Later formulations he termed "theology" or "secondary dogmas. They were merely protective or illustrative formulas for prophetic truth, could be later contradicted or discarded, and in general were useful but totally relative formulas. Revealed truth res was still contained in the formula enuntiabile , but since the prophetic imagery was now transferred to scientific language, no absolute value guaranteed to be true could be assigned to the formula.
Conciliar pronouncements were to be accepted only through the subsequent acceptance of the entire Church. Having drastically reduced the intellectual element in the original experience, Tyrrell worked out the rest of his system rather consistently, but through a confusing rhetoric. He never sufficiently accounted for the fact that conciliar formulas themselves have their axes in the Absolute. At the end of his life he espoused the theory of an error by Christ as to the time of the Parousia. Tyrrell never held the doctrine of exclusive immanence as condemned by Pascendi.
Many of his positions, however, were an evident object of the encyclical's attack. These rights, he insisted, were being infringed upon by Roman authority. Conferring with various high-ranking ecclesiastics in and out of Rome and maintaining a vast correspondence with the leaders of the new thought, he endeavored to give some coherence and organization to the movement. Maude petre supported the ideas of Tyrrell and published his life in In Italy the movement had more of a social flavor. Discussion of political and social theory, however, continually drifted back and forth across the terrain of religion and theology.
The Italian priest, R. This movement, intended to be independent of the hierarchy, urged reform of the Church's institutional and social structure. Although he was anticlerical in tone, Murri worked out his ideas from a scholastic basis. Later he moved toward an idealism somewhat reminiscent of B.
In the exegetical and theological fields Salvatore Minocchi, a priest, founded the review Studi religiosi in as a forum for the new thought.
He was strongly influenced by Loisy in the exegetical area, and later by Tyrrell in the interpretation of dogma. Another priest, Ernesto buonaiuti, early enamored of Blondel's philosophy of action, became fascinated with immanentism and moved toward a form of social messianism. He emerged as the leading Italian Modernist but was eager to remain within the Church for the working out of his ideas. More on the edge of Modernism and ultimately loyal to the Church were the layman Fogazzaro, whose novel Il Santo became the literary symbol of the movement, and the Barnabite priest, Giovanni Semeria, who worked in religious and biblical criticism.
In the journal Rinnovamento became an important organ for liberal political and religious opinion. Like the Krausgesellschaft founded in Munich in , Reformkatholizismus carried out a program of anti-Roman and antischolastic sentiment. It attacked political ultramontanism and insisted on freedom in scientific religious work and on the abolition of the Index.
It did not totally overlap Modernism but remained principally on the level of practical Church discipline. The Bavarian priest, K. Gebert, however, in proposed a Kantian and immanentist approach not unlike that reproved by Pascendi. Engert, also a priest, demanded the abandonment of the notion of biblical inerrancy and the complete revision of the concept of inspiration. Yet it was not until after the condemnations of Pascendi that Engert and Josef Schnitzer of the University of Munich, who was a supporter of Loisy, emerged as the leaders of a small Modernist extreme.
In Germany, Modernism was more localized than in France and Italy and brought forth less extreme theological positions than in any of the other major countries involved. Action by Church Authorities. Leo XIII , whose liberal policy was accompanied by serious reserves over the new thought but who hesitated to take strong action, was succeeded Aug. His encyclical Il fermo proposito June 11, encouraged Catholic Action but insisted that it must be subordinate to ecclesiastical officials.
The encyclical Pieni l'animo July 28, warned of insubordination among the Italian clergy and declared priests who became members of the Lega democratica nazionale suspended. Murri was suspended April 15, On July 3, , the Holy Office's decree lamentabili condemned 65 propositions in the area of criticism and dogma. The encyclical pascendi Sept. It condemned theory on dogma and biblical criticism, which had an agnostic, immanentist-evolutionary, and anti-intellectualist basis.
Constructed from ideas found in the work of various Modernists, it reproved a system, to every detail of which not all the Modernists subscribed. Yet, as Gentile and Petre, the subsequent champion of Modernism, admitted, Pascendi seized the movement in its totality. At the same time, immanentism, Neo-Hegelianism, and agnosticism were the terminal point rather than the point of departure for many Modernist thinkers.
