La civilisation espagnole daujourdhui (128) (French Edition)

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Essayons de mieux le comprendre ensemble! Bien des jeunes, notamment des jeunes dans les banlieues. En banlieue, on parle du drapeau black blanc beur. Peux-tu citer les pays qui forment leune ambiance plus triste au film. Mais tu y retrouves trois Maghreb? Mais se ressemblent-ils?

Alors, sens? Comprends-tu la chanson? Que vient de fairel'homme qui entre dans le bar? Il y a donc une histoire de vol. Lis letexte ici: www. Comment les comprends-tu dans ce texte? Lis le texte suivant qui date du Sommet de la Francophonie sur la jeunesse: www. La jeunesse est vraiment importante pour la Francophonie, comme tu peux le voir sur le site: www.

Je suis ambassadeur de www. Tu as un passeport de quel pays? Tu es jeune et tuAimes-tu lire des magazines? Pourquoi fais-tu cela? Te sens-tupour ados dans ton pays? Choisis un article. Comment la science comprendre ce que signifie:explique la migration des animaux? Puis, partage cesouvent la source de gros malentendus et de discordes.

Ces il de tes camarades de classe? It is an occurrence that has meaning. God, the Ancestors, the spirits, other human beings come into picture. Relationship has been disrupted somewhere and this situation must be set right in order to prevent a repeat of this kind of occurrence. They would go for a nggambe man to find out the origin of this evil. Then they would offer sacrifices of appeasement and try to procure protection for the members of the family. They don't think of changing the physical conditions. These are two completely different approaches to the same situation.

When the Westerner will stress on the material dimension of events, the African will stress more on the spiritual dimension of it. He will see the spirit everywhere. Because Africans usually think and react the way they do, they are often condemned as being superstitious and illogical. After all, can we say that what is not known does not necessarily exist? Can we actually attribute the effectiveness of what is only to that which is known? Do we have the right to reject totally the African's understanding of being as dynamic? This will certainly lead us to the absolutisation of rationality in its scientific and technological form, the error of Positivism.

We suppose, therefore, that it is wiser to see the western vision and the African vision as complementary ways of being-in-the-world.

Secondary Sources

The human being is both matter and spirit:. A purely rationalistic approach to reality, which takes account only of the materially demonstrable, can be just as lopsided as one, which sees spirit everywhere. It doesn't help the situation if we simply disregard and condemn. It would do a lot more good if we try to understand and move forward It is important to acknowledge our differences in the way we look at Being instead of trying to condemn one attitude or the other.

The two visions are necessary in the construction of the Civilization of the Universal. While western man studies nature to see what he can make out of it, we acknowledge on our part that nature holds mysteries. For us, nature is mysterious, we learn from it, we perceive the dynamism of being from it and this leads us to worship. The reverence that Africans give to nature points out to traditional religion. We perceive God in nature and we worship Him in and through nature.

Nature is the ground for all our relationships:. I am because I am involved with other beings. Without relationship my being loses meaning and I cease to be.

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Where there is a breach in relationship I am bound to experience trouble, I find myself confronted with nonbeing. Nature involves us completely and we are part of it. From nature, we gain not only material goods, but also knowledge, religiosity and wisdom. If for the Westerner, what is artificial is meaningful and valuable, because it is the mark of his achievement and scientific spirit, for us, what is natural is meaningful and valuable because it is the sacred ground of our being.

With our vision of the world, it is perhaps right to assert that we worship God naturally, the Most real Being in the most natural way. Again, one great mistake which the foreigner is liable to make when he sees us gazing at nature is to say that we worship trees or stones Africans do not worship trees or stones; it is a misunderstanding of the way we look at things. Our metaphysics is impregnated with religion. Africans are notoriously religious. The world for Africans consists of the physical reality, which we see. It is not a static reality but a dynamic reality, which opens up to the world beyond.

The world both seen and unseen is one reality. In the world beyond, there is the realm of the nature spirits, both the good and the bad, and there is the realm of ancestral spirits: people who lived a useful life on earth go to where the ancestors are. They are blessed ones; they are productive even in the after-life since they are close to the source of life.

