Hawaiian Island Niihau: Palmyra, American Samoa (Hawaii Romance Novels Book 4)

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The Kingdom of Hawaii lasted from until its overthrow in with the fall of the House of Kalakaua.

History of Hawaii

However, his general dating was challenged. His birth would thus fall between and , probably nearer the former than the latter". He had advisors and priests. When word reached the ruler that chiefs were planning to murder the boy, he told Kamehameha:. While I am alive they are afraid, but when I die they will take you and kill you. I advise you to go back to Kohala. After multiple battles the king was killed and envoys sent for the last two brothers to meet with Kamehameha. Before the same could happen to the second canoe, Kamehameha intervened. In Captain George Vancouver sailed from the United Kingdom and presented the Union Flag to Kamehameha, who was still in the process of uniting the islands into a single state; the Union Jack flew unofficially as the flag of Hawaii until , [71] including during a brief spell of British rule after Kamehameha ceded Hawaii to Vancouver in By , Kamehameha had conquered all but one of the main islands.

For his first royal residence, the new King built the first western-style structure in the Hawaiian Islands , known as the " Brick Palace ". Kamehameha I had many wives but held two in the highest regard. Kamehameha I died in , succeeded by Liholiho. After Kamehameha I's death, Liholiho left Kailua for a week and returned to be crowned king. Behold these chiefs and the men of your father, and these your guns, and this your land, but you and I shall share the realm together".

Liholiho agreed officially, which began a unique system of dual-government consisting of a King and co-ruler similar to a regent. She defied Hawaiian kapu by dining with the young king, separating the sexes during meals, leading to the end of the Hawaiian religion. He was King for 5 years. The couple's remains were returned to Hawaii by Boki. Boki left Hawaii on a trip to find sandalwood to cover a debt and was lost at sea. She became Kamehameha's consort when she was fourteen. George Vancouver states: "[O]ne of the finest woman we had yet seen on any of the islands".

A portrait artist remarked of her: "This Old Dame is the most proud, unbending Lady in the whole island. As the widow of [Kamehameha], she possesses unbound authority and respect, not any of which she is inclined to lay aside on any occasion whatsoever". Sugar became a major export from Hawaii soon after Cook's arrival. Within thirty years plantations operated on the four main islands. Sugar completely altered Hawaii's economy. American influence in Hawaiian government began with U.

hawaiian islands

This was driven by missionary religion and sugar economics. Pressure from these plantation owners was felt by the King and chiefs as demands for land tenure. After the brief takeover by the British , Kamehameha III responded to the demands with the Great Mahele , distributing the lands to all Hawaiians as advocated by missionaries including Gerrit P.

During the s, the U. In Kamehameha III proposed a policy of reciprocity between the countries, but the proposal died in the U. The military was especially interested in Pu'uloa , Pearl Harbor. He showed two U. As monarch, William Charles Lunalilo , was content to let Bishop run most business affairs, but the ceding of lands became unpopular with Hawaiians.

Many islanders thought that all the islands, rather than just Pearl Harbor, might be lost and opposed any cession. By November , Lunalilo canceled negotiations and returned to drinking, against his doctor's advice; his health declined swiftly, and he died on February 3, Lunalilo left no heirs. Grover Cleveland was president at the time, and his secretary of state Thomas F. Bayard sent written instructions to the American minister George W. Merrill that in the event of another revolution in Hawaii, it was a priority to protect American commerce, lives and property.

Bayard specified, "the assistance of the officers of our Government vessels, if found necessary, will therefore be promptly afforded to promote the reign of law and respect for orderly government in Hawaii. Merrill's replacement, minister John L. Stevens , read those official instructions, and followed them in his controversial actions of This was in response to increased political tension between the legislature and the king under the constitution.

Wilcox, Charles B. He died there on January The McKinley Act had crippled the Hawaiian sugar industry by removing the duties on sugar imports from other countries into the US, eliminating the previous Hawaiian advantage due to the Reciprocity Treaty of Controversially, opium licensing was proposed. It would have disenfranchised many non-citizen Europeans and Americans.

The Queen toured several islands on horseback, talking to the people about her ideas and receiving overwhelming support, including a lengthy petition in support of a new constitution. However, when the Queen informed her cabinet of her plans, they withheld their support, uncomfortable with what they expected her opponent's likely response to be. Threats to Hawaii's sovereignty emerged throughout the Kingdom's history. However, only with the Bayonet Constitution was its sovereignty ultimately compromised.

The conspirators' stated goals were to depose the queen, overthrow the monarchy, and seek Hawaii's annexation to the U. The overthrow was led by Thurston, who was the grandson of American missionaries [] and derived his support primarily from the American and European business class and other supporters of the Reform Party of the Hawaiian Kingdom. Most of the leaders of the Committee of Safety that deposed the queen were American and European citizens who were Kingdom subjects.

Niihau incident

Wilson was tipped off by detectives of the planned coup. Wilson requested warrants to arrest the 13 Council members and put the Kingdom under martial law. Because the members had strong political ties with U. Government Minister John L. Stevens , the requests were repeatedly denied by Attorney General Arthur P. Peterson and the Queen's cabinet, fearing if approved, the arrests would escalate the situation. After a failed negotiation with Thurston , [] Wilson began to collect his men for the confrontation.

The overthrow began on January 17, A policeman was shot and wounded while trying to stop a wagon carrying weapons to the Honolulu Rifles , the paramilitary wing of the Committee of Safety. The Committee feared the shooting would bring government forces to rout the conspirators and stop the coup before it could begin. The Committee of Safety initiated the overthrow by organizing the Honolulu Rifles made of about 1, armed local non-native men.

As these events were unfolding, the Committee of Safety expressed concern for the safety and property of American residents in Honolulu. The coup efforts were supported by U. Advised about supposed threats to non-combatant American lives and property [] by the Committee of Safety, Stevens summoned a company of uniformed U. Legation, Consulate and Arion Hall on the afternoon of January 16, The sailors and Marines did not enter the Palace grounds or take over any buildings, and never fired a shot, but their presence intimidated royalist defenders.

Historian William Russ states, "the injunction to prevent fighting of any kind made it impossible for the monarchy to protect itself. A joint resolution , which does not have the power to annex, written by Democratic Congressman Francis G. Newlands to annex Hawaii passed both the House and Senate; it needed only majority support.

In Japan sent warships to Hawaii to oppose annexation. The possibility of invasion and annexation by Japan made the decision even more urgent. On 22 February the Hawaiian Organic Act established a territorial government. Annexation opponents held that this was illegal, claiming the Queen was the only legitimate ruler.

McKinley appointed Sanford B.

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Dole as territorial governor. The territorial legislature convened for the first time on February 20, Hawaiians formed the Hawaiian Independent Party , under the leadership of Robert Wilcox, Hawaii's first congressional delegate. Sugarcane plantations in Hawaii expanded during the territorial period. Some companies diversified and came to dominate related industries including transportation, banking and real estate. Economic and political power was concentrated in what were known as the " Big Five ". Pearl Harbor was surprisingly attacked on December 7, by the Imperial Japanese Navy , killing almost 2, people and sinking the main American battleship fleet.

Fortuitously, the four Pacific aircraft carriers were not in port and escaped damage. Hawaii was put under martial law until Unlike the West Coast of the United States in which , ethnic Japanese citizens were interned , the Japanese American population in Hawaii completely avoided such similar fate, though hundreds of pro-Japan leaders were arrested. Pearl Harbor was the U. The Japanese tried to invade in summer but were defeated at the Battle of Midway. Hundreds of thousands of American soldiers, sailors, Marines, and airmen passed through on their way to the fighting.

The nd Regiment was the most decorated unit for its size and length of service in American history. Its 4, members had to be replaced nearly 2. Twenty-one of its members, including Hawaii U. Its motto was "Go for Broke". In a series of non-violent industry-wide strikes , protests and other civil disobedience transpired.

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In the territorial elections of the reign of the Hawaii Republican Party in the legislature came to an abrupt end, replaced by the Democratic Party of Hawaii. Democrats lobbied for statehood and held the governorship from to The events also unionized the labor force, hastening the plantations' decline. President Dwight D. For many Native Hawaiians , the manner in which Hawaii became a U. Hawaii Territory governors and judges were direct political appointees of the U. Native Hawaiians created the Home Rule Party to seek greater self-government.