Pascendi in its picture of Modernism not only described the situation of some Modernists but also was an accurate prophecy of the final position of others. Pius X decreed in the motu proprio Praestantia scripturae Nov. Since the Biblical Commission had issued a series of generally conservative prudential norms with regard to scriptural interpretation. Some loosely organized opposition had developed among the group associated with Rinnovamento, but writers and supporters of the review were made subject to excommunication at the end of Tyrrell October and Schnitzer February were excommunicated for their opposition to the encyclical.
Minocchi was suspended and Loisy excommunicated in Subsequently Loisy developed his doctrine of the religion of humanity built on a vague agnostic basis. With Tyrrell's death the heart went out of the movement, though small pockets of resistance remained. The oath against Modernism Sept.
Petre, deprived of the Sacraments in her own diocese though never singled out for formal excommunication by name, and Buonaiuti, finally excommunicated by name in , continued as champions of Modernism. Engert became a Protestant. Houtin rejected the whole Modernist plan and became agnostic. Murri, with reservations on his political and social positions, was received back only in After Pascendi, there followed a period of unmasking Modernism that caused great anguish.
Many thought incorrectly that Newman and Blondel had been condemned. The committees of vigilance set up by the encyclical were used as a specious support by simplist conservative groups to justify sweeping condemnations. Thinking and nuance were rejected in favor of polemics. Modernism became a slogan to be applied to whatever was disliked in liberal Catholic thought, theology, literature, and politics. At the center of this campaign was the association, sodalitium pianum, directed by Monsignor benigni in Italy.
A secret code, the counterpart of Modernist anonymity, protected collaborators in various countries. Fontaine, brought into popularity a counterlabel, integralism. At the beatification of Pius X in , evidence was presented that showed that he did not give his support to a great deal of this campaign, but held his hand for fear of encouraging the Modernists.
This, together with the eruption of World War I , ended this phase in the aftermath of the Modernist crisis. Some have defined Modernism as an attempt to retain the form while dropping the content of dogma. Some Modernists, however, desired to drop also the form. If Modernism is defined very broadly, then only its extreme form was condemned. Any definition of Modernism must be drawn mainly from Pascendi, the most solemn Church condemnation. The loose application of the term "Modernism" to the development of theological thinking is widely admitted to be an abuse.
Further, faint similarities of a position to statements in Pascendi can be judged fully Modernistic only if they are related also to the essential points of condemnation in the encyclical. Pascendi stated that it was directly attacking agnostic, immanentist, and evolutionary-naturalistic doctrine.
The following definition is suggested. Modernism was an ideological orientation, tendency, or movement within the Catholic Church, clearly emerging during the waning years of the 19th century and rapidly dying out around after official condemnation. Only loosely and sporadically organized, it was characterized by a tone antagonistic to all ecclesiastical authority, and by a belief in an adaptation of the Church to what was considered sound in modern thought even at the expense of radically changing the Church's essence.
At its roots, grounded beyond liberal Catholic positions on biblical criticism and theology, lay a triple thesis: 1 a denial of the supernatural as an object of certain knowledge in the totally symbolic nonobjective approach to the content of dogma, which is also related to a type of agnosticism in natural theology ; 2 an exclusive immanence of the Divine and of revelation "vital immanence" reducing the Church to a simple social civilizing phenomenon; 3 a total emancipation of scientific research from Church dogma, which would allow the continued assertion of faith in dogma with its contradiction on the historical level, as understood in certain presentations of the "Christ of faith, Christ of history," "Church of faith, Church of history" distinctions see doctrine, development of.
The difficulty in assessing the influence of Modernist thinkers on the later Church arises from the fact that these men also fed on and assimilated many legitimate tendencies that were arising in the contemporary Church, such as the idea of faith as a personal encounter, the increased appreciation of religious experience and spiritual anthropology, the deeper probing of the relation between psychology and religion, the return to the traditional emphasis on the sense of mystery, the renewed realization of the pastoral function of theology, the less mechanical assessment of the role of authority, the growth in insight into the development of dogma, the underlining of the organic nature of the Church and the importance of the laity, a greater respect for scriptural scholarship and natural science, a newer framework of Church-State relations, and a call to leave a cultural ghetto.
With the return to the spirit of genuine thomism the stage would have been set, it seems, for their fruitful development. It is difficult to see how certain values said to arise from Modernism were not actually hampered in their development within the Church by Modernism's very appearance and by the strong medicine deemed necessary to eradicate it. Nevertheless, through its excess Modernism did point out certain areas that called for investigation within a sound theological framework, as in the insights mentioned above.
