Reciprocity

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This much for the reciprocity of these obligations as derived from the action of the sovereign powers themselves. Reciprocity system, effects of, on British and foreign shipping, I voted for it, believing that it met, in a spirit of reciprocity , the British act of Parliament.

Examples of “reciprocity”

Nearby words reciprocal translocation , reciprocate , reciprocating , reciprocating engine , reciprocation , reciprocity , reciprocity failure , recision , recit. Examples from the Web for reciprocity Revisiting the soul music of Womack is a good first step to rescuing the reciprocity necessary for real intimacy. For example, if one member of the group cares for the children while another member hunts for food for the group, each member has provided a service and received one in return.

Each member can devote more time and attention to his or her allotted task and the whole group benefits. This meant that individuals could give away resources without actually giving them away. Through the rule of reciprocity, sophisticated systems of aid and trade were possible bringing immense benefits to the societies that utilized them. Reciprocity is not only a strong determining factor of human behavior; it is a powerful method for gaining one's compliance with a request.

Relationships and the Importance of Reciprocity

The rule of reciprocity has the power to trigger feelings of indebtedness even when faced with an uninvited favor [13] and irrespective of liking the person who executed the favor. During the experiment, Joe would disappear and bring back a soft drink for the participant.

After this phase of the experiment was over, Joe would ask the participant to buy raffle tickets from him. The more the participants liked Joe, the more likely they were to buy raffle tickets from him. However, when Joe had given them a soda and thus indebted them to reciprocate, it made no difference whether the participants liked Joe or not, the rule of reciprocity overpowered liking.


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Furthermore, we are obliged to receive these gifts and favors which reduces our ability to choose to whom we wish to be indebted. In , Phillip Kunz demonstrated the automatic nature of reciprocity in an experiment using Christmas cards. In this experiment, Kunz sent out holiday cards with pictures of his family and a brief note to a group of complete strangers. While he expected some reaction, holiday cards came pouring back to him from people who had never met nor heard of him and who expressed no desire to get to know him any better.

Politics is another area where the power of reciprocity is evident. While politicians often claim autonomy from the feelings of obligation associated with gifts and favors that influence everyone else, they are also susceptible. In the election, U. Congress Representatives who received the most money from special interest groups were over seven times more likely to vote in favor of the group that had contributed the most money to their campaigns.

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Magnanimity is often repaid with disproportionate amounts of kindness and cooperation , and treachery with disproportionate amounts of hostility and vengeance , which can significantly surpass amounts determined or predicted by conventional economic models of rational self-interest. Moreover, reciprocal tendencies are frequently observed in situations wherein transaction costs associated with specific reciprocal actions are high and present or future material rewards are not expected.

Whether self-interested or reciprocal action dominates the aggregate outcome is particularly dependent on context; in markets or market-like scenarios characterized by competitiveness and incomplete contracts , reciprocity tends to win out over self-interest. Positive reciprocity occurs when an action committed by one individual that has a positive effect on someone else is returned with an action that has an approximately equal positive effect. However, the reciprocated action should be approximately equal to the first action in terms of positive value, otherwise this can result in an uncomfortable social situation.

Individuals expect actions to be reciprocated by actions that are approximately equal in value. One example of positive reciprocity is that waitresses who smile broadly receive more tips than waitresses who present a minimal smile. Many people find it difficult to accept the free sample and walk away.

Instead, they buy some of the product even when they did not find it that enjoyable. Negative reciprocity occurs when an action that has a negative effect on someone is returned with an action that has an approximately equal negative effect.

If, however, the reaction to the initial negative action is not approximately equal in negative value, this violates the norm of reciprocity and what is prescribed as allowable. This definition of negative reciprocity is distinct from the way negative reciprocity is defined in other domains. In cultural anthropology, negative reciprocity refers to an attempt to get something for nothing.

There are more subtle ways of initiating the reciprocity rule than merely doing something nice for someone so you may expect something in return. Under the rule of reciprocity, we are obligated to concede to someone who has made a concession to us. Robert Cialdini illustrates an example of this phenomenon by telling a story of a boy who asks him to buy five-dollar circus tickets and, when Cialdini refuses, asks him to buy some one dollar chocolate bars.

Cialdini feels obligated to return the favor and consents to buying some of the chocolate bars.

Giving Information Away for Free

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reciprocity - Wiktionary

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