The Crispi government also brought in a reasonably effective system of administrative law for the first time, through the provincial councils giunte and the Council of State. The government reformed the charities, excluded the clergy from running them, and often diverted the funds to more-secular purposes. The minister of justice , Giuseppe Zanardelli , promulgated a new code of criminal law that abolished the death penalty and legalized strikes unless violence or intimidation occurred.
Rivista Giuridica del Lavoro e della Previdenza Sociale
It was a response to demands from northern steel and textile interests, from farmers also mainly from the north who faced imports of cheap American grain or Asian rice, and from social reformers eager to secure legislative measures that employers could afford. A duty of 50 lire per ton was placed on imported wheat by , and later it went higher still; food prices rose sharply, provoking considerable unrest.
Similar measures protected steel, shipbuilding, and textiles. Franco-Italian trade was more than halved, and entire sectors of Italian agriculture, including wine, silk, cattle, and olive oil , collapsed overnight as their markets were cut off.
When excess food supplies drove all agricultural prices down, even grain growers failed to benefit from the new tariff. Resulting inquiries revealed that the bank had made interest-free loans to leading politicians, including Crispi himself and former treasury minister Giovanni Giolitti , who was prime minister from May to November Politicians needed the money to finance their election expenses and to run or bribe newspapers.
si era sostanzialmente auto-relegata
The Banca Romana scandal of was the first of many famous Italian corruption scandals, and, like the others, it discredited the whole political system. The Italian settlement at Massawa soon provoked conflict with Ethiopia , which claimed Massawa as part of its own territory and whose forces in killed Italian troops at Dogali. The two countries made peace at Wichale in , and Crispi expanded the Italian possessions along the Red Sea to include most of present-day Eritrea and along the Indian Ocean coast to include eastern and southern Somalia. In the Italians annexed a large portion of the Ethiopian province of Tigray, and war with Ethiopia began again.
Economic hardship and political corruption at home, together with military failure abroad, provoked riots and uprisings throughout the country.
In the early s the fasci siciliani Sicilian peasant leagues organized by socialists and others led successful strikes and land occupations until Crispi, in January , used the army to restore order. At the same time, the government also suppressed an anarchist insurrection in Lunigiana by martial law.
Further riots occurred in , mainly in cities and towns, over civil liberties and the high price of bread. Socialists, anarchists, and syndicalists protested against this authoritarian rule both inside and outside parliament. In Socialist deputies overturned the parliamentary ballot box to block the passage of a measure. Repression resulted in a constitutional crisis.
Italian General Confederation of Labour - Wikipedia
Conservative politicians, notably Sidney Sonnino in , argued that the Italian parliament was corrupt and unfit to govern and that the king should provide strong executive rule, according to the letter of the Statuto constitution. Most moderate Liberals rejected this argument. The campaign for constitutional government was led by Felice Cavallotti and the Radical group in parliament, who in the s strongly denounced bank scandals, tariff protectionism, colonial wars, and the Triple Alliance.
The Radicals were a northern, anticlerical, moralistic group that denounced the corruption of the south Crispi was the first southern prime minister , of the monarchy, and of the Roman establishment and strongly favoured wider civil liberties and army reform. But lies are not unusual for Berlusconi and his government.
They claim that abolishing Article 18 means bringing Italian legislation in line with the rest of Europe. Nothing could be more wrong. Berlusconi should ask his Minister of Labour to have a closer look at Article 30 of the Charter of Rights adopted by the European Union in Nice just a year and a half ago. Why is this so important? If you lose your job because of discrimination for say political, religious or ethnic reasons, or because the employer just wanted you out, then the employer should not just buy his way out.
One cannot buy human dignity, even if his name is Berlusconi.
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It goes without saying that the global unions should massively support the Italians in their struggle for the defense of workers' rights. Their struggle is ours. Viva i lavoratori italiani.