Hawaii was subject to cultural and societal repression during the territorial period and the first decade of statehood. The s Hawaiian Renaissance led to renewed interest in the Hawaiian language , culture and identity. It was signed by President Bill Clinton on November 23, This resolution apologized "to Native Hawaiians on behalf of the people of the United States for the overthrow of the Kingdom of Hawaii on January 17, In , Akaka proposed what was called the Akaka Bill to extend federal recognition to those of Native Hawaiian ancestry as a sovereign group similar to Native American tribes.

The bill did not pass before his retirement. That history begins sometime between and AD,[1] when the islands were first settled by Polynesians. Waves of permanent immigrants came from Japan, China and the Philip. It is the northernmost island group in Polynesia, occupying most of an archipelago in the central Pacific Ocean. The archipelago is physiographically and ethnologically part of the Po. The Territory of Hawaii or Hawaii Territory[1][2][3] was an organized incorporated territory of the United States that existed from August 12, , until August 21, , when most of its territory, excluding Palmyra Island and the Stewart Islands, was admitted to the Union as the fiftieth U.

Hawaii's territorial history includes a period from to —during World War II—when the islands were placed under martial law. Civilian government was dissolved and a military governor was appointed. In total, , Americans consider themselves Native Hawaiian. Census, there were , people who identified themselves as being "Native Hawaiian" in combination with one or more other races or Pacific Islander groups. The majority of Native Hawaiians reside in the state of Hawaii two-thirds and the rest are scattered among other states, especially in the American Southwest and with a high concentration in California.

The history of Native Hawaiians, like the history of Hawaii, is commonly classified into four major periods: the pre-unification period before c. Lewin Baehr v. In the preth century, the influence of Polynesian culture led to a more open-minded state. After the first Christian missionaries began arriving in Hawaii, strict sodomy laws were enacted. Territory v.

Bell was the last sodomy case argued in Hawaii. In , Hawaii voted in favor of gay marriage, and marriage licenses began to be issued to LGBT couples. The Kingdom won recognition from major European powers. The United States became its chief trading partner. The U. The Territory of Hawaii was formally established as part of the U.

American officials immediately recognized the new government and U. Marines were sent by the US Ambassador to aid in the overthrow. The Queen's supporters charged the Marines' presence frightened the Queen and thus enabled the revolution. Dole and Lorrin A. Thurston, who were native-born subjects of the Hawaiian kingdom and speakers of the Hawaiian language, but had st. Eisenhower which dissolved the Territory of Hawaii and established the State of Hawaii as the 50th state to be admitted into the Union.

Hawaii statehood and international law Prior to , Hawaii was a territory of the United States of America. In , the United Nations listed Hawaii as a non-self-governing territory under the administration of the United States Resolution 55 I of Statehood vote Copy of official ballot inset and referendum results approving A. The cuisine of Hawaii incorporates five distinct styles of food, reflecting the diverse food history of settlement and immigration in the Hawaiian Islands.

As Native Hawaiians settled the area, they fished, raised taro for poi, planted coconuts, sugarcane, sweet potatoes and yams, and cooked meat and fish in earth ovens. After first contact in , European and American cuisine arrived along with missionaries and whalers, who introduced their own foods and built large sugarcane plantations. Christian missionaries brought New England cuisine[1] while whalers introduced salted fish which eventually transformed into the side dish lomilomi salmon. As pineapple and sugarcane plantations grow, so did demand for labor, bringing many immigrant groups to the Islands between and The city is also a major hub for international business, military defense, as well as famously being host to a diverse variety of east-west and Pacific culture, cuisine, and traditions.

Honolulu is the most remote city of its size in the world,[8] and is the westernmost and southernmost major U. For statistical purposes, the United States Census Bureau recognizes the approximate area commonly referred to as "City of Honolulu" not to be confused with the "City and County" as a census county division CCD. The population of the Honolulu census designated place CDP was , as of the population estimate,[4].

It should not be confused with the similarly named Blue Hawaiian cocktail also known as the Swimming Pool cocktail that contains creme of coconut instead of sweet and sour mix. After experimenting with several variations he settled on a version somewhat different from the most popular version today, but with the signature blue color, pineapple wedge, and cocktail umbrella.

It is also the southernmost state, the only tropical state, and the only state that was previously an independent monarchy. The Hawaiian flag is the only US state flag to include the national flag of a current extant foreign country in this case the UK flag, a remnant of the five month UK naval occupation of Hawaii in the Paulet affair of , or the flag of any foreign country at all. Adams noted that in on his way to China he raised his own Ensign on Kauai in lieu of a Russian flag as the king had no other. Adams's journals also mention the British East India Company flag. Kamehameha had wanted to purchase a brig named.

Traditionally researchers estimated the first settlement of the Hawaiian islands by Polynesian long-distance navigators from French Polynesia, Tahiti, the Tuamotus and the Samoan Islands as having occurred sporadically between and CE. In , a study was published based on radiocarbon dating of more reliable samples which suggests that the islands were settled much later, within a short timeframe, in about to Diversified agroforestry and aquaculture provided sustenance for Native Hawaiian cuisine.

Tropical materials were adopted for housing. Elaborate temples called heiau were constructed from the lava rocks available. The rich n. Provisional Government cabinet, left to right James A. King, Sanford B. Dole, W. Smith and P. Cooper and former judge Sanford B. Dole as the designated President of Hawaii. Provisional Government Following the overthrow of the Kingdom of Hawaii, the forces behind the coup established the Provisional Government but with the hope of a speedy annexation by the United States.

The provisional government sent a commission including Lorrin A. Thurston to the United States and negotiated a treaty with President Benjamin Harrison that was sent to the Senate for approval. Sugarcane was introduced to Hawaii by its first inhabitants and was observed by Captain Hegwood upon arrival in the islands in [1] Sugar quickly turned into a big business and generated rapid population growth in the islands with , people immigrating over the span of a century. Sugar Cane and Pineapple plantations were the largest employers in Hawaii.

The movement generally views both the overthrow and annexation as illegal. It is Its area is The island is designated as critical habitat for Brighamia insignis, an endemic and endangered species of Hawaiian lobelioid. Its census population was ;[4] Its census population was It is the largest and the southeasternmost of the Hawaiian Islands, a chain of volcanic islands in the North Pacific Ocean. As of the Census the population was , Hawaiian, along with English, is an official language of the State of Hawaii.

For various reasons, including territorial legislation establishing English as the official language in schools, the number of native speakers of Hawaiian gradually decreased during the period from the s to the s. Hawaiian was essentially displaced by English on six of seven inhabited islands. In , native speakers of Hawaiian amounted to less than 0. Linguists were unsure if Hawaiian and other endangered languages would survive.

Public Hawaiian-language immers. Ahi poke made with yellowfin tuna, green onions, chili peppers, sea salt, soy sauce, sesame oil, roasted kukui nut candlenut , and limu, served on a bed of red cabbage. Salmon poke bowl with miso sushi rice, pickled cabbage, cucumber, tobiko, seaweed sheets, seaweed salad. Increasingly popular ahi poke is made with yellowfin tuna. Adaptations may feature raw salmon or various shellfish as a main ingredient served raw with the common poke seasonings. However, the migration that began that year of laborers from Madeira and the Azores to work in the sugarcane plantations rapidly increased the Portuguese presence in Hawaii, and by the end of nearly 16, Portuguese immigrants had arrived.

Early immigration Madeira Islanders cutting sugarcane. About 6, of them by came to Hawaii to do the same work. The Hawaiian census of showed that, out of a kingdom of 57, people, only residents, which was less than 0. Although only a few brought their wives or were joined by them later, women made up only about one-eighth of this tiny immigrant community. The book has been translated into 32 languages.

Written in episodic format like many of Michener's works, the book narrates the story of the original Hawaiians who sailed to the islands from Bora Bora, the early American missionaries in this case, Calvinist missionaries and merchants, and the Chinese and Japanese immigrants who traveled to work and seek their fortunes in Hawaii. Each section explores the experiences of different groups of arrivals. Plot The novel tells the history of Hawaiian Islands from the creation of th.

