Illegal drugs, armed conflict and peacebuilding in Afghanistan: Beyond “the flower”and the Taliban

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Too Good to Be True? Lord Is Britannica Going Wiki? Haunted Hollywood: 8. Haunted Hollywood: 6. Military Friday the 13th The Lincoln Penny at Obama to be "Carterized"? Was He Elected "Too Soon"? The Academy Awards W. Fields, Happy Birthday! Presidents Information, Please! Senate: A Replay of Marbury v. The Stooges' Ron Asheton —? Math Scores vs. Phil vs. The U. We Have a New President! Impeach Obama, Already? Library Ghosts: Midwestern U. The Perfect Business Reader? Christianity is a Protestant Thing. O'Leary's Cow: Not Guilty? McCain: Britannica. State Dept. Andrew Sullivan Facts vs.

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Abstract: In , a project was undertaken at Gordion, Turkey, to stabilize and conserve the remains of a rubble platform built early in the Middle Phrygian period ca. In the process, aspects of Middle Phrygian building strategies came to light that enhanced our understanding gained from the original excavation in the s. This article outlines the archaeology of the Middle Phrygian Gate Complex and the sophisticated internal structures that lent stability to the rubble platform upon which it was built, and examines the recent evaluation and stabilization of the remaining rubble.

Internal walls that created a casemate-like structure, combined with strategically placed juniper logs, assisted with the construction of the rubble fill and its structural stability. The use of water-soluble gypsum in the rubble led to the eventual collapse of the walls in antiquity. Abstract: This article presents a newly discovered figurine of chalky limestone found at a cave close to Tel Halif in the northern Negev during salvage excavations conducted after the cave was partially looted.

The figurine is compared with the corpus of figurines with similar iconographic characteristics. Two exemplars found years earlier at Tel Halif itself are re-examined. In light of new data, it is suggested that these figurines should be dated to the Chalcolithic period. A Double Abecedary? It presents new etymologies for the words listed on the two sides of the document, all of them in Egyptian syllabic writing. This sheds important new light on the history of the Semitic alphabets and Egyptian knowledge of alphabetic ordering in the fifteenth century B.

Abstract: The Late Chalcolithic of the southern Levant ca. Recently, two large complex caves located in the northern Negev Highlands, south of the densely settled Late Chalcolithic province of the Beersheba Valley, yielded skeletal evidence for secondary interment of select individuals accompanied by sets of material culture that share distinct similarities. The observed patterns suggest that the interred individuals belonged to sedentary communities engaging in animal husbandry, and they were deliberately distanced after their death, both above-ground into the desert and underground deep inside subterranean mazes , deviating from common cultural practices.

Pollen Zone 1 ca. Pollen Zones 2 ca. The lowest olive pollen values during the Bronze and Iron Ages were documented in both records at ca. These and other trends discussed in the article show that climate is only one of the factors that influenced settlement processes and economic trends in antiquity.

Late by mainland standards, the Khirokitia Culture had few parallels with either the Levantine or Anatolian mainland from which it derived. Recent research, however, has revolutionized perspectives on the colonization of these islands, with Cyprus again playing a major role. We now know that the island had a pre-Neolithic occupation around twelve thousand years ago. Interdisciplinary excavations have revealed it to be a unique occurrence, with some of the earliest directly dated domesticates in the Near East, unusual architecture, and evidence for trade and feasting—all of which are summarized here.

Ais Giorkis contributes to emerging research on Cyprus that has reoriented how we view island colonization, early seafaring abilities, domestication processes and accompanying social changes, and the spread of the Neolithic from its core areas. Abstract: Iron Age silver in the Levant has attracted scholarly attention regarding its function as currency.

Scholars debate whether hacksilber can be interpreted as representing a pre-monetary economic system, using pre-portioned silver exchanged in standardized weights, which inspired the invention of coins. The combination of a contextual analysis of the hoards, a typological study of the items in them, chemical analysis, and comparison with other Bronze and Iron Age southern Levantine hoards implies that the use of silver as currency changed throughout the Bronze and Iron Ages.

