Written by Kimberly Brunnert, Jack Naglieri, and Steven Hardy-Braz, the test is especially well suited for those who are not proficient in English, such as young children, recent immigrants, ESL students, and the deaf and hard of hearing. This essential guide provides you with illuminating case reports and valuable advice on its clinical applications. Jack A. Laney, expressed concerns related toJacob and his behaviors, but both independently stated that they were concerned about his apparent boredom in school and with his homework.
Direct Observations: Jacob was observed by this examiner in his regular classroom taught by his teacher during both American History and English lessons. His teacher was unable to communicate directly withJacob beyond using a few simple signs e. Lara Alice. The communication and interaction between Ms. Whenever Jacob asked any clarifying questions, Ms. Alice appeared to understand his expressive signs with ease and was able to clarify the interpretation. Jacob displayed a tendency to direct all of his questions to Ms. Alice instead of his teacher. Furthermore, during snack and lunchtime, Jacob stated that he preferred to sit with Ms.
Jacob, however, did tend to walk and run with a slightly wider than typical stance. Often times, information from the vestibular system to the brain is also limited because it uses the same cranial nerve for transmitting information. His teacher explained thatJacob was working on long-division problems with older children by 2 years in his multiaged classroom and that he was beginning to read book series by himself. Laney, was also asked about his academic and social performance to date.
Laney stated that Jacob was a bright student who did not display any behavioral or emotional concerns. She stated that she felt limited in her ability to teach Jacob directly since she onlyknewa few hundred ASL signs. Laney added that she appreciated Ms. Marcus, served as the primary reporter for him and was interviewed by this examiner in ASL. She stated that Jacobwas an exceptional reader and thatmostacademic topics came easy for him. She explained that she had some developmental concerns earlier in his preschool years, but that he was doing very well now.
She, too, stated thatJacob enjoyed playing with friends his own age or slightly older and that they tended to play videogames, like the Lego Star Wars, together. Marcus felt that Jacob was not being challenged enough at school or at home and was hoping that an advanced program would be more stimulating for him.
Pictorial directions were used during the WNVadministration to minimize verbal requirements of both the examiner andJacob. Subtest T scores have a mean of 50 and standard deviation of 10; the Full Scale score has a mean of and a standard deviation of Census data. No complications occurred during the pregnancy or birth. His mother reported that she needed no medications nor did she drink or smoke.
Developmental milestones were reported to have been obtained within normal parameters except for a slight delay in walking. He here. No allergies, injuries, hospitalizations, or medical problems were reported. His most recent audiogram His vision was screened by the school nurse for both far- and nearvision prior to this assessment Previous Assessments Previous psychoeducational information was available from one evaluation of Jacob. The results of that evaluation were as follows: Date of Evaluation Readers are strongly encouraged to refer to the complete reports of the previous evaluations as well as to be cognizant of the fact that various standardized tests with various normative samples and characteristics have been used.
On the day of this evaluation, Jacob was very well groomed, neatly dressed, and he behaved in a well-mannered fashion. Jacob was attentive, engaging, and curious about the testing materials and the examiner. The room was well lit and free from any distracters. During the hour-long standardized assessment session, Jacob was able toremain on task and workwithout any reminders toworkcarefullyand continuously.
He appeared to enjoy the tasks and often commented on the fun nature of some of the test items. His performance on each contributed to the overall or Full Scale score. Jacob obtained a Full Scale score of He was able to solve many of these items with ease and often explained the solution he used. His performance resulted in aTscore of The Coding subtest required Jacob to copy symbols that are paired with simple geometric shapes or numbers.
He was able to complete a great number of these compared to children his own age, and his performance yielded aT score of For the Spatial Span subtest, Jacob had to tap a series of blocks as demonstrated by the examiner. For Spatial Span Forward, Jacob had to repeat a sequence of tapped blocks in the same order that the examiner demonstrated. For Spatial Span Backward, Jacob had to tap a sequence of tapped blocks in the reverse order of what the examiner demonstrated.