The population was 7, at the census and 9, at the census. Post Office designation for Waimea is Kamuela, although this name is only used by the post office, not by locals or the local government. Waimea is the center for ranching activities and paniolo culture. The Parker Ranch in and around Waimea is the largest privately owned cattle ranch in the United States, and the annual Fourth of July rodeo is a major event.

The Waimea Cherry Blossom Heritage Festival, held annually in the first week of February, has recently become another major event of the town. This is a list of wars, bloodless wars, battles, conspiracies, rebellions, revolutions, nonviolent revolutions, massacres, and terrorist attacks in the Hawaiian Islands. Ancient Warfare There were many ancient Hawaiian battles and wars through , some of which might be mythical. Naval skirmish between King Kumuhonua of Oahu and his brothers over land successions.

The contemporary name is derived from the name of the largest island, Hawaii Island. The Hawaiian Islands are the exposed peaks of a great undersea mountain range known as the Hawaiian—Emperor seamount chain, forme. Cook's arrival in Hawaii was followed by mass migrations of Europeans and Americans to the islands[1] that gave rise to the overthrow of the Kingdom of Hawaii, the aboriginal monarchy of the islands, beginning in Arrival James Cook led three separate voyages to chart unknown areas of the globe for the British Empire. He returned. The following is an alphabetical list of articles related to the U.

Williamson Ho. The music of Hawaii includes an array of traditional and popular styles, ranging from native Hawaiian folk music to modern rock and hip hop. Hawaii's musical contributions to the music of the United States are out of proportion to the state's small size. Styles like slack-key guitar are well-known worldwide, while Hawaiian-tinged music is a frequent part of Hollywood soundtracks.

Hawaii also made a contribution to country music with the introduction of the steel guitar. Music of Hawaiian people is largely religious in nature, and includes chanting and dance music. Hawaiian music has had a notable impact on the music of other Polynesian islands; Peter Manuel called the influence of Hawaiian music a "unifying factor in the development of modern Pacific musics".

There is no definitive date for the Polynesian discovery of Hawaii. However, high-precision radiocarbon dating in Hawaii using chonometric hygiene analysis, and taxonomic identification selection of samples, puts the initial first settlement of the Hawaiian Islands sometime between and C. This theory though relies on a hypothetical settlement date that radiocarbon dating in Hawai'i has since refuted as well as linear growth on the islands. Notwithstanding this, this theory is still used to support an estimate of between , and 1,, people in Thurston right was one of its holidays of nationswriters.

The Constitution of the Kingdom of Hawaii was a document prepared by anti-monarchists to strip the Hawaiian monarchy of much of its authority, initiating a transfer of power to American, European and native Hawaiian elites. Spanish immigration to Hawaii began in when the Hawaiian government and the Hawaiian Sugar Planters' Association HSPA decided to supplement their ongoing importation of Portuguese workers to Hawaii with workers recruited from Spain. Importation of Spanish laborers, along with their families, continued until , at which time more than 9, Spanish immigrants had been brought in, most recruited to work primarily on the Hawaiian sugarcane plantations.

Spanish children from the SS Heliopolis after arriving in Hawaii. The plant and animal life of the Hawaiian archipelago is the result of early, very infrequent colonizations of arriving species and the slow evolution of those species—in isolation from the rest of the world's flora and fauna—over a period of at least 5 million years. As a consequence, Hawai'i is home to a large number of endemic species.

The radiation of species described by Charles Darwin in the Galapagos Islands which was critical to the formulation of his theory of evolution is far exceeded in the more isolated Hawaiian Islands. The relatively short time that the existing main islands of the archipelago have been above the surface of the ocean less than 10 million years is only a fraction of time span over which biological colonization and evolution have occurred in the archipelago.

High, volcanic islands have existed in the Pacific far longer, extending in a. Hawaiian pizza with pineapple chunks A slice of Hawaiian pan pizza using pineapple slices Hawaiian pizza is a pizza topped with tomato sauce, cheese, pineapple, and back bacon or ham. Inspired in part by his experience preparing Chinese dishes which commonly mix sweet and savoury flavours, Panopoulos experimented with adding pineapple, ham, bacon and other toppings which were not initially very popular. They were an accepted tradition for both men and women, and they are one of the best examples of a nominally heterosexual community also accepting homosexual and bisexual relationships.

He recounts a tale that Captain Cook was actually asked by one chief to leave Kin. Kamehameha I established the Kingdom of Hawaii in after conquering most of the Hawaiian archipelago. The monarchy was officially ended on January 24, , when Liliuokalani formally abdicated in response to an attempt to restore the royal government. On November 23, , the Congress passed Public Law , also known as the Apology Resolution, acknowledging the American role in the overthrow of the Hawaiian monarchy.

President Bill Clinton signed the joint resolution the same day. The bay was world-famous for its black sand beach which was surrounded by shady palm trees. There is also the New Beach, black sand like the old, where locals and visitors are bringing sprouted coconuts and planting them to re. It was the last major military operation by royalists who opposed the overthrow of the Kingdom of Hawaii. The war has also been called the second Wilcox rebellion of , the revolution of , the Hawaiian counter-revolution of , the uprising in Hawaii, the Hawaiian civil war, the uprising against the provisional government, or the uprising of They were successful with President Benjamin Harrison in negotiating.

The population was 43, at the census. Much of the city is at some risk from lava flows from Mauna Loa. Hilo is also home to the Mauna Loa Macadamia Nut Corporation, one of the world's leading producers of. Section 2 expanded title to other types of land. Section 3 defined land boundaries and the ability to exchange portions of land.

Section 4 established a system for the Hawaiian government to distribute larger parcels of land. Section 5 established the largest size of family owned lots. Section 6 attempted to disti. History As a young prince, King Kamehameha IV had visited England and was impressed by the rich ceremony of the Church of England, compared to the dour simplicity of the American missionaries who educated him as a child. His queen consort Queen Emma had a British grandfather and was brought up in a house of a British Anglican doctor.

Their wedding ceremony included Anglican prayers but had to be performed by the Congregationalist minister. In , Emma wrote to Victoria of the United Kingdom to request a clergyman from the English church. The King's foreign minister, Robert Crichton Wyllie, also made requests through diplomatic contacts. In , Samuel Wilberforce suggested expanding the mission to include a bishop who could organize a new branch. William Ingraham. The Hawaii Democratic Revolution of was a nonviolent revolution that took place in the Hawaiian Archipelago consisting of general strikes, protests, and other acts of civil disobedience.

The Revolution culminated in the territorial elections of where the long reign of the Hawaii Republican Party in the legislature came to an abrupt end, as they were voted out of the office to be replaced by members of the Democratic Party of Hawaii. The strikes by the Isles' labor workers demanded similar pay and benefits to their Mainland counterparts.

The strikes also crippled the power of the sugarcane plantations and the Big Five Oligopoly over their workers. Prelude Asian plantation workers filling bags of sugar during the s. Historically Hawaii has had a dominant-party system since the revolution. The Bayonet Constitution took most of the power away from the monarchy and allowed the Republican Party to dominate the legislature. Besides a brief change of power to the Home Rule Party following.

While intended to provide secure title to Hawaiians, it would eventually end up separating many of them from their land. It stated that the land belonged to its p. On Saturday morning, January 13, , a ballistic missile alert was issued via the Emergency Alert System and Commercial Mobile Alert System over television, radio, and cellphones in the U. The alert stated that there was an incoming ballistic missile threat to Hawaii, advised residents to seek shelter, and concluded "This is not a drill". However, no civil defense outdoor warning sirens were authorized or sounded by the state.

Governor David Ige publicly apologized for the erroneous alert. The Federal Communications Commission and the Hawaii House of Representatives launched investigations into the incident, leading to the resignation of the state's emergency management administrator. The lava flow created a new coastline. Its decisions are binding on all other courts of the Hawaii State Judiciary. The principal purpose of the Supreme Court is to review the decisions of the trial courts in which appeals have been granted.

Appeals are decided by the members of the Supreme Court based on written records and in some cases may grant oral arguments in the main Supreme Court chamber. Like its mainland United States counterparts, the Supreme Court does not take evidence and uses only evidence provided in previous trials. Functions The Hawaii State Supreme Court has original jurisdiction to answer questions of law that have been passed to it from trial courts or the federal court, hear civil cases submitted to the Supreme Court on agreed statements of facts, and decide questions coming from proceedings of writs of manda.