In particular, contrary to common interpretations, the hoarding of silver in stamped bundles and the practice of hacking silver do not represent a single phenomenon. Rather, bundling was gradually replaced by the practice of hacking silver ingots to verify their quality.

In Iron Age II, during every transaction, the hacked items were weighed using miniature silver items to balance the scales. Abstract: New approaches to citizen-building are flourishing, yet theoretical tools are lacking and empirical research is limited. This article contributes in several ways. Using a difference-in-differences framework, I find evidence that social engineering is succeeding in some respects but backfiring in others, giving rise to citizens not only more patriotic but also more entitled—in other words, entitled patriots.

Findings contribute to knowledge of state-led social engineering and citizen-building in the contemporary era. Palestine: Doing Things with Archives. They not only do what historians excel at—uncovering or illuminating past moments that reframe our understandings of the past and present—but they linger on less conventional questions of the materialities and effects of archives, as well as the formidable challenges archives present for assembly, authority, access, categorization, and political futures.

What happened to a man of capital who survived the catastrophe of ? What allows an archive to survive that event? What stories does it record and what does it render invisible? It therefore seeks to draw out the connections among Saidian postcolonial theory, Arab American subjectivity, and archival practice. On Archiving as Dissensus. At issue is an archival assembly that is not constrained by the command—in form and content—dictated by colonial state priorities or even by Palestinian authorities.

What concerns should be weighed and who shall be its archons? How might a principle and practice of dissensus speak to and through a vastly deterritorialized populace? Might this diasporic reality provide the very strength of this archive, its exemplary status, and political grace? This canon nonetheless was bound to be different in form as it filtered through the cultural and socio-political structures of the early Turkish Republic. It also emerged to represent symbolically a resistance to, if not a break from, some features of Western Freudian psychoanalytic discourse, including those that relate to society and civilization.

Abstract: Spheres of life incorporated within the orbit of security have been multiplying rapidly for the last two decades, marking a global trend. Turkey is no exception. In between multiple layers of the governmental structure, more and more areas are looped into matters of security. In so doing it is not only incorporating fields previously unimagined under its domain, but also it produces circuits, which are made up of elements and events that form an environment milieu where individuals are expected to govern through their capacities as self-entrepreneurs.

Abstract: This article is devoted to the study of questions of knowledge, law, and ethics in Islamic context. Starting with a discussion of assumptions about Islamic ethical practices in recent anthropological and historical works on the fatwa, it explores procedures of truth seeking and modes of reasoning in legal opinions authored by Islamic scholars, notably Yusuf al-Qaradawi, at the time of the Egyptian Revolution Abstract: This keynote speech addresses the context of producing knowledge about the Middle East and the problematic nature of this production especially at times of crisis.

In order to evaluate this knowledge, we must consider the current context in which Middle East countries are engulfed. I argue that the so-called crisis in the Middle East is a reflection of another crisis in Europe, and that both have important consequences on the production of knowledge. The two crises are mirrors of each other and cannot be understood as isolated regional issues. Abstract: As a humanitarian worker who was professionally involved for decades in crisis- and war-shaken countries, the author strove to understand the political, socioeconomic, and cultural factors contributing to conflicts.

This contextualization, with a focus on Arab countries, confirmed what other thinkers found: the majority of political, economic, social, cultural, religious, and finally humanitarian crises in the Arab world are man-made and can be attributed to both extrinsic and intrinsic factors. It continues by looking at the knowledge systems that govern Arab reason and their evolution, including the decisive role of the religious knowledge system.

From there, it proposes some reform ideas including a renewed legal reasoning process with the goal of a future-oriented, knowledge-based, and inclusive Arab Islamic vision. This essay is built on a targeted literature search and is not a comprehensive review of the growing literature generated by distinguished thinkers on various aspects of Arab Islamic identity. In what ways and forms does Arab heritage inform a public sphere of resistance or dissent?