He readily understood the task demands and was able to complete these tasks and earn aT score of His performance was also rated as being above most other children his age, with aT score of He found several of the stories displayed by the completed items humorous and often told them back to the examiner as he laughed at them. This is supported by reports from his teacher, interpreter, and his mother.
Academic work samples reviewed by this examiner also appear to support a very high level of ability. Also, including a recommendation here does not imply that the recommended activity is not already taking place, but that prior to the IEP meeting the examiner thought it was an appropriate idea based only on what he had learned about Jacob over the course of this assessment. They can also be reached via the Internet at www.
The important consideration of each of these needs as they relate toJacob cannot be understated. The educational team should consider all of the factors unique to students who are deaf or hard-of-hearing to ensure that the placement of Jacob is appropriate. The educational team should be knowledgeable about evaluating and managing a classroom placement that requires interpreting services. The educational team should understand the importance of social and emotional development of students who are deaf or hard-ofhearing.
The educational team should ensure that the cultural needs of Jacob are met. The educational team should ensure thatJacob receives appropriate opportunities for direct instruction and directcommunicationwith support personnel. The educational team should ensure appropriate access to support services forJacob. The educational team should ensure the availability of appropriate assistive technology forJacob. CMP can be reached by telephone at 1. One book that many teachers and parents have found useful for activities for students similar to Jacob is Kid-Friendly Parenting with Deaf and Hard of Hearing Children by Medwin and Weston.
This text is available at any major bookstore or via the Internet and is recommended by this examiner. Another book that many parents have found useful and very practical for helping them with raising a child who is deaf is Raising and Educatinga Deaf Child by Mark Marschark. This text is available at any major bookstore or via the Internet and is highly recommended by this examiner. Figure 7.
It was an honor and pleasure to have worked withJacob. This examiner is available for any further consultation, assessment, or support of Jacob, if appropriate. Patrick Gender: Female Date of Birth: After completing the Direct Observations: This examiner observed Alice in her regular classroom being taught by Ms.
Alice was also observed in her general school environment e. Alice displayed a high level of energy in numerous settings and she appeared to be very social with her classmates. Her attention span appeared short compared with other children in the classroom, yet she behaved in a socially appropriate and polite manner. Maldonado, was also asked about her academic and social performance to date.
Maldonado stated that Alice was not achieving as well as she could in all areas in her classroom. Alice was seen rushing through assignments and not being able to break tasks into coherent and meaningful steps and retain comprehension of the topic at hand. She stated that her daughter was very forgetful of things, especially when there were multiple parts or steps. Pictorial directions were used during the WNVadministration to minimize verbal requirements of both the examiner and Alice.
Since Alice was 10 years and 8 months old , she was administered the four subtests in the age-appropriate batteryfor individualsbetweenthe ages of8yearsand21years,11months. Subtest T scores have a mean of 50 and standard deviation of10; the Full Scale score has a mean of and a standard deviation of The age range for which the test is appropriate spans from 2 years, 0 months to over 85 years of age. Composite scores were reported to have high reliabilities on average, mean of, and a standard deviation of It is designed for children between 5 and 18 years of age. Executive functions are an integrated collection of cognitive processes that are responsible for guiding, directing, and managing cognitive, emotional, and behavioral functions, particularly during active, novel problem-solving activities.
Inconsistency and Negativity scales are also computed. Designed to expand the traditional measurement of intelligence, the CAS provides an inclusive perspective on the cognitive processing strengths and weaknesses of Alice. The CAS may be used for a variety of purposes, including diagnosis, eligibility, determination of discrepancies, reevaluation, and program planning. There are two administration options available for the examiner.
One is the 8-subtest option called the Basic Battery. The other is a subtest option called the Standard Battery.
The standardization sample was a representative group of 2, children and adolescents 5 through17 years of age. The test is for students in kindergarten through sixth gradewhorange in age from 5 to13 years. Not every subtest is administered to every child at every grade. The subtests that are administered have the most empirical support for assessing the processes involved in reading and writing.