Hawaii's first aeronautical event was on 2 March , when Emil L. Melville hung from a trapeze in a balloon. Hawaii's first aircraft flight was on 31 December by a Curtiss Biplane. Only two aircraft completed the trip out of a field of eight. Crain establishes a world glider endurance record of 16 hrs 38 minutes aided by searchlights, landing at Kanehoe Bay. The series is a re-imagining of the original series, which aired on CBS from to Like the original series, the show follows an elite state police task force set up to fight major crimes in the state of Hawaii.

On April 18, , CBS renewed the series for a ninth season[2] which premiered on September 28, In the eruption that began in May , the town was largely destroyed by lava by early June, and the bay filled in as the lava flow extended out into the ocean. Eruption of January On January 12, , residents of Kapoho experienced over 1, small earthquakes shaking the area.

Deep cracks opened up in the street, and there are historic photos of residents inspecting the damage. Although the main flow of lava flowed into the ocean, a slow-moving offshoot crept towards the town of Kapoho. Despite frantic efforts to. After the outbreak of the American Civil War, Hawaii was concerned with the possibility of attacks by Confederate privateers in the Pacific. There were debates in the Hawaiian government in regards to the best course of action.

Gregg feared the diplomatic repercussions of recognizing the belligerent status of the Confederate States o. Chronological dispersal of Austronesian people across the Pacific. Kailua-Kona, Island of Hawaii. Umi was given a number of royal tokens to prove he was the son of Liloa, including a Niho Palaoa. The lei necklace was made of braided human hair and whale bone. Kamehameha I, founder of the Kingdom of Hawaii. Kamehameha II in England with Queen and entourage. Lorrin Thurston , Minister of the Interior Hawaii. USS Boston. John L. Stevens, an American diplomat, conspired to overthrow the Kingdom of Hawaii.

Political cartoon of Smith, Philippa Mein A Concise History of New Zealand. Cambridge University Press. Kane, Herb Kawainui In Bob Dye ed. June Thomas A. Cumings, Bruce Yale University Press. Pearce, Charles E. Athens, J. American Antiquity. Wichman, Frederick B. University of Hawaii Press. Info Grafik Inc. Archived from the original on 20 December The theory of the lost continent is no longer chimerical.

Scientists from abroad are working upon it as plausible and scientifically possible. In its report to King Kalakaua, the board, in order to arrive at a correct hypothesis to account for the existence of the prehistoric people, announced it had applied to the surveyor general's office at Honolulu for maps and was furnished with those of the deep- sea soundings made by the U. Tuscarora from the Ameri- can continent to Honolulu, and from Honolulu to the Asian con- tinent, and by H. Challenger from the same terminals to the Hawaiian group.

The evidence adduced from these soundings was considered of value in solving many points and theories. One quotation taken from notes on the maps and diagrams by Lieut. Jack- son, formerly of the British Royal Navy, is important : "My theory is there once existed two vast continents in the Pacific — the eastern and the western. The eastern, consisting of the Hawaiian, Samoan, Tongan and all those islands to the eastward, taking in New Zealand and adjacent islands, and the eastern portion of Fiji.

This continent is peopled by the Ma- layan race. The Western Polynesia consisted of what is known as New Guinea, Solomon, New Hebrides, New Caledonia and the western portion of Fiji, and was peopled by the Papuan and woolly-headed people, very black, very savage and very much addicted to cannibalism, a race totally different in every respect from the civilized eastern Polynesian, for cannibalism was un- known amongst the Hawaiians. A thorough sounding of the whole Pacific would do much towards solving this great scien- tific problem, and I trust some day not distant to see this im- portant matter taken in hand by the great powers.

The Pacific Ocean continents passed their antediluvian age in a similar man- ner to that of European, African and Asian continents. And from the Philippines is another semblance of a continua- tion of the Asian continent running through the Caroline group, reaching to Fiji, which separates the Western from the Eastern Polynesian group. The board, through ancient folklore, refers to the ancient Me'le of Kumulipo, referred to early in this chapter, which indi- cates a regular cosmogony of seven periods or ages given be- fore the appearance of the human race, the first being that of the woman Lailai.

Four hundred and fifty generations from that of Lailai, the wife of Kapolokalii, by the name of Uliuli, leaves the country and travels toward the west. In Hawaiian mythology she is designated as Uliuli Ulu nui melemele o Haka- lauaialono, noted for her generosity, and goddess of agriculture. The second migrations appear to have taken place at the th generation. Halulu, wife of Kepoo, takes her departure from Upolu, a land at Kohala, Hawaii, and goes to or migrates to Kahiki-mai-e-ka, a locality now known by name at Kahaualea, Puna, Island of Hawaii, and upon it is a temple or heiau by the same name, sunk several fathoms under the sea, and said tO' be seen only by fishermen in calm weather.

The third appears at the fourth generation after Wakea, at the time of Nanakehili, who is reported to have been one of the wicked Kings. He was slain by his people.


The mele Kumulipo, owing to its peculiar originality, was considered one of the richest acquisitions to the work of the board. From this source of information it is evident that the ancient people of Hawaii had a cosmogony of their own, though differing in many respects from the regular geological order and classification of periods. In this history there appears to be a faint recollection of a Great Deluge.

The locality of the catastrophe which the ancients of these Isl- ands have often mentioned in their traditions as Kai-a-kahina- alii, meaning "The sea which destroyed the Kings," or the lost of all vestiges of a former creation, is unknown. The first subsidence, or Kai-a-kahina-alii Deluge , took place in the reign of Alahinalea and Palemo, his wife, the th gen- eration after Lailai. The second at the reign of Papio and Loiloi, his wife, the th generation after Lailai; the third, in the reign of Liipau and Kaneiwa, his wife, the nd genera- tion after Lailai, and the last or final collapse took place in the reign of Kahikoluamea, the st generation after Lailai.

Here enters one of the pretty myths of the ancient Hawaiians, so like those of the Greeks. Maui-a-Kalama, or Maui-a-Kamalo, who dates after the th generation from Lailai, and the 24th from Wakea, knowing the tradition of his forefathers that the Islands were all one and dry at one time, determined to bring them together again. Maui took the famous hock of his father, Manaiakalani, planted it at Hamakua, Hawaii Island, to pull up the fish god Pimoe, and with his three brothers pulled to- wards the Island of Maui, Maui-a-Kalama commanding strict injunction upon his brothers not to look back or the object of their expedition would fail.

Hina, in the shape of a bailing-gourd, appeared at the sur- face, Maui, unconscious of harm, grasped the gourd and placed it in front of his seat. Behold, a beautiful maid appeared, whom the brothers could not resist, and fascinated with her charms, all looked back at the beautiful mermaid. The line parted, Hina disappears and the grand expedition, the object of which was to connect the islands as they originally were, ended in failure. The Hawaiians had still another version of a Noah. The mele tradition speaks of one or more of those convulsions of nature, the waters rising and nearly covering the highest peaks of the mountain of Maunakea, so that Kahikoluamea, on a floating log of wood called Konikonihia, with his family, were the only survivors of one of the catastrophies.

Though but mere dots in the ocean, they are the living evi- dences of the remnants of the wreck, and from these may be deduced evidences of the existence at one time of a submerged island continent in the center of the Pacific Ocean. Scientists, who regard the Islands as entirely of valcanic origin, either thrust up from the bottom of the ocean by a titanic erup- tion, or gradually built up, flow by flow of lava from the volcanic craters, assert, the Islands are twenty thousand years old. It is a theory based on scientific deductions, stripped of all myth and tradition. Bo the Hawaiians of today believe in these legends of the creation of their race?

Do the Anglo-Saxons believe in fairies? The answer is the same to both questions — yes. Even today the Hawaiians have a strong belief in the "lost continent" idea, for mystic ancient rites are still indulged in at the Island of Niihau, at the point of Kamalino, near the landing of Nono-papa. Just to the right of the landing at Nono-pape is a rock called "Ka-hiki-moe," "the sleeping east. Below this is a land eave. The Hawaiians who visit this spot to see the noted "Ka-hiki-moe" make offerings of awa root and other things as they did centuries ago.