Certain authors, such as De grandmaison, Lagrange, and lebreton, continued their scholarly contributions. The exaggerated spread of suspicions, however, that followed the condemnation of Modernism probably caused many scholars to avoid delicate subjects. Only after World War II did a trend emerge toward a renewed consideration of subjects that had been so destructively and abortively handled by the Modernists. The Modernist crisis retarded Catholic scholarship and strengthened Catholic discipline, but its capital effect was decisive victory over a subtle and mortal enemy, a victory that preserved the essential life of the Church.
Bibliography: v. Paris — 22; Table analytique — Paris — 38 — New York , v. Modernism was a movement in Catholic religious thought, and particularly in biblical criticism, that developed in the late nineteenth century and spent itself, as a distinctive movement, before World War I. It aimed at bringing Catholic traditions into closer accord with modern views in philosophy and in historical and other scholarship and with recent social and political views.
Modernism ran parallel to liberal Protestantism; both tended to reject authority and rigid forms and, in their more extreme versions at least, to aspire to a kind of Christianized rationalism. The kind of Christology and biblical exegesis undertaken in Germany by D. Strauss and in France by Ernest Renan , aided and encouraged by such philosophical currents as positivism and evolutionism, culminated in the late-nineteenth-century attempt to reconcile science with religion and historical criticism with belief.
Renan's rejection of the supernatural, combined with his vague evolutionary religiosity, anticipated much that was to be written during the fifteen years following his death in Loisy, like Renan, rejected the supernatural and explained religion in terms of an immanent rather than a transcendent principle. Le Roy circumvented the difficulties inherent in Catholic dogmas by treating them as pragmatically true. The maneuverings necessitated by the desire to reconcile faith and reason led to some inconsistency and self-contradiction.
From its inception, modernism was in constant trouble with the ecclesiastical authorities, but orthodoxy did not become militant until the accession of Pope Pius X in In the papal decree Lamentabili Sane Exitu, a collection of sixty-five condemned propositions aimed chiefly at Loisy, and the more general and philosophically grounded encyclical Pascendi Dominici Gregis, condemned the modernists' views. The requirement in that all clerics take the antimodernist oath, known as Sacrorum Antistitum, marked the end of the movement as such, although its spirit persisted and prospered in less rebellious forms.
Riviere, J. Paris, Vidler, A. The Modernist Movement in the Roman Church.
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Cambridge, U. Bennett and Mrs. Brown" in This change, whether in art, technology, philosophy or human behavior, is generally called Modernism. Modernism like Romanticism, designates the broad literary and cultural movement that spanned all of the arts and even spilled into politics and philosophy. Like Romanticism, Modernism was highly varied in its manifestations between the arts and even within each art. The dates when Modernism flourished are in dispute, but few scholars identify its genesis as being before and World War II is generally considered to mark an end of the movement's height.
Petersburg , and especially Paris; it spread to the cities of the United States and South America after World War I ; by the s, Modernism had thoroughly taken over the American and European academy, where it was challenged by nascent Postmodernism in the s. Modernism's roots are in the rapidly changing technology of the late nineteenth century and in the theories of such late nineteenth-century thinkers as Freud, Marx, Darwin, and Nietzsche. Modernism influenced painting first Impressionism and Cubism are forms of Modernism , but in the decade before World War I such writers as Ezra Pound, Filippo Marinetti, James Joyce , and Guillaume Apollinaire translated the advances of the visual arts into literature.
Such characteristically modernist techniques as stream-of-consciousness narration and allusiveness, by the late s, spilled into popular writing and became standard. The movement's concerns were with the accelerating pace of society toward destruction and meaninglessness. In the late s many of society's certainties were undermined. Marx demonstrated that social class was created, not inherent; Freud reduced human individuality to an instinctive sex drive; Darwin provided fossil evidence that the Earth was much older than the estimate based on scripture; and Nietzsche argued that even the most deeply held ethical principles were simply constructions.
Modernist writers attempted to come to terms with where humanity stood after its cornerstones had been pulverized. The modernists sifted through the shards of the past looking for what was valuable and what could inspire construction of a new society. Thomas Stearns Eliot was born in St. Louis, Missouri, on September 26, He attended Harvard, the Sorbonne, and Oxford, studying philosophy and writing a dissertation on the logician F. While in college, Eliot began writing poetry, but in he discovered French symbolist poetry and his whole attitude toward literature changed.