Decile scores representthe percentage of students in the normative sample who obtain scores at or below that decile score. Her mother reported that she needed no medications nor did she drink or smoke. She did state that her husband did smoke at that time but that he has since quit. No problems with sleeping through the night were mentioned. Except for walking, developmental milestones were reported as being obtained within expected parameters, and no pre-, peri-, or postnatal problems were reported. Audiometric assessment results Alice had become implanted at a relatively late age March , and then after that device failed last fall October another device was implanted in November of that year.
Alice reports that the device helps her be aware of sounds and noises in her environment and to understand people around her who cannot sign. When communication preferences i. She stated that her mother could sign fairly well but that her father did not know many signs. Over the course of the assessment, Alice spoke more and utilized less sign language for communication as she became more comfortable and as the English language demands of the assessment increased. School records indicate that Alice resided with her mother, father, and an older brother.
It was reported that the family had moved two previous times. Previous Psychological Assessments: Previous psychoeducational information was available from one evaluation of Alice. The results of that evaluation were as follows: Date of Evaluation Test s administered Results Readers are strongly encouraged to refer to the complete reports of the previous evaluations as well as to be cognizant of the fact that various standardized tests and normative samples have been used.
Onthe dayof this evaluation, Alicewas very well groomed, neatly dressed, and she behaved in a well-mannered fashion. She was assessed in a well-lit and quiet room with minimal distractions in the environment. During standardized assessment sessions, Alice was able to remain on task and work, with frequent reminders and verbal encouragement to work carefully and continuously.
She appeared to enjoy the mentally challenging tasks and the individual attention from this examiner. Her performance on each contributed to the overall or Full Scale score. Alice obtained a Full Scale score of It can also be seen as being atthe 47th percentile ranking. She was able to solve many of these items with ease and would sometimes explain the solution she used to the examiner. Her performance resulted in aTscore of The Coding subtest required Alice to copysymbols that are paired with simple geometric shapes or numbers.
Essentials of WNV Assessment
It was observed that she had to frequently look back to the code key as she proceeded to replicate the symbols. Her performance yielded a T score of For the Spatial Span subtest, Alice had to tap a series ofblocks as demonstrated by the examiner. For Spatial Span Forward, Alice had to repeat a sequence of tapped blocks in the same order that the examiner demonstrated. For Spatial Span Backward, Alice had to tap a sequence of tapped blocks in the reverse order of what the examiner demonstrated. She understood the task demands with apparent ease and was able to complete these tasks and earn a T score of Her performance was also rated as being similar to most other children her age with a T score in the Average range of Her current overall intelligence is measured as being in the Average range and is ranked at the 50th percentile.
This score represented an area of relative strength for Alice. Compared to other individuals, this score would be described as being in the Average range. Some of the problems used words and some used pictured relationships. Compared to other individuals, these scores would also be described as being in the Average range. The planning process provided the means to solve problems for which no method or solution is immediately apparent. Planning is also important for impulse control as well as utilization of knowledge. The CAS Planning subtests require the application of strategies to perform the novel tasks presented.
This means that Alice performed poorly in comparison to her average PASS score on tests that required her to relate parts into a group or whole, understand relationships among pictures and words, and work with spatial relationships. Simultaneous processing involves integrating separate stimuli into a single whole or group. In addition to perceiving parts intoasinglegestalt,simultaneousprocessingrequiresunderstandinglogicalgrammatical relationships. Simultaneous subtests in the CAS required Alice to perceive objects as a group and to interrelate separate elements into a whole through examination of the stimuli during the activity or through recall.
Attention is a cognitive process by which Alice selectively attended to a particular stimulus and inhibited attending to competing stimuli. The tasks present competing demands on attention and require sustained focus over time to identify a target stimulus and avoid distractions. For example, the tests required her to remember the order of words spoken by the examiner and comprehend information that is based on ordering of words.