As you look down into the sea there is revealed a great cre- vasse, which is said to be the passage through which this small rock came to the land. Far out as you look seaward and just above the waters there is a red stone, known as the "Pio-ke-anueanue," or "the arching rainbow," because of its coloring, for it is there the sun seems to set, and where the rainbow's end seems to pass from sky into the depths of the ocean. Near the landing there is also an indentation which is said to be an imu Hawaiian open-air oven used by and for the beautiful woman "Pio-ke-anueanue.

Over on the Island of Molokai is a rise of the land called Nauea-a-pii, and from there to Mauna Loa, on Molokai, there are footprints of the feet of the gods, showing that even they came to Hawaii from "ka-hiki," the "place of the dawn. This tradition is as strong in their belief of the historical ac- curacy of this discovery of the islands by foreigners — possibly in the 16th century — as other historians are that Captain Cook, who sailed into Hawaiian waters with his two ships in , was the first to discover the Hawaiian Islands.

Historians of Hawaii and historians of Europe have attacked the puzzle of who discovered Hawaii, and yet none of them are as yet certain. In the end the claimants for Captain Cook are sure that the supposed discovery of Hawaii by Don Juan Gae- tano in is all a myth. Hawaiians quote their meles, their chants, their genealogies, their legends to prove that the Span- iard was first in Hawaii.

Despite the valuable treatise on this subject written by the Danish historian, E. The honor of making the Hawaiian Islands known to the world belongs undoubtedly to Captain Cook, but whether Cap- tain Cook had aboard his flagship, the "Discovery," copies of an old Spanish chart of the Pacific which was captured aboard a Spanish galleon captured by Commodore Lord George Anson on June 30, , or 35 years before Captain Cook reached Ha- waii, on which the approximate position of these islands was placed, is not definitely known.

Some historians assert that he had and that a Lieutenant Roberts marked upon his charts the location of the mysterious islands which eventually turned out to be the Hawaiian group. On the map of the world which accompanies the history of Cook's vayoge we find, on the same degree of latitude as Ha- waii but about 20 degrees of longitude east thereof, a group of four islands of which the two westernmost are called Los Majos; the furthest to the southeast.

La Maso. The draughtsman, Lieut. Henry Roberts, has given a detailed description of the sources of this map. He says that after leav- ing England, Captain Cook commissioned him to draw up a map of the world on the basis of the best material that was available for this purpose; and that this commission, for the most part accomplished before Cook's death, so that a special draft was ready, in which only those parts were left vacant which they hoped to investigate in the course of the voyage.

When the map was about to be published after the return home, however, it was found necessary to re-examine and amplify it in accordance with the latest and best authorities. Roberts gives a detailed account of these authorities, and then adds that "every other part of the chart, not mentioned in this account, is as originally placed by Captain Cook. Cook, therefore, probably had no doubt of their existence. The nearest source from which the existence of these islands had been derived, however, is not difficult to find: It is a chart of the northern part of the Pacific Ocean which Lord Anson found on a Spanish galleon which he captured in in the neighborhood of the Philippines.

In submitting this chart to close examination it is found that the group of islands in question exhibits a number of details which are not reproduced in Roberts' map ; that instead of Los Majos we fined Los Mojas, and instead of La Maso, La Mesa, and that the fourth island has a name La Disgraciada, which is missing in Roberts' map.

Cook's successors manifestly shared his conception of the group as a land distinct from Hawaii, these all being English navi- gators. The 20th of January, , the day on which Captain James Cook landed on one of the islands, where, a year later, the 14th of February, , he was to end his glorious life, can safely be characterized as one of the landmarks in the history of geo- graphical discovery, not only because of the intrinsic importance of the discovery, but also, and to a still greater extent, because this discovery inaugurated the investigation of the maritime area, the northern part of the Pacific Ocean having remained unknown in its essential features to the peoples of Europe.

That Cook was the first European who beheld the Hawaiian archipelago, or the Sandwich Islands, as he himself called them, began to be disputed not long after his death. It was then al- leged that Spanish navigators discovered the group and marked them upon the map of the world. This assertion has been re- peated with greater or less definiteness by practically all writers of history or geography ; by — to mention only some of the most eminent — Alexander von Humboldt, James Burney, J. Cook himself, however, said : "Had the Sandwich Islands been discovered at an early period by the Spaniards, there is little doubt that they would have taken advantage of so excellent a situation and have made use of Atooi Kauai or some other of the islands as a refreshing place to the ships that sail annually from Acapulco to Manila.

The reasons why Cook sailed northward from Tahiti over the course that unexpectedly led him to the discovery, or re-discovery, ap- pear unmistakably from the plan of his voyage and its object, as it was put before him in the instructions issued by the British Admiralty. He was to seek for a northerly route from the Pa- cific to the Atlantic Ocean ; in other words, to investigate the so- called Northwest Passage in the direction opposite tc that which had previously been tried, through Hudson's Bay and Baffin's Bay.

He had been specially instructed not to lose time by seek- ing for new lands, and accordingly he only came across the little uninhabited Christmas Island before, on January 17, , he sighted some islands ; these were the westernmost islands of the Hawaiian archipelag"0. They landed on Kauai and Niihau. Of the greater eastern islands they sighted only Oahu ; the ques- tion whether still more existed, of which the natives seemed to have some knowledge, had to be left unsettled on the first visit ; and the confirmation of this was left to future investigations.

Now as to the Spanish discovery. Senor Don Ricardo Btltran y Rozpide, speaking before the Rcyal Geographical Society of Madrid, whose remarks were published by that society in their "bulletin" of , threw light on the puzzle. He said that in the 16th century and the earlier years of the 17th, the Spanish flag dominated, without a rival, in the waters of the two oceans. With faith in God or destiny, venturesome, disregarding dan- gers, and with the splendid courage that characterized the earlier Spaniards, they led the way in these heretofore undiscovered and mysterious seas, carrying the proud name of their country and the emblems of their religion to strange shores, not forget- ting in their search the baser metals.

One of the most import- ant expeditions was that of General Lopes Villalobos in , which sailed from Chile for the Molaccas, and who wa saccom- panied by Juan de Gaetano in the capacity of pilot or navigator. In the report of the voyage Gaetano mentions "las Islas del Rey," "the King's Islands,'" about leagues from the coast of Mexico in reality a little over miles , and as the ex- pedition of Villalobos followed the approximate latitude of "the archipelago oi Hawaii," or "The King's Islands," it is reason- able to suppose that they are the same which Cook rediscovered.

There may have been errors in computation of the longitude or latitude, or in placing them upon, the map, to account for this discrepancy. The Spaniards back up their contention by the production of charts and documents. The Hydrographical Department of the Spanish Government at Madrid, on being questioned concerning documentary evidence of the Spanish discovery of Hawaii, replied that it was true no document had been found certified to by Gaetano, subscribing to the fact of discovery in , but "there exist data which collectively form a series of proofs sufficient for believing it to be so.

The Spanish of Madrid claim that Cook found on Hawaii part of a wide sword, whose existence there he could not sat- isfactorily account for, which the Spanish claim was of Spanish origin. It was the English missionary, William Ellis, who first noted down and published some of the traditions concerning the pos- sible visits of Europeans before that of Cook and the supposed traces of their influence.

He arrived at the islands in Having been in Tahiti he was able to converse with the Ha- waiians within a few months, and then delved into the past of the Hawaiian race. Ellis learned that they had three accounts of foreigners arriving at Hawaii prior to Captain Cook.

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The first was the priest Paao, who landed at Kohala, Island of Ha- waii, and to whom the priests of that neighborhood traced their genealogy until just before Ellis' arrival. The second account states that during the lifetime of Opiri, the son of Paao landed somewhere in the southwest part gf the island and repaired to the mountains where they took up their abode. The natives regarded them with superstitious curiosity and dread, and knew not whether to consider them as gods or men. Opiri Pili was sent for by the king of that district. Provisions were cooked and presented to the strangers, and con- versation was held, through Opiri Pili , the tradition avers.

The foreigners later departed. The name of the principal person among them was Manahini, and it is a singular fact that in the Mar- quesan, ociety and Hawaiian Islands, the word manahini is still employed to designate a foreigner or stranger, but in Hawaii the word is pronounced and spelled malahini.