This study also explores the pedagogical implications of teaching Arab orality within the context of the public sphere as a contested site that informs a mode of resistance against social inequality and sociopolitical exclusions. Abstract: Many debates between Islamists and secularists have taken place in the Arab political sphere with the aim of building bridges of communication between the two actors who contributed to the transformations that have taken place in the Arab world.

Despite the multiple dialogues between Islamists and secularists, conflict and tension have prevailed on both sides, with conflict taking on all forms of material and moral violence. One of the most significant indicators of the crisis in communication is the emergence of violence.

According to Habermas, violence is the result of distorted discourse between fundamentalists and others; it is a distorted discourse because it does not recognize the other as it is. The study employs the Habermas communicative action theory as a central concept. The relationship appears to be that of a contestation between Islamists and liberals but this may be misleading.

When the uprising took place in , the positions each trend took differed before some tactical unity was deemed necessary. When the regime fell, however, differences remerged and became more evident once the transitional structures were put in place. Just before and during the first elections in , Islamists broke ranks with their struggle comrades and fired their cannons at the leaders of the liberal, nationalist, and other elements within the non-Islamist orientations. Islam then became crucial in political expression and rhetoric, especially for Islamist actors.

Focusing on the development of this contestation, this paper analyzes the reaction of both Islamist and non-Islamist trends to the policies and tactics adopted by each side in the aftermath of the uprising and the post-Gaddafi phase. It suggests that although ideology, specifically references to Islam, became crucial in the political contention between Islamists and non-Islamists, the cleavage was not entirely ideological, as both trends considered the Islamic identity of Libya central to their political programs.

The interviews with leading representatives of both trends that the author conducted for the purpose of writing this article confirm such a view on the role of ideology in the contestation. However, when it does not suit all their purposes, they claim ideology has no role, offering insights into the instrumental and tactical approach to the ongoing contestation of both sides. The struggle between Islamists and non-Islamists may have been the most visible, but it is certainly not the most significant factor in explaining the political dynamics and contention in the country since the fall of Gaddafi.

Abstract: In the first parliamentary elections after Mr. The Muslim Brotherhood, had, over the two previous years, gained political expansion in parliament. The Brotherhood entered into a coalition with other Islamist parties including two Salafist parties, forming an Islamist bloc, but their experience ended with their removal from power and significant changes in the structure of the Brotherhood. Based on the political programs of the Islamist parties in Egypt, this article seeks to analyze the experience of Islamists in power by focusing on their practical perceptions of the Islamist political system.

This shortfall was due to an accumulation of the multiple problems the groups had faced, whether they be conceptual reasons of state, power issues, or the organizational obstacles strewn along the paths of the components that comprised the group, which had prevented them, over decades, from overcoming them. Hence, the traditional mechanisms they continued to apply while in power proved inadequate in responding to the crises inherent in the experience of government.

They failed to introduce new mechanisms to address the issues as dictated by the necessity for practical experience and solutions once they had attained power. Abstract: The Salafi movement in Tunisia in general and in the area of Sidi Ali Ben Aoun in particular, emerged as an antisocial movement that adopted the defense of a cultural identity based mainly on the rejection of democracy and the foundations of the modern state, seeking change in every way through a set of well-studied strategies that made young people deeply involved.

In general, the Salafi movement is not separated from the social context in which it was born. It is also a reflection of the social actors who, by engaging in the Salafi movement, desire to achieve their objectives in negotiations.

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The Salafi movement is a social movement born out of the womb of society and its crises. It then adopted the same society, which has been muddling in the ignorance of religion and worldly dichotomies, as a target for change. This study attributes the growth in the number of Salafist youth to social exclusion. The social conditions of the youth in the Tunisian town of Sidi Ali Ben Aoun and of Tunisian youth in general make them look for alternatives that will provides them with what the state and its institutions failed to provide: an income and a small capital that will elevate their status in the social pyramid as belonging to the surviving group.