The Successive subtests in the CAS required Alice to either reproduce a sequence of independent stimuli or answer questions based on understanding syntactic relationships. The results of the administration of these subtests are included in the test results appendix and are reported indecile scores. This is further evidence of Alice displaying uneven development and mastery of skills and abilities highly related to writing and reading. She displayed some confusion between upper- and lower-case letters and had to be reminded to check her work for accuracy.
Alice was asked to compare whole words, single letters, and letter groups to the target words presented by the stimulus booklet. Several simple mistakes impeded her from performing well on this subtest. For each item, Alice was presented the word in the stimulus booklet and then asked to write the whole word or target single letter or letter group from the word. As in the RAN-Words subtest, as the tasks became harder her performance began to worsen. When Alice was asked to listen to a simulated classroom lecture and to take notes on the information presented for the Note-Taking Task, she did a very poor job of taking notes related to the information presented.
Her performance on both of these related tasks was very poor. Items on this subtest required Alice to say the portions of monosyllabic or polysyllabic words remaining when the targeted rime is omitted. Alice was presented with a list of printed pseudowords, and she was required to say them aloud. The pseudowords used by this subtest were designed to mimic the phonological structure of words in the English language.
She did relatively well on this subtest and her performance suggested that her application of phonological skills helped her in her reading and decoding abilities. Each of the two distracter sentences had one erroneous word that could not make sense in the sentence context. This subtest consists of two tasks: a sentence copying task that incorporates all the letters of the alphabet, and b a paragraph copying task. Both tasks were performed well byAlice. At the time of the assessment, Alice was a year, 8-month-old student who was receiving services as a hearing-impaired student.
While Index Scores ranged within 14 points Visual Spatial greater than Knowledge and Quantitative Reasoning , her composite scores were very similar. Department of Defense. Also, including a recommendation here does not imply that the recommended activity is not already taking place, but that prior to the CSC meeting the examiner thought it was an appropriate idea based onlyonwhat he had learned about Alice over the course of this assessment. They can be telephoned at 1.
One recommendation for the development of such a support network is that they become members of the American Society of Deaf Children. They can be contacted via telephone at 1. The important consideration of each of these needs as they relate to Alice cannot be understated.
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The educational team should consider all of the factors unique to studentswho are deaforhard-of-hearing to ensure thatthe placement of Alice is appropriate. The educational team should ensure that the cultural needs of Alice are met. The educational team should ensure that Alice receive appropriate opportunities for direct instruction and directcommunicationwith support personnel.
The educational team should ensure appropriate access to support services for Alice. The educational team should ensure the availability of appropriate assistive technology for Alice. Another book that many parents have found useful and very practical for helping them with raising a child who is deaf is Raising and Educating a Deaf Child by Mark Marschark.
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For written directions, encourage her to highlight underline or circle points that might be forgotten or overlooked. Mel Levine. It is available at most major bookstores. This examiner is also available for further consultation and support if there are any questions. Paul W. Cachman, Psy. He is the second of three children, none of whom have experienced developmental or adjustment problems. Jeremy wasthe product ofanuncomplicated pregnancy, labor, and delivery.
Hewas somewhat jaundiced at birth. As an infant he did not always enjoy cuddling and often was either crying or hungry.
As a toddler he was constantly into things and typically overactive. He adapted to new situations and was generally happy. He has a history of recurrent ear infections. He settles down to sleep and usually sleeps through the night. He tends to be a restless sleeper.
Jeremy met developmental milestones initially within normal limits; however language development was slow. Jeremydid not have manywords, his articulation was poor, and he was, and continues to often be, unintelligible. He currently has someproblemswithlanguageassociation,retrieval,sequencing,andorthographic abilities. He has received services as a student with a Communication Disorder. Jeremy understands directions and situations as well as others.
He was often distracted and did not wait to be called on. He typically does better in a one-on-one relationship. He is easily distracted and does not respond to limits well. Discipline when needed consists of time out. The medicine appeared to improve self-discipline. Jeremy has been slow in developing motor skills, though he has no trouble with large motor skills. He has been slow in toilet training. He still has problems with night-time training. During the dayhe goes to the bathroom independently and does not have very many accidents.