They live in perpetual communion with the family and can bring assistance to those in the present life. They are venerated as Ancestors. Those whose life was unproductive on earth are damned ones; they remain unproductive when they die. African ontology presents a concept of the world which is diametrically opposed to the traditional philosophy of Europe. The latter is essentially static, objective, dichotomic; it is in fact, dualistic, in that it makes an absolute distinction between body and soul or matter and spirit.

It is founded on separation and opposition: on analysis and conflict. The African, on the other hand, conceives the world, beyond the diversity of its forms, as a fundamentally mobile, yet unique, reality that seeks synthesis. The African is, of course, sensitive to the external world, to the material aspect of beings and things.

It is precisely because he is sensitive to the tangible qualities of things such as shape, colour, smell, or weight that he considers these things merely as signs that have to be interpreted and transcended in order to reach the reality of human beings. Thus, the whole universe appears as an infinitely small and at the same time an infinitely large network which emanates from God and ends in God.

For Africans, God is absolutely transcendent, far beyond everything.

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Our Ancestors who have died are closer to God than we are and they can obtain blessings from God for us. We worship God as creator. A portion of sacrificial meal is always reserved to God. God is complete, whole and needs nothing outside Him as man needs woman and woman needs man. This way of reasoning opens the way for an easy understanding of mystery.

For Africans, man stands at the centre of the world and of being. In the created realm, man is the most important being; whatever exists exists for man and man exists for God. Man therefore is the reference point for any meaning in life. This is one of the areas were faith in Africa is often tried. Western Christianity has qualified these rites as pagan. Only the strong survive this kind of sore testing often at a great price.

For Africans, human life is the highest good in the created order. Man's being is ordered to God because God created man for Himself. Man is God's property, God's food. You cannot question Him any more than you would question a man who takes a chicken from his poultry. This is how death is understood. The ancestors too belong to the human community, they are the living dead. Since they are mediators between God and us, we relate to them regularly through prayer, libation and sacrifice.

It is for this reason that the veneration of Ancestors is considered to be the backbone of African traditional religion. Again, this is another area of sore testing for Christian faith of our peoples. Again, only the strong survive, often at a great price. The majority would be at the Eucharist in the morning and would be immolating a goat back in the compound later on in the day. Africans are well noted for not being time-conscious.

Before blaming them further, we must understand what time is for them. They do not think of time in-itself: time is time for me. I do not count time, rather I experience it and I live it. Time is evaluated by what I do with it, what I achieve, what it offers me. The western conception of time is different:. He pays attention to time units such as seconds, minutes, hours, etc.

He has invented the clock for this purpose. He has objectified time to the point that he can even buy and sell it as a commodity. This measured time is what the Greek calls chronos. By paying attention to time in this way the westerner has developed a linear conception of time. Time for him passes. What is past shall never be again. There is a linear progression and no unit of time past is repeatable. When western man counts units of time, Africans pay attention to man and to events, and try to determine how time gets involved in order to enhance the being of man. Time is experienced time, not conjectured time.

The Ancestors, for example, though dead are still living, they are still present; they have never left. Africans' conception of time shows itself in the way they do things ordinarily. They are often blamed for being always late comers, not time conscious. Time is made for man and not man for time. Man is lord of time. So long as I achieve what I set myself to do, I am satisfied and the reckoning of time is not important.

We have already seen that Senghor considers the African world as a communion of souls rather than an aggregate of individuals. When we have a look at Teilhardian metaphysics that we have considered in our first chapter, we are struck by the resemblance between the vision of the world of Pierre Teilhard de Chardin and the African traditional vision of the world.

In effect, these visions of the world are characterised by totalizing harmonies. Thus, we might say that Teilhard de Chardin provides a framework within which a typical African philosophy for the future may be written. Like that of Teilhard de Chardin, Senghor's world view is personalistic, socialistic and humanistic, aiming above all at a unity or a totality in a dynamic communion of all beings among themselves and with the Omega Point, in a mutual embrace of love.