The research will focus on the relationship between the social exclusion of Tunisian youth and the growing involvement of the Salafi movement. The following questions reflect the core issues behind this investigation:. What are the representations of the youth of Sidi Ali Ben Aoun to the Salafi movement in their actions and interactions? How does social exclusion contribute to the growing involvement of Tunisian and Ben Aouni youth in the Salafi movement? Abstract: This study attempts to reveal the futility of perceptions of the state as self-established and self-sufficient.

It argues that the state can only function if it is communicated and not separated. The study criticizes social, classical, and modern theories, searching for the contents, contexts, and mechanisms of the main concepts that continue to constitute the major problems to the theory of political partnership.

The focus is on the theory of Habermas and his concepts of democracy, communicative action, and public space, which can be built today into an in-depth theory of sociopolitical partnership in a modern civil state. Abstract: As in most Arab and Third World countries, the tribal structure is an anthropological reality and a sociological particularity in Sudan. Despite development and modernity aspects in many major cities and urban areas in Sudan, the tribe and the tribal structure still maintain their status as a psychological and cultural structure that frames patterns of behavior, including the political behavior, and influence the political process.

This situation has largely increased in the last three decades under the rule of the Islamic Movement in Sudan, because of the tribe politicization and the ethnicization of politics, as this research reveals. This research is based on an essential hypothesis that the politicization of tribalism is one of the main reasons for the tribal conflict escalation in Sudan. It discusses a central question: Who is responsible for the tribal conflicts in Sudan? This article focuses mainly on the Palestinian political field as it developed in the s and s, the beginnings of its fragmentation in the s, and its almost complete collapse in the first decade of this century.

It was developed on a structure characterized by the dominance of a center where the political leadership functioned. The center, however, was established outside historic Palestine. This paper examines the components and dynamics of the relationship between the center and the peripheries, and the causes of the decline of this center and its eventual disappearance, leaving the constituents of the Palestinian people under local political leadership following the collapse of the national representation institutions, that is, the political, organizational, military, cultural institutions and sectorial organizations women, workers, students, etc.

The paper suggests that the decline of the political field as a national field does not mean the disintegration of the cultural field. There are, in fact, indications that the cultural field has a new vitality that deserves much more attention than it is currently assigned. Abstract: This article is based on a critical vision that attempts to highlight the importance of the social actor in the Palestinian context as a whole. It broaches fields of work, specialization, and concentration in viewing individual cases as manifesting a nationwide social phenomenon. If we accept that Palestinian society is vulnerable to psychological setbacks, its recovery, according to Fanon lies in the resistance against the colonizer.

Abstract: Studies on terrorism have often taken the usual bias towards studying and analyzing phenomena from a male-dominated perspective. The current article looks at jihadi feminism as a growing trend in contemporary terrorism. The paper argues that there is an increase of women from both traditionally Muslim and traditionally non-Muslim regions joining ISIS and taking part in the Syrian war on the side of Islamic extremists.

The paper argues that women from Western countries, because of their understanding of feminism, are more combatant in championing religious terrorism than are women who have been brought up in Islamic role, who see their role mainly as that of helper of terrorist activists rather than active participants.

Park enjoyed both personal motivation as well as politico-economic justifications to push for such arduous yet potentially viable objective. Abstract: This review essay introduces the work of the Egyptian scientific historian and philosopher Roshdi Rashed, a pioneer in the field of the history of Arab sciences.

The article is based on the five volumes he originally wrote in French and later translated into Arabic, which were published by the Centre for Arab Unity Studies and which are now widely acclaimed as a unique effort to unveil the achievements of Arab scientists. This book is written in the mathematical language, and the symbols are triangles, circles and other geometrical figures, without whose help it is impossible to comprehend a single word of it; without which one wanders in vain through a dark labyrinth.

It took him fifteen years to complete. Abstract: This note suggests a new reading and reconstruction of the oft-cited 11QMelchizedek —8. Its vision of future liberation from spiritual captivity to Belial relies on the language and conceptual framework of the Jubilee Year. The analysis is based on a novel reconstruction of the preceding word, which is only poorly preserved. The common reconstructions namely.

