From November to April , Strindberg stayed in Copenhagen. While there he had several opportunities to meet with both Georg Brandes and his brother Edvard Brandes. Before writing Creditors , Strindberg completed one of his most famous pieces, Miss Julie. In the play he used Charles Darwin 's theory of survival of the fittest and dramatized a doomed sexual encounter that crosses the division of social classes.
It is believed that this play was inspired by the marriage of Strindberg, the son of a servant, to an aristocratic woman. In the essay On Psychic Murder , he referred to the psychological theories of the Nancy School , which advocated the use of hypnosis. Strindberg developed a theory that sexual warfare was not motivated by carnal desire but by relentless human will. The winner was the one who had the strongest and most unscrupulous mind, someone who, like a hypnotist, could coerce a more impressionable psyche into submission. His view on psychological power struggles may be seen in works such as Creditors , The Stronger , and Pariah In , after a separation and reconciliation with Siri von Essen, he founded the Scandinavian Experimental Theatre in Copenhagen, where Siri became manager.
Less than a year later, with the theatre and reconciliation short lived, he moved back to Sweden while Siri moved back to her native Finland with the children. While there, he rode out the final phase of the divorce and later used this agonizing ordeal for the basis of The Bond and the Link Strindberg also became interested in short drama, called Quart d'heure. He was inspired by writers such as Gustave Guiche and Henri de Lavedan.
His notable contribution was The Stronger As a result of the failure of the Scandinavian Experimental Theatre, Strindberg did not work as a playwright for three years. In , he published an essay entitled "On Modern Drama and the Modern Theatre", in which he disassociated himself from naturalism, arguing that it was petty and unimaginative realism. His sympathy for Nietzsche's philosophy and atheism in general was also on the wane. He entered the period of his "Inferno crisis," in which he had psychological and religious upheavals that influenced his later works.
August Strindberg's Inferno is his personal account of sinking deeper into some kind of madness, typified by visions and paranoia. In Strindberg och alkoholen , James Spens discusses Strindberg's drinking habits, including his liking for absinthe and its possible implications for Strindberg's mental health during the inferno period.
After his disenchantment with naturalism, Strindberg had a growing interest in transcendental matters. Symbolism was just beginning at this time. Verner von Heidenstam and Ola Hanson had dismissed naturalism as "shoemaker realism" that rendered human experience in simplistic terms. This is believed to have stalled Strindberg's creativity, and Strindberg insisted that he was in a rivalry and forced to defend naturalism, even though he had exhausted its literary potential.
His play The Keys of Heaven was inspired by the loss of his children in his divorce. He also completed one of his few comedies, Playing with Fire , and the first two parts of his post-inferno trilogy To Damascus — In , he experienced writer's block, which led to a drastic reduction in his income. Depression followed as he was unable to meet his financial obligations and to support his children and former wife. A fund was set up through an appeal in a German magazine.
This money allowed him to leave Sweden and he joined artistic circles in Berlin. Here he met a diverse group of artists from Scandinavia, Poland, and Germany. His attention turned to Frida Uhl , who was twenty-three years younger than Strindberg. They were married in Less than a year later, their daughter Kerstin was born and the couple separated, though their marriage was not officially dissolved until Frida's family, in particular her mother, who was a devout Catholic, had an important influence on Strindberg, and in an letter he declared "I feel the hand of our Lord resting over me.
Some critics think that Strindberg suffered from severe paranoia in the mids, and perhaps that he temporarily experienced insanity. Others, including Evert Sprinchorn and Olof Lagercrantz , believed that he intentionally turned himself into his own guinea pig by doing psychological and drug-induced self-experimentation. He wrote on subjects such as botany , chemistry , and optics before returning to literature with the publication of Inferno , a half fictionalized account of his "wilderness years" in Austria and Paris, then a collection of short stories, Legends , and a semi-dramatic novella, Jacob Wrestling both printed in the same book Both volumes aroused curiosity and controversy, not least due to the religious element; earlier, Strindberg had been known to be indifferent or hostile to religion and especially priests, but now he had undergone some sort of conversion to a personal faith.