Reading Teilhard de Chardin, Senghor could therefore assert that the Negro-African society is better adapted than the western society to realize this communion of love needed for the building up of the Civilization of the Universal. A union which comes from within, from the soul of a people which knows that individual man is not the measure of anything, that is, a union which, freely accepted as a vital necessity, runs a much greater chance of lasting success.

Unfortunately, the impact of western politics, of ideological conflicts and of power block diplomacy has weakened this basic unity. In addition, for Senghor, this communion of souls is most effective at the level of the fatherland or tribe and often breaks down into tribal conflicts at the level of the artificial states created by colonialism. The Negro-African race according to Senghor, acts as the spearhead of evolution because the black man's contribution to the Civilization of the Universal should, on the basis of his traditional values, consist in forging the unity of man and the world by linking the flesh to the spirit, man to fellow man, the pebble to God, as he says:.

The Negro-African's role in the Civilization of the Universal is to lead all the other races and cultures towards the Omega Point. This appears clearly in Senghor's considerations of what is an ideal society, his insistence on the communal dimension of love in the African setup and in the contrast he makes between the African and the western world views.

Senghor maintains that European society is primarily differentiated from the African one in that the former is at best a collectivist society that is bringing together into a collectivity a number of individuals who remain individual persons in a society. Western man distinguishes himself from the other and claims his autonomy to affirm himself in his basic originality. Senghor contrasts with the African society:. African society on the other hand is a community: the African stresses more the solidarity of the group and the contributions and needs of the individual persons.

Indeed, this community goes beyond even the human members, since it involves a communion with all beings in the universe: stones, plants, animals, men, dead ancestors or alive, and God. Thus, while Karl MARX and other Marxists concern themselves with the economic infrastructures, seen as a mechanical and material processes, Senghor following Teilhard de Chardin, goes further into the roots of man's development and therefore is capable of looking towards the future.

For him, the roots of man's development lie in the biological and psychological dimension of man himself, not merely as an individual. This leads to a growth in socialization for a better life by means of common search for the common good. In order to achieve this better life, there is need for the dynamism of love. In this way, Senghor's ideal society is the African society, a society not characterised by individualism as is the case in western societies.

The African family puts humanism at the centre of relationships. Here, relations are on the basis of a natural need to live in a stabilised family:. The better life sought also depends on the way with which the problem of work and ownership is handled. This is often the source of many social problems. Every individual person must work in order to produce his own goods, to find happiness from and through the work of his hands.

The error of capitalism, according to Senghor, does not lie on the existence of ownership or propriety, necessary condition for man's development; rather, it lies on the fact that in a capitalist society, ownership does not necessarily derive from work. Again, the Negro society proves its worth because here, work is considered as the only source of ownership.

In effect, Senghor avers:. We see with Senghor that there is a great sense of community in the negro-African society, which humanizes the relationships among all the members of the community. Even the ownership of agricultural products is collective since work itself is collective; so much that everyone has a vital minimum for his survival. It is a great advantage for all:. It is noticeable here that because of colonialism, this sense of the community, the common good, tends to disappear. Senghor's ideal society is therefore the pre-colonial negro-African society; a society full of values that need to be revalorized today and our dissertation aims as we have seen in calling the attention of Africans on the value of their traditions and at fighting the bad effects of colonialism which has helped in the loss of most of these values.

Senghor's ideal society is a society having at its foundation, the dynamism of love. Senghor, who had personally experienced the sterility of hatred, opposition and isolation and had turned towards a synthesis which would bring men together rather than maintain them in a perpetual conflict, sees love as the highest form of human energy. Love achieves that totality and coherence, that communion which African myth has always and fairly effectively been seeking.

This communion is achieved at three levels. First, love brings man's individual acts into a unity of totality within the person himself. We are always tempted to act piecemeal, for the here and now. But if we consciously relate every one of our acts with the ultimate unifying goal, that is God, we thereby also think all acts among themselves and with the events throughout the universe.