In particular, I explore portrayals of oral performance during local chapter meetings 1QS b—7a , nightly study sessions 1QS b—8a , general membership meetings 1QS b—13a; CD b—12a , covenant renewal ceremonies 1QS —26; CD —30 , admission procedures 1QS c—9a, b—23; CD b—10a , and a meeting of Israel in the last days 1QSa —6a. Importantly, the essentialist thinking in these texts is also firmly grounded in and channeled through the intertextual interpretation of scripture, drawing heavily on the rich creation vocabulary in Genesis 1—3.

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Abstract: The question of how to classify the different texts of the Dead Sea Scrolls is a central issue in scholarship. There is little agreement or even little reflection, however, on the methodology with which these classifications should be made. This article argues that recent developments in computational stylometry address these methodological issues and that the approach therefore constitutes a necessary addition to existing scholarship.

The first section briefly introduces the recent developments in computational stylometry, while the second tests the feasibility of a stylometric approach for research on the scrolls. Taking into account the particular challenges of the corpus, an exploratory methodology is described, and its first results are presented. In the third and final section, directions for future research in the field are articulated. After a detailed examination of the evidence, the opposite conclusion is reached.

Basic word order is verb-subject, with inversion to subject-verb order with pragmatically marked subjects focus fronting. There seems to be no causal relationship between transitivity and word order. In addition, the findings are applied to the general discussion of word order in Hebrew, in particular as an argument against recent attempts at describing Biblical Hebrew as a language with basic subject-verb order.

More than hostile deaths occurred during Operation Enduring Freedom in and around Afghanistan through and about twenty thousand were WIA. A larger proportion of wounded personnel survived in Iraq and Afghanistan than during the Vietnam War, but the increased survival rates were not as high as some studies have asserted. The survival rates were The casualty rates varied between the conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan and before, during, and after the respective surges.

Amputation rates are difficult to measure consistently, but I estimate that 2. Elevated non-hostile death rates including deaths due to accidents, illnesses, homicides, or suicides resulted in about more deaths in Iraq and about more deaths in Afghanistan than would have been expected in peacetime among populations of the size deployed to those two conflicts. By: Jesse M. The deployment experiences of any individual Marine are plausibly random conditional on the observable characteristics which are used to assign Marines into units.

A cost—benefit analysis of terrorist attacks. Abstract: A cost—benefit analysis of terrorist attacks is developed and placed within a systematic theoretical structure. For the target or object of the attack, we consider the lost value of human lives, lost economic value, and lost influence value, counted as benefits for the terrorist. The corresponding losses for the terrorist are counted as costs.

The terrorist attacks if benefits outweigh costs. Bounded rationality is enabled where the three kinds of benefits and costs can be weighted differently. We account for two ex ante probabilities of successful planning and attack, and enable the terrorist to assign different weights to its multiple stakeholders.

We introduce multiple time periods, time discounting, attitudes towards risk, and subcategories for the benefits and costs. The cost—benefit analysis is illustrated with the 11 September attack, and fifty-three incidents in the Global Terrorism Database yielding both positive and negative expected utilities. The paper is intended as a tool for scientists and policy-makers, as a way of thinking about costs and benefits of terrorist attacks. Mediation builds trust and confidence and works with the parties to design an efficacious agreement conducive to, among other features, tamping down post-agreement violence.

Peacekeeping stems violence and facilitates the implementation of the agreement. Agreements that are mediated and followed by UN peacekeeping are expected to be more robust in terms of staving off violence. We report the effects of the mediation—peacekeeping interaction using a method correcting for a common misinterpretation of interaction terms. We test logit and hazard models using a sample of full and partial civil war peace agreements signed between and We also report brief case study evidence from the s peace process in Guatemala.

A model of dynamic conflict in ethnocracies. Abstract: We model an infinitely repeated Tullock contest, over the sharing of some given resource, between two ethnic groups.

