Commentaire et dissertation en histoire (Harmattan Cameroun) (French Edition)

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Guemdje, L. Hatch, John K. Imai, K.

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Gaiha, G. Lelart, M. Rosenberg, R.

EGEP, Tableau 6. Il est en mesure de fournir des revenus aux populations rurales. Barnum, H. Basher, M. Journal of International Development Becker, G. Bhuiyan, A. Chayanov, A. Berlin: Parey. Coudouel, A. De Janvry, A. Ellis, F. Huffman, W. Jorgenson, Dale, and L. Annals of Social and Economic Measurement 4 1 Lakwo, A. Lau, L. Mduma, J. Wobst , Determinants of rural labor market participation in Tanzania. African Studies Quarterly 8 2 Roe, T. Graham-Tomasi , Yield risk in a dynamic model of the agricultural household. In Agricultural household models: Extensions, applications, and policy , ed.

Singh, L. Squire, and J. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. Rugalema, G. Sadoulet, E. Singh, I. Skoufias, E. Tokle, J. Roosevelt, dans son second discours inaugural en Tableau 7. Selon Simon H. Honlonkou, Denis H. Acclassato, Celestin Venant C. Quenum, Honlonkou et al. Le choix de ce seuil se justifie par trois raisons. Le Tableau 7. Selon le Tableau 7. La Figure 7. Figure 7. Le tableau de contingence Tableau 7. Ben Hassena, A. Honlonkou, A. Acclassato, et C. Kalala-Tshimpaka, F.

Mckinnon, R. Mokhtar, S. Mpanzu Balomba, P. Sami, H. Delorme Servet, J. Stiglitz, J. Zebe, V. Le Tableau 8. Il informe sur la moyenne et la dispersion des valeurs des variables. Tableau 8. Shephard et Fare et al. Fare et al. Fare et at. Ainsi, les CA avec plusieurs membres sont moins efficaces que ceux de petite taille Jensen, ; Lipton et Lorch, ; Yermack, ; Eisenberg, Sungren et Wells, Abdelwahed, O.

Adams, R. Aghion, B. Aleem, I. Aryeetey, E. Ashbaugh, H. Bazin, B. Besley, T. Black, B. Campion, A. Charnes, A. Charreaux, G. Choudhary, S. MicroSave Briefing Note No. Dalton, D. Daily, A. Strategic Management Journal 19 3 Eisenberg, T. Journal of Financial Economics Fama, E. Farrell, M. Feujo, J. Godard, L. Guesnier, B. Guido, F. Hartarska, V. Hermalin, B. Jensen, M. Kang, E. Khan, A. Klapper, L. Lascelles, D. Ledgerwood, J. Lipton, M. McGuire, P. Pablo A. Peter, K.

Young, J. Rajan, R. Reberioux, A. Ricordel, P. Rock, R. Sallez, A. Sharma, M.

la dissertation en histoire cursus french edition Manual

Shleifer, A. Shephard, R. Udry, C. Yermack, D. Or, les objectifs social et financier sont parfois contradictoires. Navajas et al. Tableau 9. Le terrain de la recherche portera donc sur les IMF.

Or, les objectifs des IMF sont financiers et social. A cet effet, les IMF doivent:. On peut par ailleurs observer, comme le montre le Tableau 9. Dans la Figure 9. Figure 9. Il est donc difficile de savoir pourquoi les IMF finance tel projet au lieu de tel autre. Le Tableau 9. Il constitue donc une charge pour une IMF. Brempong, K. Callan, S. Caves, D. De Bruyne, B. Bastiaensen , How to put social performance management into practice? Trias, Brussels. Fare, R. Grosskopf, M. Greene, W. Hermes, M.

Kipesha, E.

Kirjavainen, T. Kobou, G. Kohers, T. Labie, M. Lapenu, C. Luoma, K. Jarvio, I. Navajas, S. Scheiner, L.

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Meyer, C. Rochiquez — Meza J. Otero, M. Schepers, D. Journal of Business Ethics Stiglitz, E. Tulchin, D. Woller, G. Qui offre des produits de microassurance? Cet input constitue le plus important. En observant le bas du Tableau Tableau Albert-Angers, F. Aliber, M. Amara, N. Ambapour, S. Banker, R. Bekolo Ebe, B. Bertelet, N. Bouman, F. Churchill, C. Liber, M. Coelli, T. Cohen, M. Conning, J. Debaig, G. De Bock, O. ILO: Geneva. Debreu, G. Emrouznejad, A. Germidis, D. Gregoriou, G. Henry, A.