Secondly, love totalizes us in the sense of making us aware of ourselves as persons. It is by loving others that we transcend ourselves and thus grow personally. This is not merely an external union like people sitting in the same room, but a communion of persons, like the love between husband and wife which enriches and ennobles both persons. Unless and until man learns to evaluate himself as a person, there is no room for growth in dignity. Thirdly, humanity as a whole can only be totalized and given social cohesion through love.

Any political system and any international organisation which relies exclusively on socio-economic techniques or on laws and police enforcement must fall unless love guides all those structures. It is based on structures to which man is subjected or on fear of which man's dignity is robbed. Senghor has this to say:. They sacrifice the part to the whole, the person to the collectivity. Since a materialist postulate underlies this, and since the collectivity is conceived solely as a technical organization, it does not attract as love does ; to push the individuals towards it, one must resort to constraint and violence.

The communal dimension of love in Africa is mostly expressed in the way events are celebrated. An event is never one's event or one's family event: it is a celebration for the whole community or the whole village. A marriage for example engages several families: the family of the bride, maternal and paternal, as well as the family of the bride-groom, maternal and paternal.

Teilhard de Chardin and Senghor on the civilization of the universal

All are invited to celebrate the event, even those who are not directly concerned. The same holds true for other good events like First Holy Communion, Baptism and others. Bad events such as burials are also celebrated in a community spirit. All come together in order to comfort the bereaved family and in order to express their love and concern to the afflicted members of the community. As such, Africa can teach western man this dimension of love because western society has come to be more individualistic and materialistic than the African society where solidarity and hospitality are values that have to remain despite the influence of the media and despite what has come to be the westernisation of the world.

Nevertheless, we cannot just place the negro-African contribution exclusively at the level of culture from his vision of the world. Africa has greatly contributed to the development of civilization and of science it is important to note this and to encourage scientific research and innovation in Africa. Throughout his writings, he proves scientifically that Africa is at the centre of civilization.

Going back to ancient Egypt, at the time of Pharaohs, Cheikh Anta Diop shows that history has been falsified and that the sciences that constitute the core of western civilization had their origins in Egypt though Westerners failed to recognize this fact in their writings in order to claim later on that Africa has nothing to offer to the other peoples as far as civilization is concerned.

Accepting this racialist views would be rejecting the place and role of Africa in the building up of the Civilization of the Universal. Thanks to Diop, we are going to see how the sciences saw their beginnings in Egypt, that is, in Africa. In the works of Archimedes, scientific acquisitions present in ancient Egypt, are implied as Diop says:. The problem here is that Westerners are usually dishonest in the way they handle their findings and in the way they exploit them in ancient Egypt. This is actually what leads to the falsification of history. Fortunately, Cheikh Anta Diop committed his life to bring the truth to light: Africa is not only the cradle of humanity, but also the cradle of science, art, and philosophy; in brief, the cradle of civilization.

Taking cognizance of this will enable us build in ourselves a certain legitimate pride and will enable us gather momentum in order to make our contribution to the building up of the Civilization of the Universal a task for all Africans. The Egyptians were aware of mathematical series, the numeric progressions and other proprieties of high complexity.

In effect, Ferdinand HOEFER remarks that the Egyptians considered the perfection of the world to be represented in the form of the most beautiful triangle and Plato seems to have used it in his Politics. The most beautiful triangle has four parts at its basis, three at its vertical side and five at his hypotenuse. It was the symbol of matrimonial union: the vertical side symbolising the male, the basis the female and the hypotenuse the descendance.

Cheikh Anta Diop will continue to demonstrate in Civilisation ou Barbarie , the contribution of Egypt to the development of mathematics in many other aspects: equations of the first degree and equations of the second degree. In Astronomy , great work had been done by peoples of ancient Egypt:. The papyrus of Carlsberg describes a method used by Egyptians to determine the stages of the moon, without any influence of western science. This enabled them to bring about the calendar. They invented the year of days containing 12 months of 30 days each and 5 days corresponding to the birth of the gods: Osiris, Isis, Horus, Seth, Nephtys who will bring humanity into existence and inaugurate historical times: Adam and Eve are thus in Diop's opinion, biblical representations of Osiris and Isis.