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The resource is allocated by a composite state institution according to relative ethnic control; hence the ethnic groups contest the extent of institutional ethnic bias. The contest yields the per-period relative influence over institutions, which partly spills over into the next period, by affecting relative conflict efficiency. Our model generates non-monotone evolution of both conflict and distribution. Results suggest that external interventions, when effective in reducing current conflict and protecting weaker groups, may end up sowing the seeds of greater future conflict.

Abstract: What effect do economic sanctions have on the stability of banking systems in targeted economies? To test the argument, we gathered data for over emerging economies for the years from to The findings indicate that sanctions are likely to raise the probability of banking crises. The results also show that financial sanctions are more detrimental to the stability of banking systems than trade sanctions. Further, we find that the hypothesized effect of sanctions is conditioned by the extent of economic cost inflicted on targeted economies.

One major implication of the findings is that sanctions, as external shocks, can potentially destabilize the financial stability of target countries in addition to the well-documented adverse effects on economic growth, political stability, and humanitarian conditions. Forced displacement and behavioral change: an empirical study of returnee households in the Nuba Mountains. Abstract: We use a unique data-set gathered during a short-lived interwar period in the Nuba Mountains of Sudan to compare characteristics of the households returning after the conflict with those that stayed in their communities of origin.

We found that returning households seemed to face worse economic conditions, particularly in the case of female-headed returnee households. Nevertheless, our results show that returnees tend to perform better on different health indicators. Using a detailed set of variables about hygiene and sanitary habits, we explore the hypothesis that the latter result may be related to changes in attitudes given the distinct experiences during displacement. We show that returnees are indeed more likely to adopt these measures. The big, the bad, and the dangerous: public perceptions and terrorism. Abstract: Does coordination affect threat perceptions?

The attacks in Paris and Brussels in and received a significant amount of attention in the media. The attacks were transnational, fatal, and perpetrated by the same group in western European countries. We argue that these are not the only features of the attacks that matter.

The attacks involved coordination among teams of militants. This coordination signals sophistication. Sophistication amplifies threat perceptions independent of group reputation, fatality rate, or target location because sophistication suggests a greater capability to inflict harm. We provide experimental evidence of the relationship between coordination and threat perceptions. Our results contribute to a growing literature looking at the features of terrorist attacks and public perceptions of terrorism, and lay the groundwork for future research on the political and security consequences of coordinated terrorist attacks.

One of the unintended consequences of drones includes the opportunity it provides terrorists who can use drones in their propaganda. It is found that the magazine, commonly portray drones as a failing policy that mainly causes civilian deaths and oppress Muslims. Drones are used to further polarize Inspire-readers and the United States, whereas drone warfare is portrayed as cowardly and inhumane.

Overall, this portrayal may have implications for the overall effectiveness of drones. Unipolar politics and global peace: a structural explanation of the globalizing jihad. Abstract: Following the end of the cold war, the international system transformed from a bipolar to a unipolar system. Unipolarity is not peaceful.

It has contributed to the generation of conflict-producing mechanisms and nonstate actors that have driven sovereign states in lengthy asymmetric wars. The purpose of this paper is developing a structural explanation of the emergence and expansion of JSGs and their impact on global peace. Psychological issues identified in this study include three types of suicide, depression, anxiety, security stress, diversity stress, and enforced idleness. Terrorists used both religious and secular coping strategies to overcome psychological issues.

These findings can contribute to future research and counterterrorism efforts in understanding both the survivability and vulnerability of terrorists. Kinship, partisanship, and patronage in Arab elections. Abstract: This article examines the connection between kinship, partisanship, and patronage voting in Arab world elections. It argues that tribes and extended families enjoy structural advantages that reduce transaction costs in patron—client exchanges, making kinship voting a pragmatic strategy in clientelistic vote markets with weak parties.

Do right-wing parties foster welfare chauvinistic attitudes?

Abstract: The surge of immigration to Europe starting in is one of the most important political challenges in recent history. Moreover, we ask whether party rhetoric in general and from a new radical right-wing party in particular has influenced the expression of such attitudes. Using individual-level panel data, we show that welfare chauvinism increased markedly during the first year of the crisis. This increase is not restricted to new radical right wing voters. Although parties diverged in their position on immigration, we observe increased welfare chauvinism among supporters of all parties.