He was seen for two sessions with a lunch break in between sessions. Eye contact was appropriate, and he maintained and initiated conversation easily. When he understood the task, Jeremy responded well, but when he did not he tended to be passive. Throughout the sessionsJeremy appeared neither anxious nor sad. Overall he was calm and emotionally stable. Jeremy related well to the examiners and smiled appropriately. Jeremy was alert, attentive, and with support concentrated adequately.
He was cooperative and attempted all tasks presented. He had a tendency toward increased activity, squirming, and wriggling during both sessions and was occasionally distracted. Jeremy did not take the prescribed stimulant medication on the day of the assessment. Jeremy completed this task with a standard score of , equivalent to the 50th percentile. In contrast, Jeremy earned a standard score of only 78, equivalent to the 7th percentile on the Expressive Vocabulary Test, which is a simple synonym measure of expressive language. Jeremy demonstrates nearly a two-year delay in expressive language.
Intellectual Jeremyearned a high score ontheWechsler Nonverbal Scale of Ability, which also measures general ability using nonverbal spatial tests. On this test he earned a Full Scale score of , which is ranked at the 77th percentile and falls within the High Average range. The tests on this scale measure general ability without requiring Jeremy to express himself verbally and instead require that he work with pictures and assemble a design to match a picture. This means that when his general ability was measured using questions that required verbal expression and comprehension he performed particularly poorly.
Jeremy also earned aWorking Memory Scale score of 88 which is ranked at the 21st percentile and is inthe LowAverage range. This scale measures general ability usingteststhatrequire recallof information presentedby the examiner. The subtests on this scale measure general ability using tests that require, for example, rapidly writing symbols that correspond to numbers. This score falls in the LowAverage range. These cognitive weaknesses have important implications for diagnosis and eligibility determination, as well as educational programming.
He had trouble with development and use of good strategies, control of behavior, self-monitoring, and self-correction when completing the planning tests. For example, the tests required him to remember the order of words spoken by the examiner and comprehend information that is based on ordering of words.
This means that Jeremy performed relatively well on tests that required him to relate parts into a group or whole, understand relationships among pictures and words, and work with spatial relationships. On the Delay tasks, though he made a normal number of correct responses, his total number of responses was excessive and abnormal. On theVigilance tasks he made an abnormal number of commission errors and a borderline number of correct responses.
He did not appear to have any large motor abnormalities. Academic Jeremy earned a score at the 25th percentile on the Bracken Basic Concept Scale, which is an indication of basic school readiness in verbal concepts. He has mastered color names, letters, and numbers. He is less consistent with sizes, comparisons, and shapes.
Jeremy earned similar scores on the verbal tests of the Woodcock-JohnsonTests of Achievement. He earned a Broad Reading score of 83, which is ranked at the 13th percentile. In contrast were his scores that involve Understanding Directions ; 50th percentile , Spelling 95; 37th percentile , and Writing 95; 37th percentile. Emotion and Behavior During a brief play interview, Jeremy initially had trouble settling into play but eventually played with direction. He did not involve the examiner very much, but did not resist when the examiner tried to play along. Jeremyappears to be a child with adequate reality testingbutclearlysomewhat immature behavior and thought processes.
He relates well to others and appears positively bonded to his family. Mild problems are noted when interacting with others, during routines such as meals or whenparents are onthe telephone,doing chores, and homework. Jeremy was described as generally having a positive mood on the Social Attributes Checklist.
He demonstrates empathy and at times humor. Jeremy can gain access to peers and is accepted by other children. He can enter a conversation, take turns, and show interest, but is less consistent in negotiating and compromising. He does not draw inappropriate attention to himself. He has been treated recently with success with a stimulant medication. Jeremy has a history of being markedly overactive as a toddler, demonstrating slow language development, and experiencing nocturnal enuresis.