As for geometry , Egyptians were the exclusive inventors of the calendar, the one which just slightly reformed, regulates our lives today as Cheikh Anta Diop writes:. Actually, the calendar invented by Egyptians had days and in order to institute the bissextile year, they estimated that they could add one day on the days, after years. As far as Medicine is concerned, the Egyptians proved their worth. There are many ancient healers that referred to Egypt in order to learn how to heal diseases. Cheikh Anta Diop in this light says:.

Thus, even the one who is considered the father of medicine studied this science in the Egyptian library, five centuries before Christ. The origins of medicine are nowhere to be found than in Egypt. Medicine was practised in Egypt at three levels as we read in the works of Cheikh Anta Diop. First, there were magicians and priests just like our nggambe men today, who assured mystical healing or like the saints in the Catholic Church. One could be at the same time a magician and a healer.

Secondly, there were generalists as well as specialists of diverse illnesses. Finally, there were healers who at the same time were civil servants who in some cases offered their services free of charge in military expeditions for example. In Chemistry , ancient Egypt is still standing at the centre of this discipline. African art expresses itself in ancient Egypt through several aspects. We are going to limit ourselves in architecture and drama.

As far as Architecture is concerned, there is no doubt that it had its beginnings in Egypt. Egyptians were actually great architects and many experts have not ended expressing their wonder when faced with the marvellous architectural work of Egyptians because this implies a certain mechanical and technical knowledge. They used to build pyramids with big stones and experts still recognize that it is difficult to give an explanation on how Egyptians managed successfully to build pyramids.

This is what Cheikh Anta Diop expresses in the following words:. In effect, building even today, with more than two billions heavy stones is not something easy; but the Egyptian built their pyramids with the poor material at hand with a remarkable technique that keeps us wondering even today on the precious character of their architecture. As far as drama is concerned, Cheikh Anta Diop demonstrates the Egyptian origin of Greek drama from the mysteries of Osiris or Dionysios, its representation in Greek soil.

Drama used to take place in ancient Egypt especially in the royal family as he says:.

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From every indication, drama had taken place in Egypt even before the first dynasty. The royal family, and then later on the priests only, used to play the passion and the resurrection of Osiris. Let us now consider how religion was expressed in Africa in ancient times. When we consider the catholic religion, we see that there are many similarities with what religion was in ancient Egypt. It just seems that many rites found in the Catholic religion or even in the Muslim religion, were just copied in ancient Egypt.

The king is the demiurge, Ra , who reflects and perpetuates creation on earth. He is the intermediary between God and men and as such, he is the guarantor of cosmic order. Hence he is the one who is called to perform the tasks and since he cannot be everywhere at the same time, he delegates his religious functions to priests in the various temples. The servants of God cannot come into His presence with physical impurity and so they have to clean themselves twice a day and twice a night, they have to practise their ablutions on the side of the sacred lake, which in each temple, symbolises the waters of the Noun from where creation came about.

This water is used for baptism. This is what Cheikh Anta Diop has to say about it inter alia :. In effect, the revealed religions were greatly inspired by Egyptian rites, by their ways of relating with divinity. This shows itself in the similarities between the vesture of the Catholic priest, the rite of baptism, and even the organisation of the Church. As far as Islam is concerned, the practice of ablutions did not leave them indifferent in their religious practices.

Furthermore, the religion of Osiris is the first in date in the history of humanity to invent the notions of paradise and hell:. And so, after death, every soul presents itself at the tribunal of Osiris in order to be judged. If one's life on earth was good, one will inherit paradise and if one's life on earth was wicked, one will be sent to hell, to be tortured by the goddesses who feed themselves with the cries from hell.

Again, other practices like fasting are showing once more the great heritage given by Egypt to the other religions: Judaism, Christianism and Islam. As Diop says, fish, pork, and wine were not to be eaten or drunken by priests in ancient Egypt. It is therefore judicious to remark once more that Egypt and in a wider dimension, Africa, stands at the centre of religious practices and rites as we see them being practised in the revealed religions we have just mentioned. We can build up a body of disciplines in social sciences in Africa by legitimating the return to Egypt.