Only support for a harsher version of welfare chauvinism making benefits conditional upon citizenship increased disproportionately among new radical right-wing voters. Abstract: The aim of the paper is to test the importance of social networks in the acquisition of technical know-how among apple growers in Southern Ethiopia. What contribution do social networks make in knowledge transfer alongside more formal sources such as training and education?

We take special interest in the role of faith-based networks, as apple cultivation was originally introduced into the study area by individuals and organizations linked to the Protestant church. Protestant producers have been able to maintain a knowledge advantage with respect to Orthodox Christian producers ever since apple cultivation took off in the s. Deals with the Devil? Abstract: Do legal amnesties for combatants help end civil wars?

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  8. International policy experts often take it for granted that amnesties promote negotiated settlements with rebels. However, a large number of amnesties are followed by continued fighting or a return to the battlefield. What, then, are the factors that make amnesties effective or ineffective? In this article I use a disaggregated data set of all amnesties enacted in the context of internal war since to evaluate a bargaining theory of amnesties and peace. Testing hypotheses about conflict patterns using models that account for selection, I find that 1 only amnesties passed following conflict termination help resolve civil wars, 2 amnesties are more effective when they are embedded in peace agreements, and 3 amnesties that grant immunity for serious rights violations have no observable pacifying effects.

    Dynamics of Political Protests. Abstract: The links between protests and state responses have taken on increased visibility in light of the Arab Spring movements. But we still have unanswered questions about the relationship between protest behaviors and responses by the state. We frame this in terms of concession and disruption costs. By disaggregating costs along dimensions of concession and disruption we extend our understanding of protest behaviors and the conditions under which they are more or less effective. Utilizing a new cross-national protest-event data set, we test our theoretical expectations against protests from to and find that when protesters generate high concession costs, the state responds in a coercive manner.

    Conversely, high disruption costs encourage the state to accommodate demands. Our research provides substantial insights and inferences about the dynamics of government response to protest. Abstract: War and peace are gendered and gendering geopolitical processes, constituting particular configurations of masculinity and femininity. In contrast, this article examines fatherhood as a masculine subjectivity, interacting in a nexus with other masculinities to produce an intelligible pro-peace intervention in war, and considers the implications for our understandings of gender and the geopolitical.

    Abstract: In recent years, counter-radicalization work has come to focus on empowering vulnerable communities and individuals through programs implemented by local governments and welfare services. The proper use of Arabic was central to how man fully and appropriately thanked God for His gift of creation. He wrote several books but the only one that is preserved is a work of literature and poetry.

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    The first fifty chapters deal with various aspects of love and the second half with various genres and kinds of poetry. Many poems in the text pose problems. The chapter has never been investigated in detail; two passages were studied in articles by Michele Vallaro. The present article deals with the poems and anecdotes in the chapter, providing translations and commentary. Abstract: How does an epic begin in performance and in narration?

    Questions surrounding the beginning of an Arab oral epic performance differ from those surrounding the origins of the text. By drawing on the writings of Pierre Cachia, a pioneering scholar in the study, transcription, and English translation of vernacular Arabic literature, I ask how the epic poet begins reciting an epic in performance and how the epic hero is born in text, performance, and scholarly histories. It is also distinctive for being a tale that recounts the elaborate interactions among a constellation of main figures rather than being primarily about the exploits of a single hero.

    Among these central characters, however, one in particular deserves notice for his psychological complexity— Abu Zayd al-Hilali, the black hero of the Bani Hilal tribe. Lyons, and others. He is at times the chivalrous hero, a model of manly virtues, but also capable of cunning and deceptive behavior that borders on the dishonorable, and in a few infamous scenes he kills innocent people and tells outright lies to cover his tracks, leaving modern audiences baffled and conflicted.