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Ezra Pound read some of Eliot's poetry in the s and immediately decided that Eliot would be a member of his own literary circle. Alfred Prufrock" published in that journal in Eliot had settled in London at the same time and married the emotionally unstable Vivian Haigh-Wood. Eliot struggled to make a living, working as a teacher and later at Lloyd's Bank until In Eliot broke through with his brilliant and successful poem "The Waste Land," although the manuscript of the poem demonstrates that Ezra Pound played a large role in the editing of the poem.
In critical essays and his own poetry, he denigrated the romantics and neoclassicists and celebrated Dante and the Elizabethan "metaphysical" poets. He argued for the central role of "Tradition" in literature and downplayed the cult of individual genius created by the romantics. For the remainder of his life, Eliot occupied the role of literary elder statesman.
He continued to produce poems such as the Four Quartets but was never prolific. He became the model of the conservative, royalist, High Church English gentleman. He died January 4, , the very embodiment of the literary establishment. He grew up in Oxford, Mississippi, and briefly attended the University of Mississippi before leaving the state to seek his fortune as a writer.
Settling briefly in New Orleans , Faulkner came under the tutelage of Sherwood Anderson and published his first book, The Marble Faun , a collection of short stories, in In he published the novel Sartoris , his first work set in the fictional Mississippi county of Yoknapatawpha. In the s and s, Faulkner received a great deal of critical attention for his works, but he never obtained the kind of financial success that he sought. Attempting to remedy this, he wrote two sensationalistic books Sanctuary and Requiem for aNun and briefly moved to Los Angeles to work as a screenwriter in Hollywood.
Faulkner died on July 6, , in Byhalia, Mississippi. James Joyce is the most important writer of the modernist movement. He produced relatively few works, but these books included poetry, drama, short stories, and the novel that the Modern Library publishing imprint named the most important novel of the twentieth century. His life, too, became the embodiment of many of Modernism's most central themes: exile, the presence of the past in one's life, familiarity with a broad range of cultures and historical periods, and self-destruction. Joyce was born in Dublin, Ireland, on February 2, , to a lower middle-class Catholic family.
His father died when Joyce was young. During his youth and college years he struggled with the rigid structures of Catholic school and Irish nationalism. In Joyce left Dublin for Paris, but was called back to Ireland when his mother fell ill. He left Dublin again in , bringing with him his companion Nora Barnacle, an uneducated but vivacious young woman who became his longtime companion and then married him in For many years Joyce struggled to make a living and to provide for his growing family.
Settling first in Trieste and then in Zurich, he taught literature and enjoyed an occasional monetary grant. Dubliners , his collection of stories, was published in and immediately obtained the notice of the Anglo-American avant-garde and the disapproval of the Irish literary establishment. A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man was just that, a stream-of-consciousness narrative of Joyce's own life barely fictionalized as protagonist Stephen Dedalus up to the point that he left Ireland. In Joyce published his masterpiece and the single greatest work of Modernism, Ulysses.
This retelling of the Odysseus myth through the persona of a Jewish advertising salesman in Dublin is a triumph on every level. The book was immediately banned in England and the United States for blasphemy and obscenity; it was not until that it became legal in the United States. After Ulysses , Joyce began work on another long novel, which was simply called Work in Progress during its composition. Joyce, by now the leading modernist writer, was living in Paris and had the worshipful admiration of the Lost Generation Americans as well as the more established writers of the city.
Celebrations of Work in Progress appeared even before any of the work appeared in print. When it finally was published as Finnegans Wake in , it shocked readers with its incessant wordplay. It is a very difficult novel, barely recognizable as English in many places, but its intricate structure and brilliant use of all of the English language 's possibilities ensure that readers will attempt to decipher it for decades to come. Joyce died in Zurich on January 13, , following surgery for a perforated ulcer.
In many ways, Ezra Pound was the father of literary Modernism. If nothing else, he almost single-handedly brought the techniques of Modernism to U. Pound was born in Hailey, Idaho, on October 30, , but soon after his birth his family moved to the suburbs of Philadelphia.
He grew up in that area and attended the University of Pennsylvania where he met William Carlos Williams and another important American modernist poet, Hilda Doolittle and Hamilton College. After a short stint teaching at a small college in Indiana, Pound grew tired of what he saw to be American small-mindedness and moved to Venice, Italy. In Venice, Pound resolved to become a poet.