The third account describes the arrival, during the reign of Ka- houkapu, king of Kawaloa, of seven foreigners at Kealakekua bay, the spot where Captain Cook subsequently landed. They came, according to the tradition, in a painted boat, with a canopy over the stern. The color of their clothes was white or wellow, and one wore a pahi knife , probably a sword, and wore a feather in his hat.

They remained, married among the Ha- waiians, were made chiefs, proved themselves warriors, and ulti- mately became very powerful in the Island of Hawaii. A story which rather reminds one of this last, and which is possibly a variant of it, is told by Otto von Kotzebue, who visited Honolulu in as commander of a Russian man-of-war.

His authority was Kalanimoku, a great chieftain and general under Kamehameha the Great, and the one who received the first mis- sionaries at Hawaii in , whose words were interpreted by Don Marini, a Spaniard who had lived for many years in the islands. The chieftain said that a boat with five white men landed in Kealakekua bay near the heiau temple where Opuna was buried. She was Queen Kaikilani-wahine-alii Opuna, who was killed by her husband, Lonoikamakahiki. The natives regarded them as higher beings and therefore did not prevent them from taking possession of the temple, in which holy spoto they were not only safe from pursuit, but also had plenty of food, as such was brought daily to the temple as sacrifice to the idols there erected, and became regarded as the envoys of Lono, who, ac- cording to Hawaiian traditions, governed Hawaii in the fabulous ages, or was even a god.

They mixed freely with the priests and performed the holy ceemonies in combination with them in the temple. The descendants of these strangers, so Kotzebue wrote, including most of the nobility of the islands, were still distin- guished by their whiter skin. The story most often cited as evidence that before Cook's time Europeans had visited Hawaii is definitely presented for the first time in a summary of the history of the Islands com- posed by pupils at the American mission-school at Lahainaluna on the Island of Maui, and printed by the pupils themselves in The title of the little volume is "Ka Moolelo Hawaii.

Sheldon Dibble, a missionary of high literary at- tainments, but it is commonly cited under the name of the prin- cipal Hawaiian historian and brilliant author, David Malo. Konalihoa was the name of the vessel, and Kukanaloa was the name of the foreigner white man who commanded, or to whom belonged the vessel. His sister was also with him on the vessel. A long time they remained pros- trated on the shore, and hence the place was called Kulou, and is so called to this day. The white rock there is called Pohaku- kea, and the clifif above 'Mauna-kapu,' or Sacred Mountain, for there the Spaniards are said to have worshipped.

Somber and silent, the cliff tombs remain undisturbed. Below them Captain Cook was slain. The strangers cohabited with the Hawaiians and had children, and they became ancestors of some of the Hawaiian people, and also of some of the chiefs. According to Fornander, this story was generally current in many of the Islands, and the landing of the strangers was local- ized in various places.

The version above quoted, however, which places the event on the west coast of Hawaii, is regarded by him as the original one. Several attempts have been made to determine the time when the event related happened. Fornander, on the basis of the na- tive genealogies, calculated that King Kealiiokaloa, during whose time the strangers are said to have arrived at Hawaii, reigned between the years and , and in accordance with this he assumed that the stranded ship belonged to Alvaro de Saave- dra's squadron.

Jarves, with the support of a similar cal- culation, arrived at the year In fact one historian has given the castaways the names of Juan and Beatriz Alvirez. Another substantiation of the idea that Spanish discovered the Islands and that some were wrecked on them is that there are evidences of European influence. It has long been held that the beautiful cloaks and helmets worn by the kings and chiefs, made from the feathers of birds, placed upon a background of tree and plant fiber, woven like strands of rope, are like those of the Spanish warriors, or were imitations of their helmets and cloaks.

However, the helmets were more like those worn by the ancient Greeks and Phoenicians than the Spaniard. There may, however, have been a native variation of the steel helmet worn by the soldiers of Spain, and that the final shape resembled that of a Greek soldier, may have been in the gradual evolution. The Hawaiians are generally agreed that centuries be- fore Cook arrived other foreigners reached the Hawaiian shores.

It is true, however, that Cook made the Islands known to the world, and from that time they came into prominence in the councils of the powers, and today are not the least of import- ance of all the states and territories of the Ainerican Republic. The most curious fact that presents itself to the eye of the traveler in the ruins of temples built by Umi, who was called "The Mountain King," who reigned over the whole Island of Hawaii in the 16th century, is the existence of a mosaic pave- ment in the form of a regular cross, which traverses the enclosure in the direction of its length and breadth.

This symbol is not found in the monuments anterior to this king nor in those which are posterior to him. Involuntarily one sees in this a proof of the two white shipwrecked persons whose landing upon the Island of Hawaii has been told. May it not be inferred from the existence of these Christian emblems that towards the time when the great Umi filled the group with his renown some shipwrecked Spanish, or even Portu- guese, sought to introduce the religion of Christ into the Islands.

This peculiarity was observable in the monuments erected during Umi's reign, but not in other heiaus temples , as for instance at Kupalaha, in the district of Makapala; Moo- kini, at Puuepa; Aiaikamahina, near the sea at Kukuipahu; and Kuupapaulau, towards the mountain at the same place. The remains of these four remarkable temples are found in the district of Kohala, Hawaii Island. In them there is not the slightest division into the form of a cross. It was in Umi's domain, proper, that the shipwrecked foreigners landed. The Hawaiian chants reveal an apparent discrepancy in the time of the supposed introduction of foreigners to Hawaii.

Umi was the father of the king who reigned when Gaetano is be- lieved to have touched at Hawaii, which was in If Umi adopted the cross as a symbol in the division of a part of his temples, it was probably due to the initiative of the shipwrecked Spaniards. What influence Gaetano and his crew may have had upon the Islanders is not definitely known. The Hawaiians, however, assert that the form of the cross kau pea or peakapu was a very ancient symbol among them. The very fact that he was slain on the shores of Kealakekua Bay, Island of Hawaii, where he had first set foot, honored, nay, worshipped, by the natives, who believed that in this strange white leader their god Lono had returned to the Islands, was a deplorable freak of Fate.

The report of his death indelibly marked the Hawaiian Islands in the memories of mariners and gave them greater prominence in the capitals of Europe than otherwise. Governments immediately saw an advantage in pos- session of the Islands. But England was first on the ground and first to take advantage even of the tragic pioneering of Captain Cook, and it was the English who rather stood on guard for Hawaii that kept other nations from menacing the isles in the guise of conquerors. But for the failure of one of Cook's successors in visiting the Islands, surveying them and becoming closely acquainted with the king, Kamehameha the Great — Captain George Van- couver — to carry out a promise made to the king, American influence may never have gained the upper hand and resulted in in the annexation of the Islands by the United States.

He seemed to desire more knowledge, where- upon Vancouver promised that Englishmen would be sent to Hawaii to tell him of the white man's religion, of Christ and the meaning of such a religion. That promise was never kept- Vancouver may have informed the British Governmicnt of his promise, but if so, the government failed to discharge that ob- ligation. A quarter of a century passed, and no Englishmen authorized to teach the Gospel went to Hawaii, although other Englishmen went to Hawaii and took up their residence.

The king died May 8, The native religion was abolished in October of that year, and in March, , American missionaries landed on the Islands and spread the Gospel. Naturally that event con- nected up Hawaii with New England, not old England, and from that time may be dated the beginning of American influence. Had English missionaries first visited Hawaii, the American, missionaries may never have been sent there, and England would have had a clear field for the future. The family removed to Marton in the same sec- tion, situated in the high road from Gisborough, in Cleveland, to Stockton-upon-Tees, in the county of Durham.

He was born October 27, At thirteen he was bound an apprentice to a haberdasher, but the sea was his inclination. He was later bound to Messrs. John and Henry Walker of Whitby, Quakers by re- ligious profession, and principal owners of the ship Freelove and of another vessel, employed in the coal trade. After he was out of his time he continued, on the sea as a common sailor, till at length he was raised to be mate of one of John Walker's ships.

In the spring of , when hostilities broke out between England and France and there was a hot press for seamen, Cook happened to be in the river Thames with the ship to which he belonged. At first he concealed himself, but reflecting it might be difficult to elude discovery, he determined upon further con- sideration to enter His Majesty's service and to make his future. Accordingly he went to a rendez- vous at Wapping, and entered with an officer of the Eagle man- of-war, a ship of sixty guns, at that time commanded by Cap- tain Hamer.