In a postscript, he noted the impact of Emanuel Swedenborg on his current work. He said that "the Powers" were an outside force that had caused him his physical and mental suffering because they were acting in retribution to humankind for their wrongdoings.
Strindberg believed for the rest of his life that the relationship between the transcendental and the real world was described by a series of "correspondences" and that everyday events were really messages from above of which only the enlightened could make sense. He also felt that he was chosen by Providence to atone for the moral decay of others and that his tribulations were payback for misdeeds earlier in his life. Strindberg had spent the tail end of and most of in the university town of Lund in southern Sweden, a sojourn during which he made a number of new friendships, felt his mental stability and health improving and also firmly returned to literary writing; Inferno, Legends and Jacob Wrestling were written there.
In , he returned permanently to Stockholm, following a successful production there of Master Olof in which was re-staged in to mark Strindberg's fiftieth birthday. Though Strindberg claimed that he was writing "realistically," he freely altered past events and biographical information, and telescoped chronology as often done in most historical fiction : more importantly, he felt a flow of resurgent inspiration, writing almost twenty new plays many in a historical setting between and Strindberg was pivotal in the creation of chamber plays.
Once Otto Brahm relinquished his role as head as of the Deutsches Theatre , Reinhardt took over and produced Strindberg's plays. In , Strindberg planned to write a grand cycle of plays based on world history, but the idea soon faded. He wrote another historical drama in after the Royal Theatre convinced him to put on a new play for its sixtieth birthday. August Falck, an actor, wanted to put on a production of Miss Julie and wrote to Strindberg for permission. In September he staged the first Swedish production of Miss Julie. The leader of the Social Democrat Youth Alliance started a fund-raiser for a special "people's award".
In total 45, Swedish crowns were collected, by more than 20, donors, most of whom were workers. He invited his first three children now, like their mother, living in Finland to Stockholm and divided the money into five shares, one for each child, one for Siri absent , and the last one for himself. In setting apart one share for Siri, Strindberg noted, in a shy voice, "This is for your mother - it's to settle an old debt". When the children returned to Helsinki, Siri was surprised to hear that she had been included, but accepted the money and told them in a voice that was, according to her daughter Karin, both proud and moved, "I shall accept it, receiving it as an old debt".
The debt was less financial than mental and emotional; Strindberg knew he had sometimes treated her unfairly during the later years of their marriage and at their divorce trial. His theatre was modeled after Max Reinhardt 's Kammerspiel Haus. Strindberg and Falck had the intention of the theatre being used for his plays and his plays only, Strindberg also wanted to try out a more chamber-oriented and sparse style of dramatic writing and production.
In time for the theatre's opening, Strindberg wrote four chamber plays: Thunder in the Air, The Burned Site, The Ghost Sonata , and The Pelican ; these were generally not a success with audiences or newspaper critics at the time but have been highly influential on modern drama and soon would reach wider audiences at Reinhardt's theatre in Berlin and other German stages.
Strindberg had very specific ideas about how the theatre would be opened and operated. He drafted a series of rules for his theatre in a letter to August Falck: 1. No liquor. No Sunday performances. Short performances without intermissions. No calls.
Only seats in the auditorium. No prompter. No orchestra, only music on stage. The text will be sold at the box office and in the lobby. Summer performances.
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Falck helped to design the auditorium, which was decorated in a deep-green tone. The ceiling lighting was a yellow silk cover which created an effect of mild daylight. The floor was covered with a deep-green carpet, and the auditorium was decorated by six ultra modern columns with elaborate up-to-date capitals. Instead of the usual restaurant Strindberg offered a lounge for the ladies and a smoking-room for the gentlemen.
The stage was unusually small, only 6 by 9 metres. The small stage and minimal number of seats was meant to give the audience a greater feeling of involvement in the work. Unlike most theatres at this time, the Intima Teater was not a place in which people could come to socialize. By setting up his rules and creating an intimate atmosphere, Strindberg was able to demand the audience's focus.
