Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, U. Food and Drug Administration. Medical review s. FDA drug approval package. Drug Enforcement Administration. Department of Justice. Schedules of controlled substances: placement of pregabalin into schedule V. Final rule. Fed Regist. Top 20 Global products.
Lyrica Sales Data. A signal for an abuse liability for pregabalin-results from the Swedish spontaneous adverse drug reaction reporting system. European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology. Is there a recreational misuse potential for pregabalin? Analysis of anecdotal online reports in comparison with related gabapentin and clonazepam data. Psychother Psychosom. Pregabalin abuse, dependence, and withdrawal: a case report. Am J Psychiatry. Potential for pregabalin abuse or diversion after past drug-seeking behavior.
J Am Osteopath Assoc. Schifano F. Misuse and abuse of pregabalin and gabapentin: cause for concern? CNS Drugs. Spence D. Bad medicine: gabapentin and pregabalin. Subjective, psychomotor, and physiological effects of pregabalin alone and in combination with oxycodone in healthy volunteers. Pharmacol Bio-chem Behav. Pregabalin abuse and dependence in Germany: results from a database query.
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Pregabalin abuse among opiate addicted patients. Prescription medication misuse among opioid dependent patients seeking inpatient detoxification. Am J Addict.
Pregabalin serum levels in apprehended drivers. Forensic Sci Int. Profiles of pregabalin and gabapentin abuse by postmortem toxicology. Abuse of pregabalin — results of the postmortem toxicology from to Toxichem Krimtech. Lyrica nights-recreational pregabalin abuse in an urban emergency department. Emerg Med J.
Pregabalin abuse after past substance-seeking behavior. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther. Skopp G, Zimmer G.
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Arch Kriminol. Concerns about pregabalin: further experience with its potential of causing addictive behaviors. J Addict Med. Carrus D, Schifano F. Pregabalin misuse-related issues; intake of large dosages, drug-smoking allegations, and possible association with myositis: two case reports.
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J Clin Psychopharmacol. Bicknell M. The pain of pregabalin prescribing in prisons. Br J Gen Pract.
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The adverse event profile of pregabalin: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Population pharmacokinetics of pregabalin in healthy subjects and patients with chronic pain or partial seizures. Berry D, Millington C. Ther Drug Monit. Pregabalin effect on steady-state pharmacokinetics of carbamazepine, lamotrigine, phenobarbital, phenytoin, topiramate, valproate, and tiagabine.
A comparison of the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of pregabalin and gabapentin. Clin Pharmacokinet. Mucosal uptake of gabapentin neurontin vs. Pharm Res. Schulze-Bonhage A. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profile of pregabalin and its role in the treatment of epilepsy. Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol. Perioperative gabapentinoids: choice of agent, dose, timing, and effects on chronic postsurgical pain.
Martinotti G. Pregabalin in clinical psychiatry and addiction: pros and cons. Expert Opin Investig Drugs. Structure-activity relationships of pregabalin and analogues that target the alpha 2 -delta protein. J Med Chem. Dual effects of gabapentin and pregabalin on glutamate release at rat entorhinal synapses in vitro. Eur J Neurosci. Mico JA, Prieto R. Elucidating the mechanism of action of pregabalin: alpha 2 delta as a therapeutic target in anxiety.
Calcium channel alpha2-delta type 1 subunit is the major binding protein for pregabalin in neocortex, hippocampus, amygdala, and spinal cord: an ex vivo autoradiographic study in alpha2-delta type 1 genetically modified mice. Brain Res. Pharmacology and mechanism of action of pregabalin: the calcium channel alpha2-delta alpha2-delta subunit as a target for antiepileptic drug discovery. Epilepsy Res. Effects of oral pregabalin and aprepitant on pain and central sensitization in the electrical hyperalgesia model in human volunteers.
Br J Anaesth. Kavoussi R. Pregabalin: From molecule to medicine. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. Acute effects of gabapentin and pregabalin on rat forebrain cellular GABA, glutamate, and glutamine concentrations. Neurosci Lett. Pregabalin rectifies aberrant brain chemistry, connectivity, and functional response in chronic pain patients. Neural bases for addictive properties of benzodiazepines. Filip M, Frankowska M. GABA B receptors in drug addiction. Pharmacol Rep. Upregulation of gamma-aminobutyric acid transporter expression: role of alkylated gammaaminobutyric acid derivatives.
