decrepitude and shame. She again thinks of what her BDM superior had told her. The Jew appears. Terrified, she drops the journal. Mortified, she jumps up. Her eyes stare into the face of the Jewish doctor.
And that face is the face of the Devil. Behind the glasses glis- ten the eyes of a criminal. The bulging lips are contorted in an insolent smirk. His fleshy fingers grope her. Anti-Semitism attained even more currency when framed by theo- ries about German superiority and the contemptible inferiority of others. The concept of the strong, virile Germans as the master race provided a particularly protective feeling for a German teenage girl. And all the others were, well, something like lower sub- jects.
Their roles were stereotyped in line with Nazi ideology, which, it is true, took cues from German conservative thinking, but with the biological functions vastly exaggerated. The differ- entiation derived from the naturally assumed biological variance, as in the cliche of the boy being strong and protective and the girl meek and dependent; yet each, in his or her own way, was conceived of as a fighter.
In essence, this confirmed the traditional division of labor, with men dominating the public sphere and women controlling the private sphere. There are telling examples of true inequality for the girls. Political training did not exist in any form, with girls generally shying away from discussing the politics of the day because they knew they would be laughed at or censored by their HJ peers.
And not only was the BDM formally a branch of the male-dominated HJ as a matter of course, but the Brunswick leadership academy, which opened in spring , was accessible to girls only for a very brief period because of the lack of males to fill its spaces. All of Nazi society was af- flicted with manpower shortages, so that women physicians, for in- stance, who earlier had not been allowed to practice, were called into service to stand in for colleagues at the fronts.
But there were disadvan- German Girls for Matrimony and Motherhood tages: the women were always in dependent postings, they were ill-paid, and they were on notice to return to civilian life as soon as the men came back to reclaim their rightful, prestigious positions. The uppermost figure in the male-supremacist hierarchy was of course Hitler.
It cannot be overemphasized that this hysterical adulation continued well into the Third Reich. Hitler understood his intense appeal to women and used it strategically. His rationale for remaining a bachelor until the day before his suicide was that of a seasoned dema- gogue: if he were married, he would be seen as having been spoken for and would lose the support of many German girls and women. He wanted to be indelibly imprinted in their hearts as an eligible bachelor and potential spouse.
In the BDM, Hitler may have been a kind of father figure for many of the younger girls, although in Freudian terms even this image has serious sexual overtones. On the way to the Niederwald Monument and back. So solemn, yet so strong and great he stood there, with his raised right arm in his car! At that moment, tears welled up in my eyes. Eyes, in which you could almost drown. Dark-blue eyes, some say they were black, but I saw them as blue. And this man gave me his hand, and thereafter I did not wash my hand for three days.
Mass suggestiveness! The scream became a roar. Especially the women were fascinated. Their emotions were strongly touched and so were, without a doubt, unful- filled sexual wishes and desires. She was old enough to wish strongly to travel to Berlin to give a child to the Fiihrer, although she had not quite figured out how, technically, this was to be done. The chief consequence of this was a constant release of libidinal energies among HJ adoles- cents of both genders who would have been constrained under more traditional sexual mores.
It is characteristic of male-supremacist Nazi society that in most contemporary accounts it was the girls, rather than the boys, who were singled out as sexually abnormal or seduction-driven culprits. How- ever, it is likely that boys and girls were equally responsible, acting on their own accord for they both welcomed the new revolutionary free- dom of being out of reach of traditional homes.
But because girls had previously lacked the opportunity for this sexual freedom, being well guarded by their parents, the change was viewed primarily as an eman- cipation for girls and young women, who thus posed a threat to males. As a result, the Frohnau BDM chapter never materialized. In Mannheim in the following year, twenty-five BDM girls were confirmed in a Protestant church; fifteen and sixteen years old, every one was pregnant.
Their affairs with POWs or, more com- monly in the countryside, with conscripted foreigners working as farm hands, became widespread. Among these men, Poles were the most ubiquitous and also the most dangerous to be caught with the men were always hanged after the act ; Frenchmen were sought after for what was considered a refined sexual technique, and Italians were only slightly less popular.
Nonetheless, mar- riages were breaking down at a record rate. By , BDM members in the Ermland area pre- ferred affairs with conscripted Polish laborers and prisoners of war; in the Upper Danube region, work-drafted Czechs, Poles, and Bulgarians were the chosen paramours.
In the Thuringian countryside near Halle a sixteen -year-old girl, together with her girlfriend, had herself locked into a Polish POW camp. In one seventeen- year-old, working off her mandatory year in a household, was told by a Wehrmacht soldier wooing her that German men were just as good in bed as Frenchmen. Hitler Youths attending Gymnasium at the time recall that especially in more well-to-do circles, comely girls dreamed of handsome officers in uniform and more often than not became their prizes, leaving their jealous comrades with short pants in the dust.
If BDM teenagers did not meet their soldier lovers through prior correspondence, they encountered them daily among civilians on the home front. Momentarily, that is my greatest wish as well. He could have kissed me, I was longing for that. More daring girls went to the local train station to be picked up by a soldier for a one-night stand. This widespread phenomenon all across Germany became a social problem of the highest order as the war dragged on and fewer men were available to sexually satisfy a growing contingent of women left alone at home.
BDM girls knew they had an advantage over older and, particularly, married women, because they were young and unattached, and in their uniform they could move German Girls for Matrimony and Motherhood about quite freely under the guise of official duties. Soldiers got to know this situation well and ruthlessly took advantage of it, to the point where authorities were charging them with gross irresponsibility, indecency, and rape.
Wehrmacht personnel quartered in youth hostels across the country for longer terms, apart from the regular barracks, exacerbated the situation. As a result of such promiscuity, illegal pregnancies increased further, and so did cases of venereal dis- ease. As the more perceptive girls would have been able to tell, sexual exploitation pervaded the HJ itself. In the other rooms the situation is very similar.
Everywhere the SRD has surprised young couples. In one room there are even twelve straw mattresses. There were only a very few girls who were strong enough to resist what they experienced in the Hitler Youth in a serious way, and one of them known to have done so paid for her courage with her life. It is against the background of this all-encompassing youth recruitment that rebellious actions, mostly on the part of coura- geous individuals and groups, appear so dramatic. The story of the German resistance to Hitler has often been told, beginning with a classic account by Hans Rothfels, printed by H.
Reg- nery, a right-wing American publisher, in Rothfels was a con- verted Jew who had to emigrate to England and then the United States from Germany in August , two weeks before the war broke out. Until his return to Tubingen in , he taught at Brown and the Uni- versity of Chicago. He had advocated volkisch expansion in the East and had in fact hoped that he could stay in Nazi Germany after some kind of accommodation to the new regime.
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