To this ship Captain afterwards Admiral Paliser was appointed in October, , and when he took command found in her James Cook, whom he soon distinguished to be an able, active and diligent seaman. The captain gave him encouragement. The captain received letters from a member of Parliament that he had been solicited to seek the advancement of James Cook. The captain did justice to Cook's merit in his reply, but as he had been in the navy such a short time he could not yet be promoted.

A master's warrant was procured for him May 10, , for the Grampus sloop. Four days later he was ap- pointed to the Garland, but the ship had already sailed. He was then appointed to the Mercury. The Mercury's destination was North America, where she joined the fleet of Sir Charles Saunders, which, in conjunction with the land forces under Gen- eral Wolfe, was engaged in the famous siege of Quebec.

Cap- tain Cook made soundings in the channel of the river St. Law- rence in order to allow the admiral to place ships against the enemy's batteries to cover the army's attack. He was ambus- caded by Indians, but escaped. His report to Captain Paliser was an able one. He made several hazardous expeditions, all to his credit. From this time on his advance was rapid, and he succeeded from ship to ship, each a better one than before. Captain Cook on his first voyage to the South Seas returned home by Cape of Good Hope in July, , and again this ex- perienced circumnavigator performed his second voyage in the Resolution, which sailed from England in July, , and re- turned on the 30th of the same month in The general object of this and the preceding voyage around the world was to search for unknown tracts of land that might exist within tre bosom of the immense expanse of ocean that occupies the southern hemisphere and to determine the existence, or non- existence, so some of his biographers assert, of a southern con- tinent.

The Terra Australia de Espiritu Santo of Quiros, which he regarded as part of a southern continent, was circumnavigated by Captain Cook, who assigned to it its true position and extent. Bougainville did no more than discover that the land was not connected ; but Captain Cook explored the whole group. Byron, Wallace and Carteret had each of them contributed towards in- creasing a knowledge of the amazing profusion of islands that exist in the Pacific Ocean, within the limits of the southern tropic, but how far that ocean extended to the west, what lands bounded it on that side, and the connection of those lands with the dis- coveries of former navigators, remained absolutely unknown till Captain Cook decided the question and brought home to England ample accounts of them and their inhabitants.

That nothing might be left unattempted, though much had been already done. Captain Cook, whose professional knowledge could only be equalled by the persevering diligence with which he had employed it in the course of his former researches, was called upon once more to resume his survey of the globe. This brave and experienced commander might have spent the re- mainder of his days in the command to which he had been ap- pointed in Greenwich Hospital, but he cheerfully relinquished this honorable position in a letter to the British Admiralty, dated February 10, , placed his services at the disposal of their lordships, and undertook a third voyage, which, in one respect, was less fortunate than any former expedition, being performed at the expense of the life of its intrepid conductor.

Former circumnavigators had returned to Europe by the Cape of Good Hope; the arduous, and as we now know impossible, task was assigned to Captain Cook of attempting it by reaching the high northern latitudes between Asia and America. He was ordered to proceed to Otaheite Tahiti , or Society Islands, and then, having crossed the equator into the northern tropic, to hold such a course as might most probably give success to the attempt of finding out a northern passage. You are not to spend too much time in looking out for those Islands, but to proceed to Otaheite, or the Society Islands touching at New Zealand in your way thither if you should judge it necessary or convenient.

Both sloops were put in commission on February 14, The Resolution was tons burden and likewise the Discovery. Clerke had been Cook's second lieutenant in his second voyage around the world.

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The board ordered garden seeds, useful animals and other things to be put aboard for distribution on various islands. Whether any of these things were left on Hawaii is not definitely known. Captain Cook had Mr. King as his second lieutenant to be his professional observer. Webster was engaged for the purpose of supplying the defects of written accounts by taking accurate drawings of the most memorable scenes and transac- tions. Anderson, surgeon, added to his professional abili- ties a great proficiency in natural history.

On board both ves- sels were persons, officers included. Bligh, master of the Resolution, was the same officer who com- manded the Bounty, the crew of which mutinied on April 8, , ofif Otaheite Tahiti , and having bound Lieut. Bligh, turned him adrift in a long boat with eighteen men and with only a small supply of food and water. Bligh ultimately reached Timor, having traversed miles in 46 days. Fletcher Christian, the leader of the mutineers, and his followers pro- ceeded in the Bounty to Pitcairn's Island, where they were dis- covered in Their descendants still live on Pitcairn.

The Resolution and Discovery sailed July 14, Captain Cook gave them the name of the Sandwich Islands. It was on the morning of the 18th that an island was seen. Soon after more land, bearing north, was revealed, previously sheltered from the former. Both had the appearance of being high land.

At 9 o'clock Captain Cook sent three armed boats, under com- mand of Lieutenant Williamson, to look for a landing place and for fresh water. Just as they were pulling off from the ships one of the natives who had gone aboard, having hypothecated a butcher's cleaver, leaped overboard, got in his canoe with the boats pursuing him.

While the boats were examining the coast the sloops stood on and off. About noon the officer returned and reported he had seen a pond behind a beach, near one of the villages, which the natives said contained fresh water and that there was anchoring ground before it. In one place na- tives had come down to the beach in great numbers and pre- vented him landing.

They had attempted to take away the oars and muskets, and he was obliged to fire and had killed one man. In the afternoon Captain Cook went ashore with three armed boats and twelve marines to examine the water and try the disposition of the inhabitants, several hundreds of whom were assembled on the beach. The very instant Cook landed at the beach the natives fell flat on their faces and remained in that humble position till by expressive signs he prevailed upon them to rise; they then brought many small pigs which they presented to the navigator, using much the same ceremony as he found in other islands.

He accepted the presents and offered others from his stores. He met with no objections in watering. The natives fell pros- trate as Cook proceeded inland to inspect the villages. This, he says, he found was the ceremony paid to great chiefs. He inspected their heiaus temples , their altars and idols. Webster made drawings of the temples and altars upon which human sacrifices were made.

The first are nearly of the size and shape of the short cloaks worn by the women in England and by the men in Spain, reaching to the middle of the back, and tied loosely before; the ground is a network upon which the most beautiful red and yellow feathers are so closely fixed that the surface might be compared to the thickest and richest velvet, which they resemble, both as to feel and glossy appearance. The man- ner of varying the mixture is very different; some having tri- angular spaces of red and yellow alternately, others a kind of crescent, and some that were entirely red had a broad yellow border which made them appear at a distance exactly like a scarlet cloak edged with gold lace.

The brilliant colors of the feathers, in those that happened to be new, added not a little to their fine appearance ; and we found that they were in high esti- mation by their owners, for they would not at first part with one of them for anything that we offered, asking no less a price than a musket. However, some were afterward purchased for some very large nails. It is a frame of osiers and twigs, covered with a network, into which are wrought feathers in the same manner as upon the cloaks, though rather closer and less diversified.

The ships left Kauai on January 23, but owing to high winds were forced back and anchored again on the 29th off Niihau, a little island near Kauai. Cook says these natives seemed to be well aware of the use of iron, asking for it by the name of "hamite. At this time Cook sighted Oahu and possibly Molokai. Leaving the Northwest Arctic Coast, where Cook made a fine survey and named many places which are today known by the same names, he sailed southward for the Sandwich Islands. On November 26, , land was discovered, and Cook then found that the group was more extensive than he first knew.

This was the Island of Maui. He needed fresh provisions. He pub- lished an order prohibiting all persons from trading, excepting such as should be appointed by himself and Captain Clerke. While the vessels lay off Maui for several days a friendly inter- course was maintained with the inhabitants. On November 30, , the Island of Hawaii, the largest and loftiest of the group, and famous then for its mighty kings, chieftains and their warlike activities, was encountered.

It ap- peared to be of vast extent, with its great mountains, Mauna Loa, Mauna Kea and Hualalai, looming far up toward and above the clouds, for later surveys showed Mauna Loa to be between 13, and 14, feet high. Cook spent a few weeks sailing around the island and examining the coast. Whilst he was thus employed natives came off from time to time in their canoes. Among the articles the natives brought was sugar cane. Cook proved himself an adept near-beer brewer, for he says he made a delectable and palatable beer from it.