We are then going to see that Egyptian facts enable us to find the common denominator of the small scraps of thought, here and there, a tie between the African cosmogonies in way of fossilization. This is because Egypt played for Africa, the same role that Greco-roman civilization played for the western world, as Diop affirms:. As such, any study about philosophy in Africa could refer back to mother Egypt in order to find its roots, just as any serious study in philosophy in Europe goes back to Greece to find its roots also. It is therefore important for us to give a review of Egyptian philosophical thought since it helps us throw more light on negro-african philosophical thought:.

The history of philosophy will therefore be more truthful if only it begins with Egypt. Referring back to Egypt enables the researcher to retrace the evolution of philosophical thought and to characterize its African version. As Diop tells us, Egyptian cosmogony attests that the universe has not been created ex nihilo , on a given day and that there has always existed an uncreated matter having no beginning and no end.

This primitive matter also contained the law of transformation, the principle of evolution of matter across time, also considered as divinity: kheper. It is the law that will actualise the essences, the beings that are first of all created in potency before being created in act: the theory of reminiscence in Plato and, matter and privation, act and potency in Aristotle.

In fact, we are going to see the contribution of Egyptian thought to the development of philosophy in Greece. When we read Plato in the Timaeus, there are many similarities between Egyptian cosmogony and Platonic cosmogony. The world according to Plato is made from a perfect model, immutable, in opposition to the perpetual becoming of matter: coming to birth and passing away, which is the materialisation of imperfection itself. The Demiurge, the worker who creates sensible beings, has his eyes always fixed on its model which is the absolute idea, perfect, the eternal essence, and which it copies.

Let us consider one text of the Timaeus of Plato, which helps us see the influence from Egypt:. According to Diop, we can recognize in this passage of Plato in the Timaeus, the archetypes of all future beings in the Egyptian noun , already created in potency while waiting to be actualised thanks to the work of the kheper , god of becoming, or law of perpetual transformation in matter.

Plato's vision of the world was largely influenced by Egyptian cosmogony. It is full of optimism, in opposition to the European pessimism. This is what Cheikh Anta Diop maintains when he says:. As such, any Greek thought in antiquity, from the poet Hesiod, at the beginning of the seventh century before Christ, to the Presocratics and Aristotle, bears the marks of Egyptian cosmogony:. Indeed, the history of philosophy has to be rewritten and DIOP unveils the truth that had been lying hidden by the western world. In ancient philosophy, we can establish a great influence from Egypt.

Many concepts used by Plato and Aristotle are referring back to Ancient Egypt. In the light of the Civilization of the Universal, it is important to rebuild a certain self-esteem in the hearts and minds of Africans, by showing them that they have offered much to other civilizations and that they still have to work hard in order not to play a figurative role in the dialogue of civilizations.

We acclaim the work of Cheikh Anta Diop in giving back to Africans a certain pride that could give them the momentum to strive to develop their civilization, referring back to ancient Egypt. It is clear from this section of our work that the contribution of Africa in sciences, in art, in religion and most of all in philosophy cannot be measured.

This is to show the important role that Africa has played so far in the dialogue of civilizations. Senghor avers:. In fact, the Civilization of the Universal consists in accepting one another in our values. It is a coming together to share what we have as valuable in our cultures. It proves once more that humanity needs each and every one of us. This passage of Senghor shows that the Civilization of the Universal is a process of assimilation of what is valuable in the other culture: Europe assimilating African values in art, music, dance, sculpture, arts in general and Africa on the other side, assimilating the values of European civilization.

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He then insists on the fact that without the value of the expression of African personality throughout the world, by means of arts, music, dance, sculpture, painting and so on, would not be what they are today: the expression of the Civilization of the Universal. Senghor considers from his reflections on the works of Teilhard de Chardin that Africa has an important role to play in the Civilization of the Universal: to reforge the unity between man and man because man is central in African relationships.

