In attempting to change its identity, however, the PCI leaders faced the great potency of the symbolism associated with Communism in Italy. For many members, being "Communist" was a central part of their own self-image.
- Partito comunista italiano.
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The opposition within the party took advantage of the strength of this symbolism, and associated rites, to try to rally the party faithful to oppose the change. Inability to invent new rites and symbols that would have the same power left the leadership vulnerable. This article examines this battle, fought through symbolism and ritual, looking at the process where by the Partito comunista italiano became the Partito democratico della sinistra.
All the contents of this journal, except where otherwise noted, is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License. Services on Demand Journal. Autonomia was a highly theorised political movement which proposed a new social paradigm as an alternative to Marxism. It countered the appeal to transcend ideas, contextualising its action in the concrete struggles of everyday life and stressing the autonomy of culture and politics in relation to the economy. Its cultural roots can be found in the philosophy of Antonio Gramsci, who also influenced the school of cultural studies.
Radio Alice was an independent radio station where many intellectuals, such as the semiologist Franco Berardi, created innovative forms of semiotic revolution. The aim of its cultural collective was to produce subversive communication with innovative language and forms of interaction, and the regular transmission of Italian punk songs contributed to the diffusion of a deterritorialised, translocal punk subculture in Italy.
Whereas squats were temporary occupations, centri sociali gradually gained public recognition and played a part in the diffusion of alter native subcultures in Italy. The second is their commercial success and cultural influence: CCCP are the only Italian punk band to have achieved substantial commercial success and significantly influenced the Italian alternative rock scene which emerged later. Thirdly, their lengthy music experience places them in the transitional phase between classic punk and the postmodern search for authenticity that characterised punk in the 80s.
LA GIOVANE TALPA
This authentic inauthenticity Grossberg, led CCCP to use irony in citing and reframing communist symbols. The band was completed by Umberto Negri bass and two other artists, Annarella and Fatur. The Italian Communist Party, with its leftist associations, partisans, trade unions, and all the other sociopolitical subjects associated with the left had a very orthodox view of political songs, which were performed at parties, festivals and conventions. They played at festivals and their performances received some coverage on national television. In the band renamed itself C.
It was a way of signalling the end of.
Narrative semiotics is a textual approach that enables the implicit structures of meaning in large and fragmented corpora such as punk songs to be analysed. The isotopies were constructed by looking at the different discursive levels of dialectic differentiation. The meta-discursive level, featuring 11 times in the lyrics, which consists of the following sub-dimensions: discourse on punk in terms of differentiation 6 ; discourse on punk in terms of identization 5 ;.
The socio-political level — representing the largest isotopy, coded 81 times in the 52 sets of lyrics. The existential level, an isotopy which appears 37 times in the lyrics. It consists of the following sub-dimensions: the anomie of modern society 13 ; the psychological and psychiatric disorders of individuals 12 ; fatalism and boredom 10 poems ; love and sexuality 7.
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It is a form of cynical irony Bewes, used to denigrate enemies and affirm individual identity through differentiation. On a metadiscursive level, verses which had been originally composed by the Sex Pistols, such as those dissing the New York Dolls, became a means of deriding them in turn. In their continual defiance of conformity, CCCP also rejected the conformism of classic punk.
We are not pure. The band responded by writing a song ironically entitled Fedeli alla lira? The movement theorised the possibility of self-valorisation out of the logic of capitalism in a different way from both neoliberalism and the political activity of the Italian Communist Party. CCCP used punk music to create an ironic play on the two fundamental sources of meaning for Italian politics and civil culture in the early s, i. Their lyrics seldom develop into a complex plot; on the contrary, through their songs CCCP defined a discourse on existence, the present day, and past and present models of development using general descriptions and presenting moral judgements.
They use a particular linguistic register even for Sovietism: parodic imitation or celebration of slogans and political discourse. The first part uses the rhetorical device of accumulation to ridicule Soviet efforts to control information through intelligence, the secret services and censorship. The second contains a parody of Soviet manifestos and an accusa tion of unaware and inauthentic discipline and conviction.
The song Live in Punkow presents a semantic opposition between the two sides of the Iron Curtain: instability and loneliness on the Western side, and stability and socialism in the East. This is probably the summa of their aesthetic but not moral celebration of the USSR. Again, it is pre sented through various forms of enunciation and narrative registers: liturgical, evocative, mythological, ascetic, emancipatory religion as a force for change , conflicting, and ironic-surrealist.
For this reason, some of their songs contain parts of the Latin Mass or entire stanzas of Gregorian chants, assembling and using them as patchwork. The introduction to Militanz, for instance, includes a series of verses from the requiem mass.
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The Catholic city is claimed to be the spiritually authentic utopian city — as in Moore and Campanella — while the modern metropolis is seen as the realm of industry, precariousness and inauthenticity. It is also used as a trope for developing a more general philosophy of history. Old and new conflicts are explored, highlighting analogies according to an implicit cyclic vision of history. The rhetoric of Sovietism and Catholicism allowed CCCP to draw a semantic distinction between authenticity and inauthenticity and to place themselves in the peace punk context. In these verses, as in many others, there is a clear opposition between a utopian representation of the past and a dystopian representation of the present.
It includes five main dimensions: anomie, psychopathology, boredom, love and sexuality, and fatalism. For reasons of space, the main focus is on the first two. Again, this can be read as a sign of objectification in Simmelian terms: the individual loses the agency to define himself and experience the tension between the personal and social expression of emotions in a world of commercialised feelings Hochshild, It meant both the failure of political participation and a space for artistic creation.
They often presented their performances and songs as psychotherapy sessions for mentally disturbed audiences, both in an individual and in a collective sense, and one of their songs is, in fact, entitled Svegliami perizia psichiatrica nazionalpopolare [Wake me up national-popular psychiatric report ]. One of their songs is entitled Valium Tavor Serenase , the names of the three most widely used sedatives. The names of drugs are often mentioned in their lyrics, as a symbol of the commercialisation of psychotherapy.
Psychiatric medication is seen as a commercial means of normalization Goffman, , while human care is seen as the authentic cure for modernity. Seven songs are devoted to the topic of love and sexuality. The final existential component is fatalism, i. It represented a disruptive form of disalienation, as well as a source of self-valorisation for a growing community of people in different countries who situated themselves outside the mainstream culture. At the time, some classic British punk themes Worley, , such as boredom, alienation and anti-materialism, were imported by Italian punk bands and interpreted from the perspective of a domestic critique of the conservatism of the Christian democrats, the reification of social life by the Communist Party, and the growing neoliberalism.
Compared to Portuguese punk Guerra and Silva, , the feelings of denunciation, protest and demarcation were weaker in Italy, whereas an existential and philosophical revolt against the social order was more evident. This difference can be explained by the different political situations in the two countries. It deeply influenced the topics and poetry of CCCP lyrics. Its emphasis on autonomy and self-valorisation was interpreted by the band through its ironic celebration of Sovietism and religion.
The mix of disruption and the search for authenticity places CCCP in the aesthetic transition from classic punk to to postmodern punk to the present. The success of CCCP can only be understood from the perspective of inauthentic authenticity Grossberg, , in terms of contradiction and irony. This contradiction has emerged many times, from the s to the present, whenever Ferretti has openly rejected his original leftist beliefs and embraced a traditional, righteous and conservative ideology.
All these conflicts were caused by the same search for an authentic version and an authentic memory of CCCP.
Nevertheless, punk cannot be authentic in any essentialist sense. Verona: Ombre corte. Bewes, Timothy , Cynicism and Postmodernity. London: Verso. Roma: Laterza.