Motor development has been slow as well. In contrast, when tested with a pure nonverbal measure of ability the WNV , Jeremy earned a score of , which is ranked at the 77th percentile and falls within the High Average range. Jeremy also demonstrates problems with impulsive behavior and sustained attention. Should his medications be adjusted, this examiner is prepared to assist in the collection of behavioral data within the home and school setting.
This examiner is prepared to make appropriate referrals. Jeremy has a disorder in two of the basic psychological processes that are related to his language problems. This examiner is concerned that as the demands of school and life increaseJeremy is likely to struggle increasingly, thereby increasing the probability that he will develop a range of adverse behaviors and coping strategies.
A bell and pad behavioral system is recommended to address nocturnal enuresis. It is recommended that Jeremy be closely monitored and reevaluated before beginning third grade. JoyJansen, M. Sam Goldstein, Ph. When he was enrolled, Luis was taught some sign language to support his communication for immediate needs more, all done, etc.
He is currently enrolled in an English-speaking, full-day regular education kindergarten classroom with ELL English-Language Learner support, and he also receives speech and language services. Luis appeared to be a well-developed Hispanic 5 year, 11 month male who is right handed and does not wear glasses. His skin hair and clothes were clean. His manner of dress was typical for his age. Luis indicated both parents speak Spanish at home. At school, his teacher teaches mostly in English and gives some support in Spanish through the use of a classroom aid.
Luis was in a car seat.
His father reported that he had started talking before the accident, but then stopped afterward and had to relearn some of what he already knew. At this time Luis appeared to understand more Spanish than English. He showed a good range of emotion as evidenced by his overall expressions during conversation and nonverbal activities during rapport building. School reports do indicate he has good relationships with peers, his teacher, and other adults. He did not require an excessive amount of reinforcement and praise. Testing was conducted using both English and Spanish.
The WNV is used to assess the general cognitive ability of individuals aged 4 years to 21 years. This test provides a Full Scale score that uses questions that do not rely on understanding of the English language and is administered using pictorial directions. He scored higher than approximately 63 out of individuals his age. His general cognitive ability, as assessed by the WNV, is in the Average range. Although there is no Spanish version of this test, this examiner complied with the request and administered other cognitive tests that relied less on verbal expression and reasoning in English and on academic achievement.
There is also an optional general language scale GL , which provides an estimate of general language ability in English. With this in mind, the reader is encouraged to interpret the following scores with caution. Nonverbal skills fall into the Average range with a PIQ of 93, which is at the 32nd percentile.
The CAS is an individually administered test designed to measure intelligence as a group of cognitive processes. It is based on the PASS theory of intelligence: The basic premise of the theory is that human cognitive functioning includes Planning, Attention, Simultaneous processing, and Successive processing. This means that Luis performed relatively well on tests that required him to relate parts into a group or whole, understand relationships among pictures and words, and work with spatial relationships.
The areas assessed include reading, mathematics, and written language. Reading The Reading Cluster is a measure of reading achievement that includes decoding and comprehension while reading. He obtained a standard score of 81, which is at the10th percentile. He was unable toidentify the letterst, s, d, x, and o in English. In Spanish he was able to identify the letters l, a, o, s, and b.
He was able to identify one target word when presented with three alternatives. This he did in both English and Spanish. The items required Luis to read a short passage and identify a missing key word that made sense in the context of the passage. Luis appeared not to be able to pick a picture that represented one or two words.
He was unable to do this in either language. The Calculation and Applied Problems tests make up the Math cluster. He was able to write the numbers 1 and 3 on demand.
To solve the problems, he was required to listen to the problem, recognize the procedure to be followed, and then perform relatively simple calculations. Because some of the problems included extraneous information, Luis needed to decide not only the appropriate mathematical operations to use but also what information to include in the calculation. Luis performed similarly on both English and Spanish versions of the test as evidenced by standard scores of 94 and 96, respectively.