The crew would not touch it, preferring their rum, but Cook knew that scurvy was farther away than ever, for if the rum gave out, beer could be made from cane. There was not a weapon among- them, a satisfactory proof of their peaceful intentions. However, there were many thefts of boat things that Cook, resented, for it interfered with his necessary equipment Mr.

Bligh, having gone ashore, returned and re- ported a favorable bay, into which the ships sailed. On the 17th the ships came to anchor in Kealakekua Bay, Kona dis- trict, the western side of the island, one of the most beautiful bays in the world, with towering cliffs on the inner land side. It was there that Cook afterwards lost his life. There were thousands of people about the ships in canoes and the shores were dense with people. It is this display, a concentrated form of welcome, that caused Cook, perhaps, to err in saying that the population of Hawaii was then about , It was possibly half that number, or even less, so that the re- ports of a "dying race," in this , years later, does not represent such a vast calamity after all.

It is a calamity, but in the leavening of races, due to intermarriage, it is difficult to say whether a race is dying out after all, though the original numbers may be reduced. Thus the disappointment of obtaining a Northwest Passage, which caused Cook to return to the Islands, proved an enlight- enment for the world. He said that Hawaii was the most im- portant discovery in the Pacific.

The concluding words of his own journal are: "To this disappointment we owed our having it in our power to revisit the Sandwich Islands, and to enrich our voyage with a discovery which, though the last, seemed in many respects to be the most important that had hitherto been made by Europeans throughout the extent of the Pacific Ocean. He was correct in his prophecy. Little did he think that this greatest island of discovery was to be the scene of his last exploit.

The natives came to his ships singing and shouting. Palea and Kanaina, two chiefs, had already attached themselves to the commander and were useful in keeping their countrymen from being trouble- some. They brought aboard another chief, called Koa, who was represented to be a priest. In his youth he had been a distin- guished warrior. On the 6th Captain Cook had his first interview with Kaleio- puu Kalaniopuu , or Terreeoboo, as Cook designated him, as nearly as he could transcribe the pronounced word. The meet- ing was conducted with a variety of ceremonies, among which was the custom of making an exchange of names, considered a strong pledge of friendship, according to A.

Kippis, D. When the interview was over Cook took Kaleiopuu aboard his ship, the Resolution, where he and his suite were received with every mark of respect that could be shown them, and in return for a beautiful feather cloak, a long one, which the king bestowed upon Captain Cook, the cap- tain put a linen shirt on his majesty and girt his own hanger about him. Today that feather cloak, now in a museum, is valued at hundreds of thousands of dollars. Thus we come to a part of Cook's life in which critics have said that he made his greatest mistake, that of accepting the adoration of the natives on his arrival ashore when they mis- took him for their god Lono and he continued to receive this adoration, although at first it was a puzzle to him.

Poetry is always the first spark that is kindled in the light of civilization. Relgion inspires it to sing its mysteries; kings reward it, hoping to perpetuate their names by its means ; and all classes love to solace themselves with its beauties. The little we know about the ancient history of Hawaii is preserved in song; and perhaps a collection of the rhymes of the priests and bards might throw light on the question of the original race and population of these Isles of the Pacific.

Blonde to the Sandwich Islands in the Years One of the songs, says Lord Byron, from its connection with the disastrous history of Captain Cook, had been sought for and preserved by Europeans who succeeded him. A story, which is not without its parallel in the mythologies of the ancient world, is related of the jealousy of the Akua, spirit or founder of the people of Hawaii. He sacrificed his wife, or thought he did, for revenge, and, horror-struck, abandoned Hawaii in a boat of peculiar shape, leaving a hope, or rather a belief, that at some future time he should return.

The song and prophecy run some- thing like this, says Lord Byron. In endeavoring to tell who the god Lono was, the god deified in the person of Captain Cook, they believing their god had returned although the natives had burned the effigy representing this god. Lord Byron was given the chant that tells the story of Lonoikamakahiki. The priests had prophesied the return of the god Lono, that he "would return on an island bearing cocoanut trees and with swine and dogs. Hawaiians always call their king an Akua god , be- cause they believe that the chiefs are descendants of the gods, as, for instance, Kauikeaouli Kamehameha HI was always called a god.

The Hawaiians believed he actually descended from the gods. Lono, of Hawaii, in very ancient times, resided with his wife at Kealakekua. The name of his wife, his love, was Kaikilani-aHi-wahine Opuna, and they dwelt beneath the steep cliffs. To beguile the time they played the game of "konane" resembling the game of draughts, played upon a fiat stone.

One day, while thus engaged, they heard the faint sound as of some one calling from the top of the Pali. And then came distinctly to the ears of Lono : "Ho, Kaikilani! Your lover, Heakekoa, the son of Kalaulipili and Uli, is longing for you! Sorry for his rash deed, the chief ordered his canoes to be launched, and sternly forbidding Kaikilani to follow him, set sail for Oahu. It is said in the legend that this passionate exhibition of her husband's love and the finding of herself alone and forbidden to accompany him, produced such a revulsion in the mind of Kaikilani as to entirely break off her fondness for Heakekoa, who disappears from the legend.

Lono traveled on and on, boxing with every man he met. Games which became an an- nual event called Makahiki, were instituted in honor of Lono and consisted of wrestling, boxing and other athletic exercises. He said he was frantic for her love. On Oahu he met Kakuhihewa, king of Oahu. In time his wife traveled across the seas to Oahu, and chanting at a distance her voice and words were heard by Lono. But ere he left Hawaii on his voyage to place distance between himself and his wife, he had declared : "I will return in after times, on an island bearing cocoanut trees, and swine and dogs.

It was the promise or prophecy that induced the natives to believe, on seeing Cook's big ships with their masts and rig- ging, that they were islands and that Lono had returned, and to pay him divine honors — the fatal mistake of a hf etime. Later they discovered he was but mortal. Captain Cook was paid the highest honors by the natives, amounting to adoration. Captain King, not comprehending the meaning of the repetitions of the name Lono, supposed it to be the title of a high priest.

Byron says that Koa, the chief priest, and his son, Onea, who appears to have been a priest of Lono, received Cook with honors they really meant to be divine, and which he imagined meant nothing more than friendly respect, and perhaps fear on account of his large and powerful ships. Captain King says : "Captain Cook generally went by this name Lono among the natives, but we never could learn its mean- ing precisely.

This was on the south or lower side of Kealakekua Bay. Though the kind and liberal behavior of the natives continued without remission, Kalaniopuu and his chiefs began at length to be very inquisitive about the time when the voyagers were to take their departure. Nor will this be deemed surprising, said Kippis, when it is considered that in the sixteen days in which the English had been in the bay of Kealakekua they had made an enormous consumption of hogs and vegetables.

It did not appear, however, that Kalaniopuu had any other view in his inquiries than a desire of making sufficient preparation for dis- missing the navigators with presents suitable to the respect and kindness towards them which he had always displayed. The native accounts relate what Captain Cook apparently was not aware of, viz. But as his fame had preceded him through the group, and Cook himself was looked upon as a god an Akua , and his ships as temples heiau , the priests and chiefs who governed in the bay in the absence of Kalaniopuu on Maui, proclaimed an exception 62 UNDER HAWAIIAN SKIES to the tabu in the matter of the ships of the newcomers as a lucky thought, a well-timed compromise to gratify their curiosity and soothe their consciences, according to Fornander; for most assuredly without some such arrangement not a single canoe would have dared to ripple the quiet waters of the bay.

On January 24 Kalaniopuu returned from Maui, and one of his first acts was to put a tabu on the bay, no canoes being al- lowed to leave the beach. The next morning the bay was deserted. The crews endeav- ored to induce the natives to come alongside, and as some of them were at last attempting to put off, a chief was observed attempting to drive them away. A musket was immediately fired over his head to make him desist, which had the desired effect, and refreshments were soon after purchased as usual.

Kalaniopuu went aboard the Resolution that afternoon for a visit. The firing of the musket was the first act of intimidation and probably wrought a new feeling among the natives toward the visitors, later to be put into the form of actual attack. Incident upon incident piled up on the wrong side of the ledger against Cook. He, being in want of fuel for the ships, sent Captain King to "treat with the priests for the purchase of the rail that surrounded the top of the heiau temple.

In this, however, I found myself mistaken.

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