He published a book there, but soon relocated to London. In the decade he spent in London, Pound, through the strength of his own will, created movements and forced himself into the center of those movements. Probably the most important of those movements was Imagism, a school of poetry that explicitly rejected Victorian models of verse by simply presenting images without authorial commentary. In Pound left London for Paris, where he spent a few years before becoming frustrated by the dominance of Gertrude Stein in the avant-garde scene there. In he moved to Rapallo, Italy, where he developed a strong affinity for Mussolini and Italian fascism.
At this time he also began working in earnest on The Cantos , the epic poem that would become his life's work. Pound stayed in Italy for more than twenty years. Found mentally unfit to defend himself, Pound was incarcerated in St. Because of the intercession of such luminaries as T. Eliot, Robert Frost , and Ernest Hemingway , in Pound was released from his incarceration and allowed to return to Italy.
Settling in Venice, he published a few more books but by the mids he fell into a silence. He died in Venice, Italy, on November 1, Gertrude Stein was born February 3, , in Allegheny, Pennsylvania. She studied philosophy and psychology at Radcliffe College and then medicine at Johns Hopkins University but left to live in Paris in before earning her M. Many of the painters whose work they collected became part of the Stein salon, a social gathering for artists and intellectuals. Stein met Alice B. Toklas in ; in , Toklas moved in with Leo and Stein and became Stein's lifelong partner.
Leo and Stein had an irreconcilable split in , whereupon they divided their collection and he moved to Italy.
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Stein's first published novel is Three Lives , but she found international fame in with the publication of The Autobiography of Alice B. Toklas which is actually her own autobiography. She is credited with coining the term "Lost Generation" to describe the American expatriate writers and artists who began gathering at her house after World War I.
Stein died on July 27, , from cancer, having survived two world wars and the Holocaust despite being Jewish, homosexual, and living in Europe for most of her adult life. Wallace Stevens was born October 2, , in Reading, Pennsylvania. He lived a dual life as an insurance lawyer working out of New York City and Hartford, Connecticut, and as a modernist poet. Stevens married Elsie Kachel in , and they had a daughter, Holly, in His first book of poetry Harmonium was published in While ill from terminal cancer, Steven converted to Catholicism; he died several months later on August 2, Although he was a successful poet during his life, his intellectual poetry became even more well known after his death, influencing poets such as Donald Justice and John Ashbery.
In she moved to the Blooms-bury district of London, a neighborhood that gave its name to Woolf's literary and intellectual circle. She married the journalist Leonard Woolf, and in she and her husband founded the Hogarth Press, an important literary and cultural publishing firm that published the first English-language editions of Freud's work and T.
Eliot's early collection Poems Beginning in the late s, Woolf began to write. She quickly internalized the discoveries of Freud and the literary advances of the modernists and produced a number of novels striking in their sophistication: Jacob's Room , Mrs. Dalloway , and To the Lighthouse Her novels brought the stream-of-consciousness style a new depth and possibility. In addition to her activity in the literary world, she brought her feminist orientation and bisexual lifestyle to the forefront of her writing. However, her own life was not entirely happy. During the s she grew increasingly fearful that she was suffering from a mental illness and would become a burden on her husband and friends.
Perhaps the most notable example of Joycean prose in American literature is this novel, written in by Henry Roth, the son of Jewish immigrants to New York. The novel tells the story of David Schearl, an immigrant boy in New York. Using the stream-of-consciousness technique perfected by Joyce in his A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man , the novel articulates the interior voice of this boy as he grows up poor, watches his parents fight, and struggles with persecution from neighborhood bullies. The novel gained critical acclaim upon publication but was quickly forgotten until its paperback republication in By this time Roth had given up writing and moved to New Mexico.
In the early s, near the end of his long life, Roth returned to writing, producing four sequels to his masterwork. If Ulysses is the most successful and greatest work of the modernist movement, Ezra Pound's. Its composition and contents mirror the ideas of the modernists. It is composed of fragments, of different voices from different times and places. It attempts to diagnose the ills of the modern world, comes up with an ultimately failed solution, and imagines a better world that existed once and could exist in fragmentary form again.
Pound began writing his "poem including history," as he called it, in , when he published early versions of three of the cantos in a literary magazine. He began working in earnest on the poem in the s after he moved to Italy, and continued working on it, eventually publishing eight installments, until the late s. The poem is an epic, attempting to tell "the tale of the tribe" civilized humanity from ancient to modern times. Structured to mirror and include characters from two of history's great epics Homer's Odyssey and Dante's Divine Comedy , the poem was originally planned to include cantos, or shorter chapters.