Written Language TheWritten Language cluster includes measures of spelling and quality. The tests that comprise the cluster include Spelling and Writing Samples. His skills at writing letters on demand are Mildly Impaired as evidenced by his spelling standard score of This score is at the 13th percentile.
Luis wrote letters in a laborious manner. Spelling skills were below average in both English and Spanish. For example, Luis was able to trace letters, or copy letters, but was only able to write one letter P on demand. He wrote d for w, c for e, a for m, and r for s. He was asked to produce written sentences that were evaluated with respect to the quality of expression.
Luis was not penalized for any errors in basic writing skills, such as spelling or punctuation. His standard score is LowAverage compared to age peers in brief reading.
This evidence should be taken into consideration by the multidisciplinary teamwhen eligibility for special educationalservices will be considered. Say and write alphabet letters, words, brief sentences, or numbers and number groups in order. Arrange items or repeat events from a story or occasion in order. Write out steps of an everyday activity. Plans for Word Syllables. Letter ordering for Spelling. Otero-Zeno, Ph. Difference from Mean Difference Needed at.
Direct Observations: This examiner observed Ryan in his regular cross-categorical classroom being taught by his teacher, Mrs. Ryan was also observed in his general school environment, activities, physical and occupational therapy times, playground, cafeteria, and while transitioning between classes.
Krabapple, was not. Whenever he interacted with a child or teacher who did not know sign language, Ryan chose to speak in English and listen to their voices. If he continued to not grasp what was said, he asked his aide or teacher to sign it to him. He also frequently hesitated whenever he was to exit the school building for several seconds, according to both his teacher and aide. Evaluation focused on a sample of 10 representative counties and consisted of personal and media surveys.
The personal survey assessed knowledge, behavior, and attitudes about WNV 8. Knowledge was measured by asking respondents how WNV is transmitted, who is most vulnerable, and what self-protection measures are available. Behavior was measured by asking what respondents had done during the past week to protect themselves from mosquito bites. Attitude was measured by asking respondents their perceived risk of contracting WNV and for concerns or comments about recommended protective measures.
Surveys were conducted from August through October. Respondents were chosen from randomly generated telephone numbers. Telephone calls were made from a. Monday through Saturday. The survey was administered in Spanish if respondents preferred to speak Spanish. Compared to Kansas' Census data, the sample's demographics were comparable to the general population. Reported behavior Table 1 did not reflect knowledge.
To understand protective measures attitudes, respondents were asked for comments or concerns. These data are consistent with other studies 5 — 9. Most respondents cited mass media and word-of-mouth, few cited magazines or web sites, and even fewer cited healthcare providers or brochures Table 2. Process and outcome were also evaluated through the media survey.
Every newspaper, radio station, and television station in the county sample was contacted by phone or email. Results indicated minimal use of the materials. Fifteen of 40 radio stations recalled receiving materials, although none aired them. Ten of 23 newspapers recalled receiving materials; 5 used the materials in publication. Most persons were knowledgeable about WNV and cited mass media as their information source. KDHE campaign materials were used minimally by local media; persons were likely informed from national news, CDC, or news releases when local cases of WNV were reported.
Low awareness levels in Spanish-speaking respondents indicated that prevention messages from any source were not reaching this population segment. Three factors appeared to influence the degree to which WNV prevention messages affected respondents' knowledge, attitudes, and behavior: message content, media used, and method of delivery. More respondents knew they should be using repellent than actually used it. Knowledge and awareness are insufficient to impact behavior. Risk perceptions may be a moderating factor. Despite 90 confirmed cases of WNV, a 4-fold increase from , and reported presumed cases, most respondents perceived little risk of acquiring the illness.
Thus, they likely were not motivated to use protective measures, especially those seen as deleterious or unpleasant. More respondents took other protective measures wore protective clothing, removed standing water, maintained screens than cited them. Clearly some took these measures for other reasons, unaware that they provided protection from WNV. Mass media and word-of-mouth were the most successful methods of providing WNV information to respondents.