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Biochem Soc Trans. Pregabalin is a potent and selective ligand for alpha 2 delta-1 and alpha 2 delta-2 calcium channel subunits. Eur J Pharmacol. Koob GF. Pain intensity varies, but it is typically at its maximum in places of skin loss and tissue donor areas. In case of severe burns, the initial destruction of nerve endings leads to local insensitivity to pain. In these areas, there may be a disorderly regeneration of nerve tissue, which will predispose to neuropathic pain. It is extremely important to evaluate constantly the burn victim for pain in order to guide the analgesic management and response to drug 7.
Characteristics, such as pain location, pain improvement or worsening, and type and intensity of pain are essential for management. Pain intensity in this group of patients is usually assessed using a numerical scale However, the visual analogue scale, verbal descriptive scale, and faces and colors scales are used There are also behavioral observational scales validated for use in patients who are unable to express themselves effectively.
Four patterns of pain have been observed in burn patients. There may be constant pain at rest and in motion background pain , aggravated by episodes of intense and sudden pain breakthrough pain , pain during procedures 16 , and pain in the postoperative period. Pharmacological treatment. Drug administration is the primary and most effective way of treating pain in burn patients because of its nature and intensity As mentioned previously, the inadequate management of analgesia is still very common and it is extremely important to continually reassess the effectiveness of therapy, as well as the use of more aggressive methods Some changes in drug pharmacokinetics are seen in burn patients.
During the initial phase, when an inflammatory response develops, there is decreased blood flow to the organs, with a consequent drug clearance decrease. After this phase, there is an overall increase of metabolism with a subsequent clearance increase. Therefore, the effect of drugs with high protein binding is difficult to control One should also be cautious with increased total body water commonly seen during treatment.
Among the most commonly used drugs, opioids play a key role in pain management in burn patients. The variety of options available in the market allows good flexibility regarding potency, route of administration, and duration of action tailored to each patient. Its adverse effects are well-known, particularly itching, respiratory depression, and nausea. Due to the risk of tolerance or opioid-induced hyperalgesia, its use should always be incorporated into a multimodal treatment approach The pain at rest background pain present in burn patients is moderate and should be treated more appropriately with moderate potency drugs, whose plasma concentration remains relatively constant throughout the day.
The most common examples are: intravenous opioid infusion, with or without patient-controlled analgesia, long-term opioids methadone administered orally, or prolonged enteral absorption opioids controlled-release morphine or oxycodone. Tramadol and opioids also promote a beneficial effect in neuropathic pain 26, There is no evidence in literature regarding the superiority of a particular opioid for neuropathic pain treatment Remifentanil, an opioid with ultra rapid onset of action and plasma metabolism, is an important option for analgesia during procedures when delivered by continuous infusion.
Fentanyl and alfentanil may also be used, with the advantage of promoting residual analgesia. Anti-inflammatory drugs, paracetamol and dipyrone. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs NSAIDs may also reduce the adverse effects of opioids significantly The most appropriate drugs for patients with burns are paracetamol, dipyrone, and selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors. Although these drugs are weak when used alone, they act synergistically with opioids Due to the inhibition of platelet aggregation, the use of NSAIDs should be avoided in situations in which risk of bleeding is a concern such as severe burn Its use also requires caution in patients with cardiovascular and gastrointestinal diseases Gabapentin and pregabalin are often used for treating neuropathic pain in burn patients.
Directly, these drugs diminish the central sensitization of pain by binding to calcium channels; indirectly, they inhibit presynaptic N-methyl-D-aspartate NMDA receptors In a small study of burn patients, pain intensity and opioid consumption were significantly reduced in patients taking gabapentin.
Between 3 to 24 days after the accident, patients received 2, mg of it, divided into three doses In another study, pregabalin was evaluated and well-tolerated, significantly reducing several components of neuropathic pain in burn patients. Additionally, there were fewer pain complaints during procedures Antidepressants are effective drugs and therefore play an important role in the concept of multimodal treatment of pain associated with burns Amitriptyline, used in low doses, has an established role in the management of neuropathic pain.