Herroro, I. Hulme, D. Mosley , Finance against Poverty , Routledge, Londres. Johnson, B. Sheely eds Kamdem Bukam, E. Malmquist, S. McCord, M. Steinmann, C. Tatin-Jaleran, M. Ingram and M. Working Paper. Modigliani, F. Pichette, C. Rietsch, C. Townsend, R. Vogel, C. Adams,, H. Graham and J. Figure Cette tendance est plus forte chez les entrepreneurs femmes comparativement aux entrepreneurs hommes.

Aggarwal, S. Berger, A. Elsevier Science B. Bourguignon, F. Turnovsky eds , Inequality and Growth. Theory and Policy Implications. Boungou Bazika, J-C, B. Makosso, J. Brown, M. Deininger, K. Diata, H. Dollar, D. Jakiela, D. Karlan, D.

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Khandker, Shahidur R. Makosso, B. Meza, D. Webb Montgomery, H. Mosley, P. Pitamber, S. Ravallion, M. Robinson, M. Sahn, D. Shaw, J. Simanowitz, A. Van Tassel, E. This paper explores correlates of credit access, effects of credit on economic wellbeing, and potential disparity in responses by sources of wellbeing, location and gender, while controlling for other correlates. We used the Cameroun household consumption survey and a range of survey-based econometric methods that purge parameter estimates of potential intra-cluster correlation, endogeneity and sample selection bias. Access to credit is strongly associated with household economic wellbeing irrespective of source of wellbeing.

Credit correlates significantly with economic wellbeing in rural areas, but not in urban areas; whereas education associates strongly with economic wellbeing in urban areas, but not in rural areas. The implication is that rural wellbeing is more contingent on credit access than being educated, while urban wellbeing derives more from being educated than having credit access.

Both credit access and education are significantly associated with wellbeing in male headed households, whereas only education correlates significantly with household wellbeing in female headed households. The implication is that while male headed households rely on both credit access and education to boost wellbeing, their female counterparts appear to relie more on being educated than having credit access.

The impact of credit can be enhanced by accompanying measures such as availability of sufficient funds, quality services by lenders, physical infrastructure, healthcare and training. Many studies show that by providing low-income households with access to financial services, the service providers help to improve their productivity and management skills, create jobs, smooth income and consumption flows, enlarge and diversify their businesses, and increase their income and other benefits, such as healthcare and education Morduch, ; Gulli, ; Khandker, ; Pitt and Khandker, ; Zeller, ; ADB, ; Parker and Nagarajan, ; Robinson, ; Khandker, ; Khandker and Faruque, ; Coleman, ; Morduch and Haley, ; Khandker, Participants in microfinance institutions are, therefore, expected to accumulate more assets and to enjoy increased household incomes, better nutrition and health, the opportunity to achieve higher levels of training, a decrease in vulnerability to economic shocks, greater empowerment, and in some cases, the opportunity to completely lift themselves and families out of poverty.

In other words, I describe the decisions and choices made by the translators in order to come up with the global strategy each translator has used to address the difficulties encountered during the language transfer. But instead of focusing on the target texts as advocated by Toury , p. The methodology used in the analysis consists in comparing the source and target texts using a tertium comparationis, that is, a third text obtained through line-for-line translation of the source texts. This third text will enable a better understanding of the translation process, as well as various decisions which led to transformations during the transfer process.

Results of the analysis will help retranslate an excerpt of each poem, bearing in mind that the virtual function assigned to the re-translation is mainly literary and aesthetic. In other words, the target text receptors are to perceive the translated poems not as translations but as poems written in their target language, keeping in mind some patterns of modern poetry like stanzas, rhythm, and rhyme, to name a few.

Microstructure analysis consists in identifying source text passages and their corresponding target text passages. Three types of difficulties will be of interest in this section: lexical, stylistic, and cultural. The choice of lexis by the poet to construct his poems is very important and is not made haphazardly. Lexical items determine the rhythm, rhymes and structure of the text. Below are examples of some difficulties and the choices made by the translators in their respective translations:. Generally, in this case, the animal is behind the person who pulls it. The image is that of the character of the source text walking and the goat being pulled behind him.

Kuusu and Biiseele are the names of the villages through which Beeda passed without being stolen. In the target text, Beeda seems to be in front, while the poet follows. Eguchi uses the technique of modulation to convey the idea of pulling. On the other hand, wordplays contained in the source text have been lost in the target text.

Hunger is thus personified and is given a human behavior. This personification is asserted by the dialogue between hunger and the old woman, in direct speech. In addition, Erlmann uses free indirect discourse technique Hewson, , p. It allows him to overcome the difficulty of the impersonal tone the poet uses, by eliminating personal pronouns, or markers of dialogue.

