Jacobite: The Early Years

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Please note that our editors may make some formatting changes or correct spelling or grammatical errors, and may also contact you if any clarifications are needed. Written By: John S. See Article History. Start your free trial today for unlimited access to Britannica. Learn More in these related Britannica articles:. Since Britain was now…. The hopes of the Jacobite s, supporters of a return to the throne of the Stuarts, which the South Sea Bubble had fanned, were quashed in by the exposure of the insurrection planned by Francis Atterbury, bishop of Rochester.

The outlook for the Tory Party was equally gloomy in….

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    Additional Reading. The extent of enforcement of the prohibitions was variable and sometimes related to a clan's support of the government during the rebellion. Government troops were stationed in the Highlands. More roads and barracks were built to better control the region, with a new fortress at Fort George to the east of Inverness which still serves as a base for Highland Regiments of the British Army.

    Highland clans found a way back to legitimacy by providing regiments to the British Army, many of whom served with distinction in the subsequent Seven Years' War. The French made every effort to rescue Jacobite chieftains as well as Charles, and gave him a hero's welcome on his return to France, but soon tired of his badgering them to provide a renewed assault on the Hanoverians.

    After French victories knocked the Netherlands out of the war, the British offered reasonable peace terms and made the expulsion of Charles from France a precondition of negotiations. Charles ignored the French court's order to depart, continued to demand military action and support for his extravagant lifestyle and flaunted his presence around Paris as peace negotiations for the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle got under way.

    From to Charles laid the groundwork for a rising in England, visiting London in when he conferred with the Jacobite leaders and considered an assault on the Tower of London as well as converting to Anglicanism. While Frederick was indifferent to the Jacobite cause he made diplomatic use of the opportunity, and appointed the Earl Marischal as his ambassador to Paris, in a position to keep him informed and veto any plans. Alexander Murray of Elibank House, Taplow, the liaison between Charles and the plotters, finally realised there was no hope of foreign assistance and ended the conspiracy, but by then Charles had sent two exiled Scots as agents to prepare the clans.

    They were betrayed by Alistair Ruadh MacDonell of Glengarry , a spy in Charles's entourage, and while one was arrested, the other barely escaped. Charles responded to the failure by denouncing his comrades, and continuing with his by now routine drunkenness and abuse of his mistress. Finally, in a dispute with Marischal and the English conspirators in , a drunken Charles threatened to publish their names for having "betrayed" him, finally causing his supporters to abandon the Jacobite cause. In French naval defeats at Lagos and Quiberon Bay forced them to abandon a planned invasion of Britain , which would have placed Charles on the throne.

    It is often considered the last realistic chance for the Jacobites.

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    With its passing, Charles collapsed yet further into alcoholism and was soon entirely abandoned by the French government, who saw little further use for him. The English Jacobites stopped sending funds, and by Charles, who had returned to Catholicism, was relying on the Papacy to support his lifestyle in Rome. In , the Scottish Catholics swore allegiance to the House of Hanover, and resolved two years later to pray for King George by name. When Charles died in the Stuart claim to the throne passed to his younger brother Henry , who had become a Cardinal, and who now styled himself King Henry IX of England.

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    However, he never actually surrendered his claims to the throne, though all former supporters of Jacobitism had stopped funding. Following the death of Henry in , the Jacobite claims passed to those excluded by the Act of Settlement : initially to the House of Savoy — , then to the Modenese branch of the House of Habsburg-Lorraine — , and finally to the House of Wittelsbach —present.

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    Franz, Duke of Bavaria is the current Jacobite heir. Neither he nor any of his predecessors since have pursued their claim. What began with the English parliament asserting a new authority and William looking to expand alliances against France quickly developed into a major distraction, with William being forced to focus attention on Ireland and Scotland, and parliament having to fund the armies needed to overcome the Jacobites. This distraction helped keep Britain from intervening on the continent and contributed to twenty years of peace in Europe, while continuing unrest forced the British state to develop repressive strategies with networks of spies and informers as well as increasing its standing army.

    While Jacobitism increasingly appealed to the disaffected, it inherently bowed to higher authority and thus reinforced the social order. It left the British state strengthened to deal with the more revolutionary movements that developed later in the 18th century. Jacobitism is celebrated in many folk songs, including those by nineteenth century Scots poets such as Alicia Spottiswoode and Carolina Nairne, Lady Nairne whose " Bonnie Charlie " remains popular.

    The Corries were well-known for singing this type of music. Additionally, Jacobitism became the subject of romantic poetry and literature, notably the work of Robert Burns and Sir Walter Scott. Walter Scott, author of Waverley , a story of the rebellion, combined romantic Jacobitism with an appreciation of the practical benefits of the Hanoverian government, and in he arranged a pageantry of reinvented Scottish traditions for the visit of King George IV to Scotland when George IV visited Edinburgh and dressed as a kilted successor to his distant relative Charles Stuart.

    The tartan pageantry was immensely popular and the kilt became Scotland's National Dress. There was a brief revival of political Jacobitism in the s. Vivian went on to stand for Parliament four times on a Jacobite platform — though he failed to be elected each time. Jacobitism has been a popular subject for historical novels, and for speculative and humorous fiction.

    Since Henry's death, none of the Jacobite heirs have claimed the English or Scottish thrones. Franz, Duke of Bavaria born , a direct descendant of Charles I , is the current legitimate heir of the house of Stuart. It has been suggested that a repeal of the Act of Settlement could allow him to claim the throne, although he has expressed no interest in doing so. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Not to be confused with Jacobinism. For other uses, see Jacobite. This article needs additional citations for verification.

    Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Glorious Revolution — Jacobite risings — General topics. Related topics. Main article: Jacobite risings. This section includes a list of references , related reading or external links , but its sources remain unclear because it lacks inline citations.

    Please help to improve this section by introducing more precise citations. February Learn how and when to remove this template message. Main article: Neo-Jacobite Revival. Main article: Jacobite succession. Boston; New York: Houghton Mifflin. Oxford: Clarendon Press. Revolution; the Great Crisis of the British Monarchy — The Jacobite Heritage.

    Retrieved 6 November Journal of British Studies. Allen Lane. The Stuart Age — Queen Anne; the Politics of Passion.

    The Jacobites Of Scotland

    Harper Press. Eighteenth-Century Ireland. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, Retrieved 17 May Archived from the original on 16 January Retrieved 1 May An economic history of Scotland in the Eighteenth century. Clarendon Press. University of Pennsylvania Press.


    December International Journal of Maritime History. Retrieved 28 July New York: Skyhorse Publishing, Inc. Retrieved 15 September Pirates and Buccaneers of the Atlantic Coast. Retrieved 6 February Retrieved 31 January Cruickshanks ed. London: Allen Lane.


    Spectrum of Decadence: The Literature of the s. Dundee Evening Telegraph. Garrison Keillor: A Critical Companion.

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    Westport CT: Greenwood Press. Retrieved 24 February Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 19 May List of topics. Kingdom of Great Britain.