When the theatre opened in with a performance of The Pelican it was a rather large hit. Strindberg used a minimal technique, as was his way, by only having a back drop and some sea shells on the stage for scene design and props. Strindberg was much more concerned with the actors portraying the written word than the stage looking pretty.
The theatre eventually went bankrupt in , but did not close until Strindberg's death in The newspapers wrote about the theatre until its death; however, Strindberg felt it was entirely unsuccessful. He felt that he never had the opportunity to successfully stage a play the way he wanted to — which was the purpose of the theatre in the first place. During Christmas , Strindberg became sick with pneumonia and he never recovered completely. He also began to suffer more clearly from a stomach cancer early signs of which had been felt in The final weeks of his life were painful.
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He had long since become a national celebrity, even if highly controversial, and when it became clear that he was seriously ill the daily papers in Stockholm began reporting on his health in every edition. He received many letters and telegrams from admirers across the country. Strindberg was interred at Norra begravningsplatsen in Stockholm. He had given strict instructions concerning his funeral and how his body should be treated after death: only members of his immediate family were allowed to view his body, there would be no obduction, no photographs were taken, and no death mask was made.
Strindberg had also requested that his funeral should take place as soon as possible after his death to avoid crowds of onlookers. However, the workers' organisations requested that the funeral should take place on a Sunday to make it possible for working men to pay their respects, and the funeral was postponed for five days, until Sunday, 19 May. According to Strindberg's last wish, the funeral procession was to start at 8am, again to avoid crowds, but large groups of people were nevertheless waiting outside his home as well as at the cemetery, as early as 7am. The procession was followed by groups of students, workers, members of Parliament and a couple of cabinet ministers, and it was estimated that up to 60, people lined the streets.
King Gustaf V sent a wreath for the bier. A multi-faceted author, Strindberg was often extreme. His novel The Red Room made him famous. His early plays belong to the Naturalistic movement. His works from this time are often compared with the Norwegian playwright Henrik Ibsen. Strindberg's best-known play from this period is Miss Julie. Strindberg wanted to attain what he called "greater Naturalism. Strindberg felt that true naturalism was a psychological "battle of brains": two people who hate each other in the immediate moment and strive to drive the other to doom is the type of mental hostility that Strindberg strove to describe.
He intended his plays to be impartial and objective, citing a desire to make literature akin to a science. Following the inner turmoil that he experienced during the "Inferno crisis," he wrote an important book in French, Inferno —7 in which he dramatised his experiences. He also exchanged a few cryptic letters with Friedrich Nietzsche.
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Strindberg subsequently ended his association with Naturalism and began to produce works informed by Symbolism. He is considered one of the pioneers of the modern European stage and Expressionism. Influenced by the history of the Paris Commune , during , young Strindberg embraced the view, that politics is a conflict between the upper and lower classes. He was admired by many as a far-left writer. He was a socialist or perhaps more of an anarchist, meaning a libertarian socialist, which he himself claimed on at least one occasion  . Strindberg's political opinions nevertheless changed considerably within this category over the years, and he was never primarily a political writer.
Nor did he often campaign for any one issue, preferring instead to scorn his enemies manifesto-style — the military, the church , the monarchy , the politicians, the stingy publishers, the incompetent reviewers, the narrow-minded, the idiots — and he was not loyal to any party or ideology. Many of his works, however, had at least some politics and sometimes an abundance of it. They often displayed that life and the prevailing system were profoundly unjust and injurious to ordinary citizens. The changing nature of his political positions shows in his changing stance on the women's rights issue.
Early on, Strindberg was sympathetic to women of 19th-century Sweden, calling for women's suffrage as early as However, during other periods he had strongly misogynistic opinions, calling for lawmakers to reconsider the emancipation of these "half-apes Strindberg's antisemitic pronouncements, just like his opinions of women, have been debated, and also seem to have varied considerably.