    At the same time, however, for reasons spelled out in this essay, Abu Zayd is the character with whom modern Egyptian audiences most clearly identify: a black hero denigrated for his skin color, capable of great deeds of heroism, chivalry, and religious devotion, as well as acts of an intensely transgressive nature.

    The comparisons reveal the relatively subversive nature of the film. Do associations support authoritarian rule? Evidence from Algeria, Mozambique, and Vietnam. Abstract: Whether associations help to democratize authoritarian rule or support those in power is a contested issue that so far lacks a cross-regional, comparative perspective. In this article we focus on five types of associations in three post-socialist countries, situated in different world regions, that are governed by authoritarian regimes.

    We first explore how infrastructural and discursive state power impact such associations and vice versa. Our analysis addresses decision-making in associations and three specific policy areas. Moreover, in most of these associations the self-determination and autonomy of members are restricted, if not negated. Finally, in all three countries many, but not all, of the interviewed associations support state-propagated norms concerning gender and gender relationships, thus contributing to limiting the self-determination and autonomy of women in the private sphere.

    Abstract: The modern transport systems manage traffic, travel scheduling and passenger reservation efficiently. These use information and communication technology ICT in order to increase demand for convenience, safety and speed.

    Illegal drugs, armed conflict and peacebuilding in Afghanistan

    Therefore, investing in ICT has essential effect on transport sector. This article aims to examine the effects of ICT on growth of transport value added among the selected Middle- East countries. The findings show that labor active in transport sector; machinery and transport equipment and ICT penetration ratio have significant positive effects on value added of transport sector.

    Thus, improving the ICT infrastructure and training the transport agents, besides physical investment in machinery and transport equipment cause higher growth in transport and related services. Abstract: The objective of this paper is to empirically analyze the competition in the banking sector of Pakistan spanning the period Two decades ago, banking sector reforms were initiated and implemented in Pakistan to spur competition in the banking sector.

    To examine competition, augmented Panzar and Rosse unscaled and scaled revenue equations is estimated by controlling risk and size of banks using balanced panel data of twenty-two commercial banks. Results are robust and reveal that the commercial banks in Pakistan generate revenues in the environment of monopolistic competition and this reflects the positive impact of banking sector reforms in creation of competition among banks.

    Abstract: This study examines the effect of external debt on economic growth of Sudan. The model built uses gross domestic product as the dependent variable to measure economic growth as a function of the ratio of external debt to exports, exchange rate and foreign direct investments as the explanatory variables using annual time series for the period The cointegration test shows that a long-run equilibrium relationship exists among the variables of the study.

    Findings from the VECM show that external debt proxied by the external debt to exports ratio has contributed positively to the Sudan economy, while exchange rate and foreign direct investment have negative effects on GDP growth which is consistent with findings of most empirical studies at the macroeconomic level. The study recommends that the government should ensure macroeconomic and price stability and maintaining access to foreign loans so that to supplement low the levels of domestic savings in order to enable long term economic growth.

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    Exchange rate needs to be stabilized and perceived effect of foreign direct investments on economic growth needs be reinvestigated with enhancement of human capital and institutions. Abstract: Moral and ethical context of money and monetary policy in the creation of a stable and real growth perspective of the economy and wellbeing criterion is formalized. This derivation and casting it into a generalized analytical model is premised on the cardinal Islamic ontological law of unity of knowledge. This approach leads into the model of money, finance, and real economy model and its various ramifications.

    An analytical approach is adopted within the comparative perspectives of money and monetary policy for the Islamic case. By: Mark B. Garrison, Charles E. Jones, Matthew W. Social Signals and Participation in the Tunisian Revolution. Abstract: Revolutionary protests can spread surprisingly rapidly. Social contagion may play a key role in this process: people who observe others participating may be more likely to do so themselves, thus reinforcing the pro-participation signal. We leverage data from two surveys to assess the relationship between exposure to pro-participatory social signals and individual-level participation in the Tunisian revolution.

    We benchmark these effects to those associated with individual-level characteristics, including those tied to political and economic grievances. admin