It acts by activating the descending inhibitory pathways in the spinal cord. The required dose is usually not more than 75 mg per day. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors may also be used in case of intolerance to side effects of tricyclics. The analgesic effect of antidepressants usually occurs within days or weeks.
There are no studies regarding the analgesic effect and time to start analgesic therapy in burn patients Ketamine is a non-competitive antagonist of NMDA receptors and may be used for conscious sedation during dressing changes in burn patients It induces a state of dissociative anesthesia with intravenous doses of 1 mg. As an advantage, it maintains the airway reflexes, blood pressure, and heart rate by indirect release of norepinephrine.
The occurrence of hallucinations, a significant adverse effect, may be attenuated by concomitant administration of benzodiazepines or propofol 37, In a meta-analysis of ketamine at low doses and postoperative consumption of opioids, the authors concluded that there is a reduction of up to one-third in total dose administered.
Furthermore, ketamine was effective as rescue medication in case of pain less responsive to opioids Ketamine appears to promote some action in reducing hyperalgesia Because anxiety disorders may exacerbate pain complaints, the use of anxiolytics associated with analgesic drugs is a common practice in many centers 40, Fear and tension cause decreased pain tolerance The burn patients who benefited most from therapy with benzodiazepines were those extremely anxious and with severe pain When there is need for rapid onset of action, midazolam may be used.
Lorazepam is more suitable than diazepam for this group of patients because of the decreased hepatic metabolism often present, which may prolong the half-life of the latter Therapy with intravenous lidocaine was effective in reducing neuropathic pain scores, mainly associated with nerve injury A clinical study, however, showed only a small difference in pain scores, requiring opioid maintenance doses during burn patients' dressing changes Alpha-2 agonists have interesting properties that facilitate their use in analgesic management of burn patients.
Besides stimulating the descending inhibitory pain pathways, they have sedative and antihypertensive effects. Clonidine may be used safely in analgesic management of child burn victims 47, In some burn centers, it is routinely prescribed for children and adults.
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Dexmedetomidine has a shorter duration of action than clonidine and its action is more selective for alpha-2 receptors. One study reported positive results in the association between ketamine and dexmedetomidine compared to ketamine alone or in combination with midazolam during dressing changes in burn patients Non-pharmacological treatment.
Non-pharmacological therapy is an important measure complementary to medication to manage pain and anxiety in burn patients. It should be initiated as early as possible in order to prevent the development of anxiety, which can perpetuate the cycle of pain The approach should be multidisciplinary, involving psychologists, psychotherapists, physiotherapists and pain specialists. Psychology techniques such as relaxation, distraction, and cognitive-behavioral therapy, are beneficial for relieving anxiety and pain during rehabilitation Hypnosis is an altered state of consciousness characterized by increased receptivity to suggestion, ability to change perceptions and sensations, and increased capacity for dissociation It has been used in pain management in burn patients during procedures and to control anxiety.
Neurophysiological studies support this therapy Another approach used successfully is virtual reality. It consists of a technology that isolates the patient from the real world, letting his vision only in contact with a threedimensional virtual environment. In the context of burn patients, this virtual world is called SnowWorld, specially created to counter sensations most commonly caused by a burn injury.
In some studies, virtual reality used as a technique of distraction during procedures was effective in reducing the intensity of pain in burn patients 55, Pain management in burn patients is still a challenge for the multidisciplinary team. Frequent and continuous evaluation of the patient's response is very important, due to the various stages that the hospitalized burn patient goes through, as well as a combination therapy with analgesic and nonpharmacological measures. Understanding the complexity of the pathophysiological, psychological, and biochemical changes presented by a burn patient is the first step to achieve success in analgesic management.
Pain: clinical manual. Louis: Mosby, , pp. Patterson D, Sharar S - Burn pain. Em: Loeser J ed. Bonica's management of pain. J Adv Nurs, ;33 6 Twycross A - Educating nurses about pain management: the way forward. J Clin Nurs, ;11 6 Pain, ; Eur J Neurosci, ; Dworkin RH - An overview of neuropathic pain: syndromes, symptoms, signs, and several mechanisms.
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