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Many of these attitudes, passions and behaviours may have been developed for literary reasons and ended as soon as he had exploited them in books. In satirizing Swedish society — in particular the upper classes, the cultural and political establishment, and his many personal and professional foes — he could be very confrontational, with scarcely concealed caricatures of political opponents. This could take the form of brutal character disparagement or mockery, and while the presentation was generally skilful, it was not necessarily subtle.
Strindberg, something of a polymath , was also a telegrapher , theosophist , painter, photographer and alchemist. Painting and photography offered vehicles for his belief that chance played a crucial part in the creative process. Strindberg's paintings were unique for their time, and went beyond those of his contemporaries for their radical lack of adherence to visual reality.
The paintings that are acknowledged as his were mostly painted within the span of a few years, and are now seen by some as among the most original works of 19th-century art. Today, his best-known pieces are stormy, expressionist seascapes, selling at high prices in auction houses. Though Strindberg was friends with Edvard Munch and Paul Gauguin , and was thus familiar with modern trends, the spontaneous and subjective expressiveness of his landscapes and seascapes can be ascribed also to the fact that he painted only in periods of personal crisis.
Anders Zorn also did a portrait. His interest in photography resulted, among other things, in a large number of arranged self-portraits in various environments, which now number among the best-known pictures of Strindberg. Strindberg also embarked on a series of camera-less images, using an experimental quasi-scientific approach. He produced a type of photogram that encouraged the development and growth of crystals on the photographic emulsion, sometimes exposed for lengthy periods to heat or cold in the open air or at night facing the stars.
The suggestiveness of these, which he called Celestographs, provided an object for contemplation, and he noted;.
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For me this means a great opportunity to demonstrate the real circumstances by means of my photographs made without a camera and lens, recording the firmament in early spring His interest in the occult in the 90s finds sympathy with the chance quality of these images, but for him they are also scientific. Alchemy , occultism , Swedenborgianism , and various other eccentric interests were pursued by Strindberg with some intensity for periods of his life.
As London seeks answers to some long-hidden family secrets, she exposes the skeletons in a lot of closets. The shocking discoveries she uncovers lead to events the sisters never saw coming. Will the sisters survive the revelations in one piece, or will it tear them apart forever? Get A Copy. Kindle Edition , 1st , 98 pages. Published September 30th by Nu Class Publications. More Details Friend Reviews. To see what your friends thought of this book, please sign up. To ask other readers questions about Sibling Rivalry 2 , please sign up.
Lists with This Book. This book is not yet featured on Listopia. Community Reviews. Showing Rating details. Sort order. May 21, Mita Rhodes rated it it was amazing. Words just can't explain just how much I enjoyed both books. The years of hating and bickering and not being there for one another finally comes to a tragic end all while finding out the family's dirty little secret. You will not regret investing in the series. A great story line that all can relate to.
It will have your emotions on high. It's just a great read! Jul 19, Taylor rated it liked it. This picks up right where part 1 left off. The sisters are not in competition in this book. They are actually trying to get it together after the tragic accident. Things from the past comes back and has an effect the girls lives. I seen some of the things coming and wasn't surprised by what was happening. Overall, it was an okay book. At this time I have no interest in reading part 3. If you read the 1st book you might have an interest in know what is going to happen.
Oct 01, Mirrlees rated it really liked it. What these siblings endured, yes is partially there their fault but most of it is due to the sins of the parents. London took on a big responsibility and I respect her for that. Sometimes we have to go through somethings to see somethings and I wish India had listened sometimes.
Great read, a little sad but a good story. Jan 12, Alisha Simko rated it it was amazing. This book is the true definition of bittersweet.
So much pain but yet the ending was great!!!! I don't want to say much about the book but I do want to say I highly recommend this book to anyone who wants to read a good book. Loved part 1 and I loved Part 2 even more. Ill be looking out for more books by Vanessa M. Kirby because she's a great author!!!