There is no plot per se, but the poem broadly moves from hell literally but also in the sense of an utterly fallen civilization to purgatory, where historical figures such as Confucius, Sigismondo Malatesta, Thomas Jefferson , John Adams , and Mussolini are introduced.
Pound wanted to highlight moments in history when a just and aesthetically appreciative society existed or could have existed. The poem veered sharply back to Pound's own life during the s, when Pound found himself working for the Fascists and ultimately was incarcerated in a mental hospital in the United States.
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As Pound neared the end of his life and of the poem, he discovered and recorded glimpses of paradise on earth. Public opinion of the work varies dramatically. Many readers can make no sense of the poem; others find that it contains some of the most remarkable passages in English-language poetry.
Critics have been similarly divided. Although the poem is solidly in the canon of American literature and is considered one of the central works of modernist literature, many scholars and academics dismiss it as a failed, obscure, and ultimately fascist poem. Ernest Hemingway published A Farewell to Arms in He was already famous for his portrait of dissolute youth in Paris, The Sun Also Rises , but this novel was a great step forward in terms of sophistication and importance.
It tells of Hemingway's own experiences as an ambulance driver during the last days of World War I; his wounding and convalescence and affair with a nurse. More important, though, was Hemingway's revolutionary technique. His prose was terse and journalistic, stripped of adjectives and any construction that might call attention to itself. Such narration achieved a numbness that reflected the mental brutalization the war visited upon the hero—and the author.
Hemingway eschews abstract concepts such as glory, duty, and honor because, like his hero's, his own experience during the war showed him that these were weapons used by people in power to manipulate ordinary people. After the popular and critical success of this novel, Hemingway became an international celebrity with literary credibility. He continued to write for much of the rest of his life and produced at least two great novels For Whom the Bell Tolls and The Old Man and the Sea before committing suicide in The popularity of the work of poet and insurance lawyer Wallace Stevens has continued to grow even as the work of other modernists has fallen in favor.
Stevens's first book of poetry was Harmonium , published by Alfred A. Knopf in While modernist poetry written by Pound and Eliot was allusive, drenched in the fragments of previous cultures and other languages, and overwhelmed by an almost angry melancholy, Stevens's work was light and lyrical. In Harmonium , Stevens exhibited a verbal dandyism, delighting in the sounds of words and in Elizabethan definitions. He was a direct descendant of Keats and Marvell, whereas other modernists saw Browning, Shakespeare, and Dante as their ancestors.
But Stevens cannot be dismissed as a writer of light verse. His poems exhibit the characteristic modernist fear of nihilism while entertaining the fear that the entire world is simply a projection of his mind. In "The Snow Man," for instance, Stevens listens to "nothing that is not there and the nothing that is," and in "Tea at the Palaz of Hoon" the narrator questions whether "I was the world in which I walked.
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William Faulkner, a Mississippian, began his career as a writer heavily influenced by the regionalist Sherwood Anderson , with whom he worked in New Orleans in the s, the home of American Bohemianism. But Faulkner quickly outdid his teacher. He created an entire fictional world in which almost all of his fiction was set: Yoknapatawpha County, Mississippi. In this world the past always impinges upon the present, and Faulkner's fiction is full of narrative devices intended to outflank language's need to be based in time.
His The Sound and the Fury contains Faulkner's most successful experiments with time. The novel is the story of the fall of the Compson family that culminates in the suicide of son Quentin. Told by a series of narrators, the stories in the book provide different perspectives on the same events and the reader must compare all of the different versions in order to understand what "really" happened. Most difficult is the narration of Benjy, a retarded boy who has no conception of time. In his narration there is no differentiation between what happened years ago, what happened yesterday, and what is happening now.
Gertrude Stein's second book was a collection of poetry, Tender Buttons , published in Her poems are avant-garde word clusters wherein Stein seeks to rename objects whose original names have lost their meaning. She relied on prosody, or rhythm and intonation, to discover these new names. The book is divided in three sections, Objects, Food, and Rooms and does not conform to conventional poetics but instead reads like lyrical prose in short paragraphs. Its literary significance is hidden in the book's subtle references to homosexuality and its expression of Stein's cubist influences.
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