Africa occupies a place of pride in Senghorian adaptations and it is legitimate of course. Senghor considers that Africa has something to offer in this rendez-vous which consists in giving and receiving and at the same time, it will also at benefit from it. Elle sera le carrefour du donner et du recevoir. Above all, Senghor's adaptation of Teilhardian views implies some imperfections and this is why we will occupy ourselves in the next chapter to attempt evaluating the implications of Senghor's considerations on the Civilization of the Universal.

We would like to analyse the implications positive, and negative of Senghor's humanism. In effect, we set ourselves the task in this chapter to attempt philosophizing in the ethnological work of Senghor. Senghor actually affirms that there are certain values that Africa is called to present to the rest of the world as its contribution to the building up of the Civilization of the Universal. Nonetheless, his work seems to be losing sight of the political and economical situation of Africa and to remain an ideology of glorification of the African past.

Africa is suffering from neo-colonialism and from underdevelopment. After evaluating his humanism, we are going to ask ourselves whether there are actually some values that have proven to be universal in Africa so much that they can serve humanity as a whole. How can the local in terms of values become global, universal? Pan-African Unity is the union of Africa as a whole; it is a movement that tends to unite African nations, to build up among Africans a certain solidarity in order to enable them face the western world. The Negroes, scattered on the face of the earth after the slave trade, had a global vision of Africa, considered as the sole continent of blacks.

All considered Africa as their common fatherland. The intention to gather all the Negroes of the world is good but how could such an idea be realised? Pan- African unity is important because it does not reject the influences from other cultures. It seeks to unite Africans while at the same time allowing them to be open to the ideas of other cultures. He remains sufficiently realistic in not wishing to build an illusory pan-Africanism at the expense of the necessary nation unity which must remain the first step.

In addition, Senghor considers that continentalism is a kind of self-sufficiency which is an impoverishing factor in as much as it limits both creativity and cross-fertilization of ideas with other cultures.

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In view of the Civilization of the Universal, we consider that there should be a black consciousness among Africans, the recognition and the desire to establish a community feeling among Africans. All this demands African solidarity. Africans should, as a people, share not only their material wealth, but also their spiritual values, their joys and their sufferings.

Notices et extraits Baladi , Naguib. Shakespeare en arabe. Le projet des mille volumes. Franklin Institute. Institut des manuscrits arabes. School of Oriental Studies. Cahiers coptes. Mort de Ahmad Amin. Mort de Ettore Rossi. Kritzeck , James. Dar al-Kotob. Annuaire culturel a l-Sijill al-thaqafi. La langue et les sciences. Les Cahiers coptes. Mort du Professeur E. Caspar , Robert. Teissier , Henri. Vocabulaire des termes techniques. Aegyptiaca Christiana. Ars Orientalis. Mort du Professeur Louis Keimer. Notes et documents Roemer , Hans Robert.

Madkour , Ibrahim. Hakki , Yahya. Khodeiri , Mahmoud el. Hubert , Amand. Baladi , Naguib. Youssef Moussa , Mohammad. Amin, Osman. Wahba , Mourad.

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Arnaldez , Roger. Notes et documents Madkour , Ibrahim. Bannerth , Ernst. Beck , Edmund. Jacob , Jean. Nouvelles culturelles, par Georges C. Termes agricoles et culturels. Ouvrages originaux. Nouveaux dictionnaires. Minbar al-Islam. Centre culturel hispanique du Caire. Nour El-Hayat. Bibliographie des livres arabes nouvellement parus. Revues bibliographiques. Catalogue du British Museum. Jacob , Jean A. Corbon , Jean.

Livres reçus au deuxième semestre 1997

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Rancillac , Philippe traducteur. Notes et documents Beaurecueil , Serge de. Panella , Emilio. Monnot , Guy. Chartier , Marc. Boilot , Dominique Jacques. Centre du Livre. American Research Center in Egypt. Institut italien de culture. Daniel , Norman. Fiey , Jean Maurice. Platti , Emilio. Louca , Anouar. Ghali , Wagdy Rizk. Le vocabulaire de la culture de Mahmoud Teymour. Autres institutions. La vie universitaire et savante. Rancillac , Philippe. Notes et documents Platti , Emilio. Fanjul , Serafin.

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