However, it makes the target text lines longer than the source text as discussed in 1. Again, addition and explicitation are the techniques used by the translator to deal with some difficulties that occur in the transfer of Fulani ideas in German. Example 3 also shows techniques of addition, explicitation and modulation. The English, German and French translations tackle the difficulties of Fulani lexical items with techniques such as addition, explicitation, modulation and endnotes, with various degrees of success. Of course, most of the content is rendered through these techniques, but to the detriment of fundamental patterns in the poems rhythm, meter, sound and structure.

Stylistic construction in the source text is important to consider when translating a poem, since it is one of the important patterns that makes a poem different from other writings literary and pragmatic texts. The following are examples in which a stylistic formulation of the source text may impose a specific choice on the translator. Horses in Fulani society symbolize power and wealth, since only powerful and rich people can afford them.

According to the author of the source text, Beeda would have given him power and wealth in such a way that he can buy a hundred horses and consequently be as powerful as a king, if only she had not been lost. The translator retains the literal meaning in the English translation, without taking time to find an equivalent metaphor in English whereby a horse is equally a symbol of nobility and royalty.

In this literal translation , the metonymy does not work in the same way, i. Consequently, as in 4 , the actual echo in the source language is lost in the German translation. Here instead, the poet alludes to traditional rulers who, in normal conditions, take care of their courtiers, meet all their living needs such as food, clothes and health. In the event of a natural disaster like hunger, they cannot do so. The courtiers are therefore advised to fight for their survival until the end of the disaster. Other forms of difficulties encountered in Fulani mbooku poems are cultural references.

Several studies on translating cultural references have been carried out, among which Leppihalme , , and Hatim Mbooku poems are deeply rooted in Fulani culture, and it is no surprise to find a very considerable or significant amount of cultural references in the poems. The following examples are cultural references and their translations in the respective target languages:. Gariire and Duumo 7 are praise names of the Bogo village, the residence of the poet. Gariire qualifies the Bogo and is a borrowed word from Hausa. In northern Cameroon, villages are praised using the names of the natural elements that characterize them such as rivers, mountains, hills, deserts and many more.

These footnotes are shown as follows:. Bogo is the town where Aakal has been living for most of his life. Aakal used to sing for Chief Hammadu. Gariire borrowed from Hawsa garii is a kind of epithet given to big towns such as Bogo, Maroua, Garoua, etc. Of course, it may become annoying to read a poem with footnotes covering a quarter of the page. On the other hand, Dolwo and Lamorde, which are known as neighbourhoods in Bogo, are not qualified in the source text.

These translation choices make it more difficult for readers who are not familiar with Fulani cultural references to understand the target text. From the above microstructural analysis, we can understand that the three translators used similar translation techniques such as literal translation, addition, explicitation, modulation, omission, footnotes and endnotes to tackle lexical, stylistic and cultural problems posed by the translation of Fulani mbooku poems into English, German and French.

Growing up in a changing world. A case study among Baka children (southeastern Cameroon)

Lower level microstructural analysis has revealed translation choices such as literal translation, addition, explicitation, modulation, free indirect discourse, endnotes and footnotes, which are common to all three translators. If we consider only footnotes and endnotes because they are readily quantifiable at the macrostructural level, the results are as follows:.

Hence, 29 words are explained for the source text and 24 for the target text with the poem line-number as reference. Note: Erlmann has numbered all lines in the poem, while Eguchi and Dalil have chosen to number them by ten. In total, 76 footnotes are materialized, using a combination of Latin alphabets and Arabic numerals, into the entire poem.

Table 1 below is a summary of endnote and footnote techniques used by the three translators in their respective source text and target text [3] :. Number of endnotes and footnotes used by the translators. It is therefore obvious that the English, French and German translations of Cameroon mbooku poems do not reproduce their entire aesthetic and literary flavor.

However, they constitute a first step for further retranslations. Retranslating means translating a second time or more. The importance of retranslation no longer needs to be demonstrated. My understanding of Cameroon Fulani language and culture is also of great help.


In the above retranslations, priority is given both to the form and content. At the formal level, I attempted as much as possible to reduce the length of the lines, thus coming up with a better rhythm. I also divided the poems into stanzas for better breathing. This study has pointed out lexical, stylistic and cultural difficulties Cameroon mbooku poems pose to translators and the various translation techniques the translators of such poems have used to tackle these difficulties.

Micro- and macrostructural analyses reveal techniques such as literal translation, addition, modulation, omission, footnotes, endnotes and free indirect discourse as most frequently used in the translation process. The results of the analysis show that translators are mainly concerned with the content of the poems, thus sacrificing the aesthetic and literary functions of the source text.

However, when taking these functions into account, translating Fulani poems into European languages is not impossible, though the task seems to be very difficult. Retranslation attempts of some excerpts from the same poems into English and French confirm the possibility of having a target text that contains most of the pertinent patterns found in the source text, when keeping in mind that the purpose of the target text shares the same function as the source text, i.